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Chapter 3 North Africa and Southwest Asia Early Cultures

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Title: Chapter 3 North Africa and Southwest Asia Early Cultures


1
Chapter 3 North Africa and Southwest Asia Early
Cultures
2
Section 3.1 Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt (pages
8286)
3
Did you know???
  • One of the most important technological
    achievements of the Sumerians was the invention
    of the wheel. Before wheeled carts were invented,
    goods were carried by boats or donkeys. The first
    wheels were made from solid wood, but eventually
    spokes were designed to reduce the weight.

4
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • A. Civilization is a term historians use to
    describe a culture that has reached a certain
    level of development. This development includes a
    system of writing, building cities, and
    specialized workers.

5
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • B. One of the first civilizations grew in the
    fertile crescent of land between the Tigris and
    Euphrates Rivers. Its name was Mesopotamia, and
    it was what is now Syria and Iraq.

6
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • C. Around 4500 B.C. wandering peoples settled in
    large numbers here and began farming. They
    created a 12-month calendar, based on the phases
    of the moon, and they created the plow.

7
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • D. Some of the villages and towns became
    city-states, which were made up of the city and
    farmland around it.

8
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • E. The city-state was a theocracyit was ruled by
    an individual who was both the religious leader
    and the king.

9
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • F. The earliest of the city-states rose in an
    area called Sumer. The Sumerians created a form
    of writing known as cuneiform.

10
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • G. Around 2300 B.C. the warlike kingdom of Akkad
    conquered Sumer and several other city-states to
    create the first empire, or group of states under
    one ruler.

11
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • H. Hammurabis Code was an attempt to bring some
    justice and fairness to the idea of law.

12
I. Mesopotamia (pages 8284)
  • I. Among the most important traders were the
    Phoenicians, who were located mainly in what is
    now Lebanon. The Phoenicians developed an
    alphabet that gave rise to the Hebrew, Greek, and
    Latin alphabets still in use today.

13
Discussion Question
  • How did the Babylonians contribute to the field
    of mathematics?

14
Discussion Question
  • (The Babylonians contributed to the field of
    mathematics by developing a number system based
    on 60. From them, we have borrowed the 60-minute
    hour, 60-second minute, and 360-degree circle.
    They also used a clock controlled by drops of
    water to tell time.)

15
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • A. Like Mesopotamia, Egypt grew out of a river
    valleythe Nile, the longest river in the world.

16
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • B. The two kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower
    Egypt were united in 3100 B.C. under a great
    ruler called a pharaoh.

17
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • C. Egyptians had a polytheistic religion, meaning
    they worshipped many gods.

18
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • D. Egyptians believed in life after death. To
    preserve the body for the next life, it was
    embalmed, or preserved immediately after death,
    as a mummy.

19
King Tut
20
Ramses II
21
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • E. The biggest tombs belonged to the pharaohs and
    were called pyramids.

22
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • F. Hieroglyphics is a form of picture writing
    with about 800 signs. In 1820, the Rosetta Stone
    provided the key that cracked the code for
    hieroglyphics.

23
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • G. Egypt expanded as far as Mesopotamia in the
    north and southward to the present-day Sudan.

24
II. Ancient Egypt (pages 8486)
  • H. Along with trade goods, the Egyptians spread
    ideas and accomplishments.

25
Discussion Question
  • Even in ancient times, how were people and
    nations able to dominate one another?

26
Discussion Question
  • (Even then, people and nations that could use
    technology were able to dominate, or control,
    other cultures.)

27
Section 3.2 Religions of the Middle East (pages
8893)
28
Did you know????
  • The Quran, the holy book of Islam, is believed
    to be the exact and precise word of God, revealed
    to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel over a period of
    approximately 23 years. Although the Quran has
    been translated into many languages, only the
    original Arabic is considered the literal word of
    Allah.

29
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • A. Judaism was first practiced by a small group
    of people from Mesopotamia called Hebrews. The
    followers of Judaism today are known as Jews.
    Their holy book is the Torah.

30
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • B. The Jews believe that they are Gods chosen
    people and will remain so for as long as they
    follow Gods laws. The most well-known of these
    laws are the Ten Commandments.

31
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • C. Israel became an important and prosperous
    state under its first three kings Saul, David,
    and Solomon.

32
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • D. Eventually, the Jewish people spread to many
    countries throughout the world. Jewish scholars,
    writers, artists, and scientists have greatly
    increased the worlds knowledge.

33
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • E. Because they follow their own religion and
    customs, Jews have sometimes been viewed
    suspiciously. Some governments have used Jewish
    communities as a scapegoat, or someone to blame
    for their troubles. In the 1940s, more than 6
    million Jews were murdered in Europe during the
    Holocaust.

34
I. Judaism (pages 8890)
  • F. The United Nations voted in 1947 to create a
    Jewish state in Palestine.

35
Discussion Question
  • From whom do the Jewish people believe they are
    descended?

36
Discussion Question
  • (According to Jewish belief, the Hebrew people
    are descended from Abraham and Sarah, who first
    worshipped the one god, or Yahweh.)

37
II. Christianity (pages 9092)
  • A. Christianity is made up of people, called
    Christians, who are followers of Jesus Christ.

38
II. Christianity (pages 9092)
  • B. Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God and
    that he was the Messiah that the Jews were
    awaiting.

39
II. Christianity (pages 9092)
  • C. The holy book of the Christians is the Bible.

40
II. Christianity (pages 9092)
  • D. The disciples of Jesus spread His teachings
    across the Roman world and beyond. They were
    often persecuted until the emperor Constantine
    the Great became a Christian and made
    Christianity the official religion of the Roman
    Empire.

41
II. Christianity (pages 9092)
  • E. The most famous universities of Europe were
    begun by Christian scholars.

42
Discussion Question
  • What is Easter?

43
Discussion Question
  • (Easter, believed to be the day that God raised
    Jesus from the dead, is the most important day of
    the Christian calendar.)

44
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • A. The followers of Islam are called Muslims, or
    Moslems.

45
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • B. Muslims believe that Muhammad is the last and
    greatest prophet of Allah, or God.

46
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • C. The Muslim holy book is the Quran (Koran).

47
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • D. The Quran describes the five pillars of faith,
    or the five obligations all Muslims must fulfill.

48
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • E. The Muslim calendar begins in A.D. 622, the
    year of the Hijrah, when Muhammad was forced to
    flee for safety from Makkah to Madinah. Since the
    time of Muhammad, the Islamic faith has spread
    widely.

49
III. Islam (pages 9293)
  • F. Under Islam, knowledge in art, architecture,
    mathematics, medicine, astronomy, geography,
    history, and other fields was greatly increased.

50
Discussion Question
  • What is Ramadan?

51
Discussion Question
  • (Ramadan is the month, according to Muslim
    beliefs, in which God began to reveal the Quran
    to Muhammad. Muslims observe Ramadan by fasting
    and refraining from any acts that take their
    attention away from God.)

52
The End
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