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Immunity and Vaccinations


Title: Immunity and Vaccinations Author: Last modified by: GISD Created Date: 9/1/2009 7:27:46 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immunity and Vaccinations

Immunity and Vaccinations
  • Health Science

Objectives / Rationale
  • The ability to develop immunity to diseases is a
    key factor in maintaining health and wellness.
  • The student will learn the difference in
    naturally acquired and artificially acquired
    immunity and understand the importance of
    vaccinations for individual and community health.

  • The Immune System is the bodys special defense
    response against foreign organisms.

Immune system includes
  • Lymphoid organs
  • lymph nodes
  • spleen
  • thymus gland

  • Their products
  • lymphocytes
  • antibodies
  • Macrophages phagocytes that are found in the
    blood, brain, liver, lymph nodes and spleen

  • The capacity to resist certain types of
    organisms and toxins (poisons) that will damage
    tissues and organs.
  • Natural (innate) Immunity ones own ability to
    fight off disease. By genetic predisposition,
    phagocytosis, macrophages.

  • Acquired Immunity the body develops specific
    immunity (antibodies and cells) against invading
    agents such as lethal bacteria, viruses, toxins,
    and even foreign tissues from other organisms.

  • Acquired active immunity occurs in two ways
  • By having a disease
  • Receiving a vaccination containing a modified
    pathogen or toxin, which stimulates production of

  • Acquired passive immunity the patient receives
    immune serum containing antibodies produced in
    another animal.
  • Examples antitoxins, gamma globulin

White Blood Cells
  • Protect us from infection, and help us fight
  • Neutrophils
  • One of the bodys main defenses against bacteria.
  • Kill bacteria by actually ingesting them

  • Eosinophils kill parasites and have a role in
    allergic reactions
  • Basophils function in allergic reactions. They
  • histamine causes blood vessels to leak and
    attract WBCs, and

  • heparin prevents clotting in the infected area
    so that the WBCs can reach the bacteria.

  • Lymphocytes complex cells that direct the
    bodys immune system.
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) they mature in the
    thymus and are responsible for cell-mediated
  • Four types of T Lymphocytes

  • Helper T cells direct the rest of the immune
    system by releasing cytokines which produce
    signals that regulate cell growth and function
    during the inflammatory response.
  • Cytotoxic T cells release chemicals that break
    open and kill invaders.

  • Memory T cells remain afterwards to help the
    immune system respond more quickly if the same
    organism is encountered again.
  • Suppressor T cells suppress immune response so
    that it does not destroy normal cells

  • B Lymphocytes responsible for humoral immunity
    (antibody production)

  • Monocytes called wandering cells until they
    enter a tissue where they become fixed and turn
    into macrophages.
  • They destroy old, damaged and dead cells in the

  • Macrophages are found in the liver, spleen,
    lungs, lymph nodes, skin and intestine.

Naturally Acquired Immunity
  • Active Immunity immunity may be acquired by
    exposure to a disease.
  • Antigen a substance that triggers an antibody
  • An antigen can be anything from bacteria to
    pollen dust to drug food to animal.

  • People are born with certain antigens, such as
    those on the RBCs, depending on their blood type.
  • An antigen doesnt produce an allergic reaction
    in all people.
  • Because.

  • In hypersensitive people, the presence of an
    antigen combined with an antibody provokes the
    release of histamine which forms the basis for
    all allergic symptoms.

  • Passive Immunity immunity may be acquired
    naturally by a fetus through the passage of
    antibodies from the mother through the placenta
    or through breast milk to a nursing infant.

  • In this type of passive immunity, antibodies come
    from an outside source.
  • These antibodies are temporary. They will
    protect for up to 6 months or longer if the
    mother continues nursing.

Artificially Acquired Immunity
  • Vaccination or immunization an agent is
    introduced into the body to stimulate antibody

  • Vaccine is given by injection or liquid by mouth.
  • Needle free inhalation of aerosol or powder.
  • The body makes antibodies against the weakened or
    killed pathogens from the vaccine.

  • These antibodies can fight the pathogens when
    they invade the body. The antibodies destroy them
    and the person will not become ill.
  • Protective antibodies then stay on guard in the
    body to safeguard it from the real disease if the
    person ever becomes exposed to the real disease.
    This protection is immunity.

  • Live organisms must be nonvirulent for humans
    or treated in the lab to weaken them so that are
    not as pathogenic to humans.
  • Attenuated an organism that has been weakened.

  • Killed vaccination with a toxoid occurs when
    the toxin produced by an organism is altered with
    heat or chemicals to render it harmless, but
    still allows the body to make antibodies against

Examples of Vaccines
  • Anthrax a serious disease that can affect both
    animals and humans.
  • Contracted from infected animals, wool, meat, or
  • Causes skin ulcers, fever, fatigue.
  • 20 of the cases are fatal
  • Inhaled anthrax is more serious.

  • Anthrax vaccine protects against both types of
  • Who should be vaccinated? Those 18-65 y/o
    potentially exposed to large amounts of the virus
    lab workers, military personnel at risk.
  • Three doses given at 2 week intervals.
  • Three additional doses each six months after the
    previous dose. Boosters.

  • DPT Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
  • Diptheria causes a thick covering on the back
    of throat, can lead to breathing problems,
    paralysis, heart failure and death.
  • Tetanus causes painful tightening of muscles,
    leading to lockjaw cannot open mouth or
    swallow leads to death in 1 out of 10 cases.

  • Pertussis (whooping cough) causes coughing
    spells so bad it is hard to eat, drink, breathe.
    Can lead to pneumonia, seizures, brain damage,
  • Children should receive 5 doses of the DtaP
  • Mild risks and serious risks involved.

  • Hemophilus Influenza, Type b (Hib)
  • Serious disease caused by a bacteria.
  • Hib is spread person-to-person.
  • If it remains in nose and throat, the person will
    not get sick.
  • If it moves to the lungs or blood stream, can be

  • Hepatitis A Vaccine
  • Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by
    Hep A virus, found in stool of persons with Hep
  • Can be spread by close personal contact or by
    eating food or drinking water contaminated by it.
  • Causes mild flu-like illness, jaundice, stomach
    pain, diarrhea.

  • Hep A vaccine should be given in 2 doses at least
    2 months apart.
  • Who should get? Travelers to or residents of
    countries with high rates of Hep A 1 month
    before traveling homosexual men street drug
    users individuals with chronic liver disease.

  • Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • Hep B (HBV) is serious. Can cause acute or
    chronic illness.
  • 1.25 million people in U.S. have chronic HBV.
    Each year, it is estimated that 80,000 people,
    mostly young adults will get it 4000-5000 people
    will die each year.

  • HBV is spread through contact with blood and body
    fluids of an infected person having unprotected
    sex, sharing needles, being stuck with an
    infected needle, during birth when passed from
    mother to baby.
  • Who should get? those 18 y/o and younger. High
    risk adults.
  • Three doses

  • Influenza Vaccine
  • Influenza is caused by a virus spreads form
    infected persons to nose or throat of others.
    Usually Nov through April.
  • Causes fever, cough, chills, sore throat,
    headache, muscle aches.
  • Causes thousands of deaths annually.
  • The virus changes often.
  • Lets look at a Brainpop video on flu.

  • Lyme Disease Vaccine Lyme disease is caused
    from being bitten by an infected tick.
  • Common sign is a round, red, expanding rash 2
    inches or more in diameter btw 3 days and a month
    after the tick bite. Fever, chills, headaches,
    joint and muscle pain can also occur.
  • Can lead to arthritis, heart rhythm prob

  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
  • Measles virus causes rash, cough, runny nose, eye
    irritation, fever.
  • Mumps causes fever, headache swollen glands and
    can lead to deafness, meningitis, painful
    swelling of testicles or ovaries, death.
  • Rubella (German Measles) causes rash, mild fever,

  • If a woman gets rubella while pregnant, she could
    miscarry, or her baby could be born with serious
    birth defects.
  • Who should get the MMR vaccine?
  • Children (2 doses)
  • Adults born after 1956

  • Meningococcal vaccine meningococcal disease is
    a serious illness caused by a bacteria is the
    leading cause of bacterial meningitis.
  • Is an infection of the brain and spinal cord
  • Who should get?
  • U.S. Military recruits

  • People exposed during an outbreak
  • Travelers to a country where it is common
  • Anyone who has a damaged or removed spleen
  • Lab workers routinely exposed to the bacteria
  • College students living in a dorm

  • Polio vaccine polio is a disease caused by a
    virus that enters through the mouth and can cause
    paralysis and death.
  • No wild polio has been reported in the U.S. for
    gt 20 years. Still common in some parts of the

  • Smallpox last natural case of smallpox
    occurred in 1977, and in 1980, the World Health
    Organization (WHO) declared the global
    eradication of smallpox and recommended that all
    countries cease vaccination.
  • Because of concerns that the virus could be used
    as a bioterrorism weapon, the CDC has a plan.

  • The plan will coordinate CDC, state, and local
    public health activities if an outbreak occurs,
    and it will help health officials define and
    control the outbreak.
  • This includes indications for vaccination,
    contraindications for vaccination, risks, sites,
    personnel, facilities, etc.

  • Tetanus and Diptheria Vaccine (Td) Tetanus
    is caused by a germ that enters the body through
    a cut or wound. Diptheria spreads from person to
  • People get the original vaccination after 7 y/o.
    Should also get one every 10 years throughout
    their life.

  • Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine the virus can
    spread from person to person through the air, or
    by contact with fluid from the blisters.
  • A person who has had chickenpox can get a painful
    rash herpes zoster (shingles) later in life.

  • With any vaccine, there are risks and
  • Each person should be evaluated as to which
    vaccines they should or should not receive.
  • Immunity may not be life-long with vaccines.
    Sometimes, booster shots are needed to keep
    antibody levels high enough for protection.