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The Age of Jackson

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Title: The Age of Jackson


1
The Age of Jackson
  • Mr. Pagliaro

2
Election of 1824
  • Senator Jackson-99 electoral, 41 of vote
  • Sec. of State Adams-84 electoral, 31
  • Sec. of the Treasury Crawford-41 electoral, 11
  • Speaker of the House Clay-37 electoral, 13
  • 131 needed to win

3
Election Results
  • Top 3 to House
  • Crawfords stroke
  • Corrupt bargain?
  • Speaker Clay named Sec. of State after Adams
    named winner
  • Secretary of State gateway to presidency?
  • Jacksonians broke away
  • Jacksonian Democrats

4
Expanded Suffrage
  • New Western states
  • 1824-350,000 voters
  • 1828- gt1,000,000 voters
  • Land requirements ended in East
  • Free adult male suffrage!

5
Election of 1828
Jackson received 642,000 votes, a 56 majority,
and won the election 178-83
6
The Inaugural Brawl
  • Jacksonians invade the White House

7
Spoils System
  • 10 of all federal jobs given to supporters
  • Rotation of office
  • Cabinet vs. Kitchen Cabinet

8
The Jackson Cabinet The Jackson Cabinet The Jackson Cabinet
Vice President John C. Calhoun 18291832
Vice President None 18321833
Vice President Martin Van Buren 18331837
Secretary of State Martin Van Buren 18291831
Secretary of State Edward Livingston 18311833
Secretary of State Louis McLane 18331834
Secretary of State John Forsyth 18341837
Secretary of Treasury Samuel D. Ingham 18291831
Secretary of Treasury Louis McLane 18311833
Secretary of Treasury William J. Duane 1833
Secretary of Treasury Roger B. Taney 18331834
Secretary of Treasury Levi Woodbury 18341837
Secretary of War John H. Eaton 18291831
Secretary of War Lewis Cass 18311836
Attorney General John M. Berrien 18291831
Attorney General Roger B. Taney 18311833
Attorney General Benjamin F. Butler 18331837
Postmaster General William T. Barry 18291835
Postmaster General Amos Kendall 18351837
Secretary of the Navy John Branch 18291831
Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury 18311834
Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson 18341837
9
The Tariff of Abominations
House Vote on Tariff of 1828 For Against
New England 16 23
Middle States (Mid-Atlantic) 57 11
West (OH, IN, IL, MO) 17 1
South (including LA) 3 50
Southwest (TN, KY) 12 9
Total 105 94
  • Tariff of 1828
  • Supported by Jackson for National Unity
  • South lost
  • Cotton exports to England dropped
  • Forced to buy expensive Northern goods

10
South Carolina Exposition (1828)
  • Full title South Carolina Exposition and Protest
  • John C. Calhoun (VP) wrote it anonymously
  • The Expo re-proposed concept of Nullification
  • Promoted states rights
  • Threatened Union

11
Webster Hayne Debate
12
Webster Hayne Debate, contd.
  • Webster-MA
  • Union?made by the people
  • Nullification rebellion
  • Promoted nationalism, tariff and American System
  • Hayne-SC
  • Union?made by an agreement of states
  • Nullification states right
  • Increased sectionalism

13
Jefferson Day Dinner, 1830
  • Democrat fundraiser
  • Deteriorated relationship
  • Problems back to 1818
  • Calhoun resigned as VP

The Union, next to our liberty, the most dear."
Our federal Union, it must be preserved.
14
Nullification Crisis
  • 1832-South Carolina declared Tariff of 1832 NULL
    VOID
  • Secession?
  • Jackson urged congress to pass Force Bill
  • Bloody Bill
  • Compromise Tariff-1833
  • Henry Clay
  • Lowered tariff for 10 consecutive years
  • Maintained American System

15
Controversy
  • May 1830
  • Maysville Road Veto
  • Funds/Road entirely in Kentucky
  • Why veto?
  • Clay rivalry?
  • Van Buren/NY/Erie Canal trade supremacy?
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Southern states gain more land
  • Settle Georgia/Cherokee dispute

16
The Trail of Tears
  • Forced removal of 5 civilized tribes from to OK
    in 1830s

17
Cherokee sue Georgia/Feds
John Marshall has made his decision now let him
enforce it! ... Build a fire under them. When it
gets hot enough, they'll go.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
  • Ruling The Supreme Court did not have original
    jurisdiction under Article III of the
    Constitution to hear a suit brought by the
    Cherokee Nation, which, as an Indian tribe, was
    not a sovereign nation.
  • Chief Justice, John Marshall the relationship
    of the tribes to the United States resembles that
    of a ward to its guardian
  • Worcester v. Georgia 1832
  • Ruling States were not permitted to redraw the
    boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in
    those territories, because the Constitution
    granted sole authority to Congress to regulate
    relations with sovereign States. Superior Court
    of Gwinnett County, Georgia reversed and
    remanded.
  • Treaty of New Echota-1835-Cherokee signed removal
    treaty
  • Cherokee travel Trail of Tears in 1838

18
Election of 1832
  • Third Party-Anti-Masons
  • A. Jackson-Democrats-219-54
  • Henry Clay-National Republicans-49-37
  • William Wirt-Anti-Masons-7

19
REVIEW
  • 2nd BUS rechartered 1816
  • 20 year charter
  • 1819 over extended-many loans for agriculture
    (farming boom post-Napoleon)
  • called in loans
  • Panic of 1819
  • Hurt farmers in West South
  • Jackson hurt financially

20
The Bank War
  • BUS-large corporation
  • Jackson distrusted it
  • 1832 Clay pushed through recharter bill
  • VETO
  • 1833-Jackson forced Sec. of Treasury to withdraw
    funds and deposit in state run banks
  • Pet Banks or Wildcat Banks
  • BUS called in loans, angering clients
  • 1833-Pocket veto of Distribution Act
  • Sale of federal lands fund BUS

21
Jackson attacks the Bank, Biddle, the Devil
22
Jackson and Van Burn slay the BUS Monster
23
Political Reaction
  • Whig Party founded-1833
  • Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, John
    Q. Adams
  • compromise
  • balance in government,
  • national unity
  • territorial expansion
  • national transportation
  • domestic manufacturing
  • Hoped to force BUS Recharter Bill, and overturn
    any veto in 1836

24
Specie Circular
  • Executive Order by Jackson Required payment for
    federal land in gold or silver
  • Run on banks-Panic of 1837
  • Other causes
  • excessive speculation.
  • Jackson's banking and financial policies.
  • financial problems abroad.
  • failure of wheat crops.
  • 1/3 of nation unemployed!!!
  • 5 year depression

25
The effects of unemployment
26
Jackson as President
  • Pros
  • Cons
  • Expanded executive power
  • Eliminated National Debt
  • Took West to national stage
  • Solidified Democratic Party
  • Used veto for personal vendettas
  • Crippled American Banking
  • Indian Removal

27
1836 Election
  • Van Buren v. William Henry Harrison
  • An election of Favorite Sons Van Buren (NY),
    Harrison (OH), Webster (MA), White (TN), Mangum
    (NC)
  • Little Van won by 35,000 popular votes, but
    170-124 in the electoral college

28
G.T.T.
29
Timeline of American Migration to Texas Texas
Revolution
1827 President Adams attempted to buy Texas
1833-34 Convention of 1833 selects Stephen F.
Austin to represent new state of Texas to
Mexico. Captured for treason
1821-Mexico independent
1821-24 Emprasarios- US Settlers move west,
0.125/acre
1810 Moses Austin (TN) granted colonization
rights
1829-Mexico outlawed slavery hurt Texas economy.
Jackson offered 5m for Texas
1834-Santa Anna suspended Mexicos democratic
govt.
30
Annex Texas?!
  • Jackson and Van Buren wouldnt for fear of
    results of extending slavery

31
Election of 1840
  • Harrison presented as a common man
  • Symbolic Log cabin Hard Cider
  • Memorable Tippecanoe Tyler, Too!

32
Campaign Songs
  • Democrat Song
  • Whig Song
  • Rockabye, baby, Daddy's a Whig/When he comes
    home, hard cider he'll swig/When he has
    swug/He'll fall in a stu/And down will come Tyler
    and Tippecanoe.
  • Rockabye, baby, when you awake/You will discover
    Tip is a fake./Far from the battle, war cry and
    drum/He sits in his cabin a'drinking bad rum./
  • Rockabye, baby, never you cry/You need not fear/
    OF Tip and his Ty./What they would ruin, Van
    Buren will fix./Van's a magician, they are but
    tricks.
  • Tip and Ty What's the cause of this commotion,
    motion, motion, Our country through? It is the
    ball a-rolling on For Tippecanoe and Tyler
    too. For Tippecanoe and Tyler too. And with them
    we'll beat little Van, Van, Van, Van is a used up
    man (man man). And with them we'll beat little
    Van.

33
Election of 1840 Results
234 electoral votes
60 electoral votes
34
Whig tragedy
  •  Harrison-
  • longest inaugural address ever (2 hours, no coat
    or hat)
  • Afterward, made appointments alienated Clay,
    helped Webster
  • Contracted pneumonia March 26
  • served the shortest term of any American
    president March 4 April 4, 1841, 31 days,
    twelve hours, and 30 minutes.
  • John Tyler assumed presidency
  • Very autocratic

His Accidency
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