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Unit IV Part 6


Unit IV Part 6 Andrew Jackson The and the Second BUS The Whigs – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit IV Part 6

Unit IV Part 6
  • Andrew Jackson
  • The and the Second BUS
  • The Whigs

  • Jackson hated Banks
  • He distrusted paper money
  • He opposed the Second BUS because it put power
    into the hands of his enemies
  • The Second BUS was not popular with farmers
  • Ruthless foreclosures
  • Jackson was elected in 1832
  • The BUS charter was up for renewal in 1836
  • Who would be President in 1836?

Friends of the BUS
  • Were worried that even if congress passed a BUS
    renewal, Jackson would veto it
  • Nicholas Biddle was President of the Second
    BUShe ran it very well
  • Biddle was worried too

Daniel Webster had a plan
  • To save the Second BUS
  • He told Biddle to apply EARLY for a recharter
  • He believed that Jackson would not dare to veto a
    bank bill before the election of 1832
  • Belief that if Jackson DID veto the BUS
    recharter, he would LOSE the election

Biddle asked for an early re-charter
  • Congress passed the Second BUS recharter bill
  • Jackson vetoed it
  • NOTE the Second BUS would still operate until
  • Biddle made lots of low-interest loans to those
    opposed to Jackson during the election

  • Jackson was re-elected!
  • Still two factions of one party
  • Democratic Republicans
  • Jackson (VP Van Buren) (219)
  • National Republicans
  • Henry Clay (49) first to have a
    national platform
  • Anti-Masonics (Third Party)
  • Wirt (0) first to have a National

  • Believed his election was a sign from the people
    that they wanted him to destroy the Bank even
    before the charter ran out
  • So he asked his Secretary of the Treasury to
    remove all of the federal from the Bankhe
    refused and was fired
  • The next Sec. of the Treasurythe same
  • They both believed it would be really bad for the

Roger Taney (Attorney General)
  • Was made the new Sec. of the Treasury
  • HE removed the federal from the Second BUS
  • The was re-deposited into several PET banks
    owned by Jackson lovers
  • Was this more democratic?
  • Yesbefore the government could only be used by
    one bank, nowmany

The Federal Money
  • Was used by more banks more economic
    opportunities for more people

Marshall died! 1834
  • Jackson named Taney as new Supreme Court Chief
    Justice (a reward?)
  • In the meantimeNicholas Biddle was forced to
    call in loans early to keep the bank afloat
  • More farmers lost land
  • Businesses failed, factories closed, lost jobs
  • Depression for several years

The Specie Circular 1836
  • A Jackson idea passed by congress
  • Required buyers to buy land with specie!
  • Made economy even worse
  • Contributed to the Panic of 1837
  • Panic will be blamed on Van Buren because he will
    be the president to inherit it

Taneys Court
  • Modified some of Marshalls decisions
  • Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge 1837 Taney
    said that a state MAY amend a contract if it
    would benefit that states citizens

The Rise of the Whigs
  • Jackson made many enemies due to his actions
    during the Nullification Crisis and his war with
    the Second BUS
  • During his second term, the Whig Party was formed
  • It was a combination of National Republicans and
    Jackson Haters (who did not necessarily agree
    with the ideology of the National Republicans)

The Whigs
  • Founders Daniel Webster and Henry Clay
  • Platform Clays American System
  • Ideology Stood for the same issues as the
    Federalist Party High Tariff, Strong Central
    Government, a BUS
  • Remember Webster was the last spokesman for the
    Federalist Party at the Hartford Convention

Election of 1836
  • Democrats (Old Democratic-Republican Party)
  • Van Buren (NY) (170)
  • VP Johnson (killed Tecumseh)
  • Three Whig Candidates
  • W.H. Harrison (73)
  • Hugh White (26)
  • Daniel Webster (14)
  • Independent Magnum (11)

Van Buren
  • Will only serve one term because the economy was
    so bad and it was all blamed on him
  • Although Jackson was at fault his war with the
    Second BUS and the Specie Circular
  • BUT Jackson was still President until March of

African Americans
  • Free in the North but second class citizens
  • Often could not vote in Northern States
  • 1831 Nat Turners Rebellion White family
    killed while slaves attempted to escape
  • Great fear by Southerners
  • Abolitionist societies disappeared in the South

The Gag Rule
  • The slavery issue was such a hot topic that if it
    was introduced in Congress, no work was doneonly
    fighting over slavery
  • SOmembers of the House were subject to the Gag
    RuleMembers were not supposed to bring up the
    topic of slavery so other work could get done

The Gag Rule
  • John Quincy Adams (was elected to the House after
    his presidency) tried to break the Gag Rule over
    300 times
  • He continually tried to introduce petition to end

Native Americans
  • Since Jefferson, the U.S. policy was removal to
    east of the Mississippi
  • Jacksons Trail of Tears
  • 1832 Black Hawk War in the Northwest
  • 1837-42 Seminole War in Florida

Foreign Affairs
  • The English finally opened up West Indies trade
    to the U.S.
  • The French paid us compensation for ships and
    cargo seized prior to the War of 1812 with the
    Convention of 1831
  • NowMexico

  • Had gained its independence from Spain in early
  • Big U.S. migration to Mexico due the the
    Empressario System (like the Headright system
    free land to settlers)
  • Stephen Austin one of the first

Great Migration
  • By 1830 there were 20,000 Americans in Mexico
  • BUT they were not happy
  • Did not like to pay a tariff on U.S. goods
  • Did not have self-government
  • 1829 Mexico outlawed slavery

  • Americans in Texas area formed a provisional
  • Santa Ana (Mexican dictator) Led the Mexican army
    against the Americans
  • Americans in Texas (Mexico) declared their
    independence in 1836

The War for Texas Independence
  • 1836 Battle of the Alamo (big win for Mexico)
  • 1836 Battle of the Goliad (big win for Mexico)
  • 1836 Battle of San Jacinto (Americans won their
    independence by capturing Santa Ana)
  • Sam Houston President of the Texas Republic
    asked for U.S. annexation

  • Jackson would not consider annexing Texas
  • Did not want to risk war with Mexico
  • Did not want to upset the Senate balance of free
    and slave statesTexas would enter as a slave
  • Will be annexed by Tyler after election of Polk
    in 1844
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