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The Rise of a Mass Democracy (1824-1840)


The Rise of a Mass Democracy (1824-1840) John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it. ~ Andrew Jackson, 1832 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of a Mass Democracy (1824-1840)

The Rise of a Mass Democracy(1824-1840)
  • John Marshall has made his decision, now let him
    enforce it. Andrew Jackson, 1832

AP Focus
  • Mass Democracy Andrew Jackson wins popular vote
    in 1824, but does not become president. Wins
    enough in 1828 to become president. Period of
    democratic growth democracy of the masses as
    property qualifications for voting have
  • Tariff Issues Sectionalism becomes a problem
    with the Tariff. South Carolina almost secedes,
    Jackson almost sends federal troops to SC.
    Another Henry Clay bandaid on the states rights
    vs federal power issue.

AP Focus
  • Indian Removal 5 Civilized Tribes of southeast
    and Sauk Fox of Illinois are defeated by law
    and guns, and moved westward. No more active
    tribes east of Mississippi River
  • Revival of Two-Party System Whig party forms in
    1830s to combat Jackson and Democrats
  • 1836 Van Buren inherits Jacksons poor financial
    decisions as an economic depression hits the
  • US annexation of Texas is put on hold to preserve
    free-state / slave-state balance.

Election of 1824
  • Four Republicans running against each other
  • Andrew Jackson wins popular and electoral votes,
    but not enough electoral votes to win presidency
  • Presidency decided by House of Representatives
  • Speaker of House Henry Clay had much in common
    with John Quincy Adamswho the House chose as
  • Clay made Secretary of State, Jacksonians
  • Corrupt Bargain

John Quincy Adams
  • Son of John Adams, and was a great diplomat, but
    ineffective president
  • Last of the old breed of elitist New Englanders
  • Nationalist policies (opposed to sectionalism)
  • Wanted to raise tariff to pay for American System
    infrastructure improvements
  • Land policy be fair to the Indians
  • South and West hated Adams policies
  • billiard-bald

1828 Jackson elected President
  • A man of the people most support in S and W
  • Dirty campaign signaling emergence of political
  • Campaign ad General Jacksons mother was a
    common prostitute brought to this country by
    British soldiers

1828 Election
  • Jackson swept the South and West Adams retained
    the old Federalist stronghold of the Northeast.
  • Jacksons inroads in the Northeast were decisive.
    He won 20 of NYs electoral votes and all 28 of
  • If those votes had gone the other way, Adams
    would have won -by a margin of one vote.

Jacksons background
  • War hero from War of 1812
  • Illegal invasion of Florida resulted in US
    gaining Florida
  • No college education
  • Could hardly spell
  • Had killed a lot of people
  • Jackson can fight, Adams can write

Spoils System
  • The real beginnings of the American patronage
    system that would plague the government for the
    majority of the 19th century
  • For party support, the illiterate, incompetent,
    and criminals were given high positions within
  • Promise of patronage encouraged party loyalty
  • AP Question When would the Spoils System finally
    be put to an end? What Act of Congress?
  • 2 Quiz points to be earned

1828 Tariff of Abominations
  • Tariff protection of American industry, add a
    tax to imports so that American products are less
    expensive to buy
  • Benefits the North as they are manufacturers
  • South has to buy manufactured products
  • They now pay slightly more for American products
    (northerners can raise prices to be just below
    tariff-increased prices of imports)
  • They have to deal with foreign tariff retaliation
    with their exported raw materials
  • For the Southerner, everything gets more expensive

Why so upset?
  • Tariff issue was really a scapegoat for Southern
  • If Washington could pass laws that hurt them
    economically, what if one day slavery is
  • Missouri Compromise put a bandaid on the slavery
  • Recent pressure from London to ban slavery in
    West Indies also increased fear among Southern
    plantation owners that abolitionism would catch
    on in US

The South Carolina Exposition
  • Exposition authored by Vice Pres John C. Calhoun
    of S. Carolina
  • Had to be anonymous
  • Proposed Nullification
  • Expansion on VA KY Resolutions
  • States have right to declare an
    unconstitutional law as Null and Void within
    their borders
  • He looks crazy!

Fast-forward 2014
  • https//
  • Arizona Proposition 122
  • http//

1832 Nullies and new tariff
  • 1832 Washington lowers tariff, but not enough to
    pacify the south
  • South Carolina legislature declares Tariff to be
    null and void.
  • Threatened to secede from Union if Washington
    tried to collect
  • Jackson prepared for war to keep Union together
  • Compromise bill that would reduce tariff
    significantly Compromise Tariff of 1833

The Force Bill
  • To save face, Congress passes Force Bill, which
    states that if South Carolina tries to nullify
    tariff (which they now wont, since there is a
    compromise), the president can send the army and
    navy to collect it
  • South Carolina officially repeals their law
    nullifying the tariff
  • The hero here was _______________ for saving the
  • States rights vs. Federal power issue just put on
    hold for a while
  • Right now it is about the tariff, later it will
    be about slavery

The Five Civilized Tribes
  • Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole
  • Cherokee best example of assimilation to American
    lifestyle and culture
  • Created a written language and newspapers
  • Became farmers
  • Some even owned slaves
  • Adopted Christianity
  • Created a Constitution with a government of three
    branches, checks and balances

Sequoyah and written Cherokee
Thats great, but white Americans want to live on
that land
  • 1828 Georgia declares Cherokee government
  • Cherokees appealed to the Supreme Court, which
    upheld their rights
  • Jackson wanted to open lands to white settlement
  • Jackson said John Marshall has made his
    decision, now let him enforce it.
  • President head of executive branch
    responsible for enforcing laws

1830 Indian Removal Act
  • Congress passes Indian Removal Act
  • Transplanting of ALL Indian tribes east of
    Mississippi, to Indian Territory (now OK KS)

Black Hawks War (1832)
  • Led Sauk and Fox warriors in Illinois vs. US
  • Defeated and removed to Indian Territory
  • Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis both fought in
    this war

Seminole Wars (1835 1845)
  • Seminoles who refused to move west moved into
  • Guerilla warfare against US troops
  • 1837 Chief Osceola captured under banner of peace

The Trail of Tears (1838 1839)
The Trail of Tears (1838 1839)
  • Fall and winter forced march of 15,000 Cherokees
    from Georgia to Indian Territory
  • 4,000 died along the way from starvation and cold
  • Survivor Quote One each day, and all are gone.
    Looks like maybe all dead before we get to Indian
    country, but always we keep marching on. Women
    cry and make sad wails. Children cry, many men
    cry, and all look sad when friends die, but they
    say nothing and just put heads down and keep on
    toward west. My mother speak no more, we bury
    her and go on.

Second Bank of the United States
  • Bank of US was privately owned, but acted like a
    branch of government
  • Controlled much of US gold and silver, a source
    of credit and stability
  • Bank foreclosed on many western farms
  • Profit, not public service, was priority
  • Nicholas Biddle tremendous power

1832 Bank War
  • There was not an Indian tribe named The Bank
  • This was Jackson against the 2nd Bank of the US
  • 1832 Daniel Webster and Henry Clay try to renew
    bank charter
  • Even though bank did not expire until 1836, Clay
    wanted to make it an issue now so that it
    factored in next election in which he would run
    for president
  • Hoped to damage Jacksons reputation

(No Transcript)
Bank Renewal Vetoed
  • If he vetoed the bank charter, he would surely
    lose Northern votes
  • If he signed the renewal, he would lose support
    in West
  • Renewal bill passes through Congress, vetoed by
  • Jackson felt the bank was not Constitutional
  • Problem Supreme Court has already ruled on this!
  • McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819

Plain sewing done here
  • Cartoon depicting Henry Clay trying to sew Andrew
    Jacksons mouth closed

Jacksons Veto
  • A scorching veto
  • Amplified power of presidency he decided to
    veto the bank because he found it harmful to the
  • Essentially claiming the power of Congress and
    the Supreme Court for himself
  • Congress should represent the will of the people
  • Supreme Court rules on constitutionality (and
    already had in 1819 on this issue!)
  • Henry Clay made copies of Jacksons veto, he
    thought the common man would be upset, but they
    actually liked it

Election of 1832
  • First time a 3rd party enters the fray
    Anti-Masonic Party
  • Great piece of outside info for a DBQ / LEQ
  • What are some other famous 3rd parties?
  • First time parties have a platform or list of
    issues and their stance on each
  • Clay had more money but Jackson destroyed him in
    the voting

Jackson kills the Bank
  • Jackson started to take all federal deposits from
    the Bank (which was going to expire in 1836)
  • Nicholas Biddle calls in loans from other banks,
    raises interest rates, all to keep National Bank
  • Led to financial ruin, a boom and bust cycle
  • Emergence of wildcat banks that flooded the
    country with unreliable paper money (the US
    dollar did not become the ONLY paper currency
    until 1863)
  • Jacksons decree Specie Circular declares all
    public land must be purchased with hard currency
  • This leads to financial panic and crash of 1837

The Whigs
  • Jacksons opponents called him King Andrew I
    coalesced as the Whig Party
  • Whigs in London had opposed British monarchy
    during time of Revolution
  • Whigs were formed of everyone who opposed
    Jackson Clay American system, states rights
    supporters from South, Anti-Masonics and
    Evangelicals, northern industrialists and
  • Claimed to be the defender of the common man

King Andrew I
The Eighth President
Martin Van Buren
  • Defeated Henry Clay and Whigs in 1836 election
  • Hand picked by Jackson, also inherited all of his
  • Rebellion in Canada 1837 almost triggered war
    with British
  • Antislavery agitators in the North
  • Opposition to annexation of Texas
  • Economic Panic of 1837

Panic of 1837
  • Caused by overspeculation of western lands,
    failures of wheat crops, Jacksons Specie
    Circular, European economic crisis all
    converging at same time
  • Riots in streets of New York City, factories
    closed, hundreds of banks collapsed
  • Van Buren called for divorce of government and
    banking, by establishing independent treasury
  • Passed in 1840, then repealed 1841, then on again
    off again until Civil War

  • After Mexico became independent in 1821, they
    invited frontier Americans to settle area to be a
    buffer zone against Indian attacks
  • Led by Steven F. Austin / Don Estévan F. Austin
  • By 1835 about 30,000 Americans had immigrated to
    Texas, outnumbered tejanos 101
  • Davy Crockett, David Bowie, Steven F. Austin, Sam
  • They were supposed to assimilate to Mexico be
    Catholic, not hold slaves, abide by Mexican law
    but did not

Remember the Alamo
  • 1835 the Texans (or Texicans) revolted against
  • After General Santa Anna wiped out Texans at
    Alamo, Texans forced him to surrender at San
  • 1836 Texas becomes independent from Mexico,
    quickly petitions USA for annexation
  • 1837 Van Buren rejects petition
  • Northerners suspected this was a scheme to
    introduce another slave state and upset balance
    in Congress
  • Really wasnt a conspiracy, but adding Texas
    would have upset the balance

Election of 1840
  • Van Buren was a pretty unremarkable, borderline
    bad president, so its no surprise that he didnt
    get reelected
  • Whigs ran William Henry Harrison, who owned a 16
    room mansion on a 3,000 acre farm, but they
    portrayed him as a log cabin country boy, and he
  • Tippecanoe and Tyler too
  • Good thing they mentioned Tyler because Harrison
    died 4 weeks into office

(No Transcript)
Change over time Politics
  • Important Change 1
  • 1840s Triumph of democratic populist style
  • Aristocracy was tainted, log cabins were in
  • Being perceived as clean, well-dressed,
    grammatical, intellectual were negatives when it
    came to national elections
  • Sturdy American, course trousers, coonskin cap,
    no collar this was in

Change over time Politics
  • Important Change 2
  • Formation of durable Two-party system
  • In Era of Good Feelings, Jeffersonians had
    absorbed policies of Federalist opponents
  • But now, Both Jacksonian Democrats (also called
    Democratic-Republicans) and Whigs grew out of

The Two Parties
  • Democrats less government involvement
  • liberty of individual
  • Federal restraint in social and economic issues
  • States rights (despite SC almost seceding)
  • Whigs more government involvement
  • government should help achieve harmony of society
  • National bank, protective tariffs, public schools
  • Prohibition of liquor, abolition of slavery
  • Tariff/taxes to pay for improvements