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Cellular Respiration

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Title: Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Author: KRISTIN Last modified by: Megan Hutchison Created Date: 11/25/2007 10:31:20 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cellular Respiration


1
Cellular Respiration
2
Energy Review
  • Energy Storing Molecules
  • ATP, NADPH
  • ATP supplies most of the energy that drives
    metabolism in living things
  • ATP releases energy when converted into ADP

3
Cellular Respiration Overview
  • Living things get most of the energy they need
    from glucose.
  • Autrotrophs make glucose using photosynthesis
  • Heterotrophs get glucose from food they eat
  • Cellular Respiration
  • The process that releases energy by breaking down
    glucose and other food molecules in the presence
    of oxygen.

4
Cellular Respiration Overview
  • Cellular Respiration Overall Equation
  • 6O2 C6H12O6 ? 6CO2 6H2O Energy
  • Three Stages
  • Glycolysis
  • Krebs Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain
  • The Main form of Energy produced ATP

5
Cellular Respiration An Overview
Mitochondrion
Electrons carried in NADH
Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2
Pyruvic acid
Glucose
Electron Transport Chain
Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis
Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
6
Glycolysis
  • Glyco Glucose lysis Breakdown
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • Molecules of GLUCOSE are broken down into 2
    molecules of Pyruvic Acid (pyruvate).
  • Cell must use (invest) 2 ATP
  • Produces Energy Carrier Molecules
  • 4 ATP

7
Glycolysis
Glucose
Pyruvic Acid
Pyruvic Acid
To the Electron Transport Chain
8
Glycolysis
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v9oeFhPTNl98

9
After Glycolysis
  • If Oxygen is present
  • Goes to the Mitochondria for Aerobic respiration
  • Aerobic respirationuse of oxygen

10
The Mitochondria
  • The mitochondria is the organelle where the final
    stages of cellular respiration occurs.
  • Krebs Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain
  • Cells that use a lot of energy have high numbers
    of mitochondria.
  • Example Muscle cells in the heart!!

11
Krebs Cycle
  • Aerobic Process Only if oxygen is present!!
  • Pyruvate from Glycolysis enters to form
  • 2 ATP
  • CO2 (which is released when we exhale!!)
  • AKA.Citric Acid Cycle

12
Electron Transport Chain
  • Energy carrier molecules produced during
    Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle enter the ETC
  • The electrons are passed down a chain of proteins
    until they reach the final electron
    acceptor..oxygen!
  • So this step is aerobic (requires oxygen)
  • The ETC produces 32 ATP and H2O

13
Cellular Respiration Flowchart
Section 9-2
Glucose(C6H1206) Oxygen(02)
Glycolysis
KrebsCycle
ElectronTransportChain
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O)
14
What happens ifNO OXYGENis available??
The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
cant function!! These are anaerobic conditions!!
15
Fermentation
  • The cell can use Fermentation instead!!
  • Occurs in the Cytoplasm
  • Just like glycolysis!!
  • Fermentation
  • A series of reactions that convert NADH (from
    glycolysis) back into NAD allowing glycolysis to
    keep producing a small amount of ATP

16
2 Types of Fermentation
  • Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Yeasts use this process to form ethyl alcohol and
    carbon dioxide as waste products.
  • This causes bread dough to rise
  • This is how some alcoholic beverages are made
  • Pyruvic Acid NADH ? alcohol CO2 NAD

17
Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Occurs in bacteria (unicellular organisms)
  • This is how cheese, yogurt, and pickles are made.
  • Occurs in muscles during rapid exercise
  • When your body runs out of oxygen your muscle
    cells must produce some ATP using fermentation
    and glycolysis
  • Lactic Acid build-up causes muscle soreness or
    burning after intense activity.
  • Pyruvic Acid NADH ? lactic acid NAD

18
Fermentation Summary
Fermentation 2 Pyruvic Acid ? ? or ?
Glycolysis Glucose ? 2 Pyruvic Acid
19
Chemical Pathways
Section 9-1
Glucose
Krebs cycle
Electrontransport
Glycolysis
Alcohol or Lactic Acid
Fermentation (without oxygen)
20
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21
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