Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

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Chapter 16 The Dynamic Ocean 16.1 Surface Circulation Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. Surface currents are movements ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4


1
Chapter 16
The Dynamic Ocean
2
16.1 Surface Circulation
? Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that
flows from one place to another.
? Surface currents are movements of water that
flow horizontally in the upper part of the
oceans surface.
Surface currents develop from friction between
the ocean and the wind that blows across its
surface.
3
Ocean Surface Currents
4
16.1 Surface Circulation
Gyres are huge circular-moving current systems
that dominate the surfaces of the oceans.
The Coriolis effect is the deflection of
currents away from their original course as a
result of Earths rotation.
5
16.1 Surface Circulation
? Ocean Currents and Climate
When currents from low-latitude regions move
into higher latitudes, they transfer heat from
warmer to cooler areas on Earth.
As cold water currents travel toward the
equator, they help moderate the warm temperatures
of adjacent land areas.
6
16.1 Surface Circulation
Upwelling is the rise of cold water from
deeper layers to replace warmer surface water.
Upwelling brings greater concentrations of
dissolved nutrients to the ocean surface.
7
16.1 Deep-Ocean Circulation
Density currents are vertical currents of ocean
water that result from density differences among
water masses.
An increase in seawater density can be caused
by a decrease in temperature or an increase in
salinity.
8
Conveyor Belt Model
9
16.1 Deep-Ocean Circulation
? Oceanic Conveyor Belt
In a simplified model, ocean circulation is
similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the
Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific
Oceans, and back again.
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