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Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

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Chapter 16 The Dynamic Ocean Surface Circulation 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4


1
Chapter 16
The Dynamic Ocean
2
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
? Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that
flows from one place to another.
? Surface Currents
Surface currents are movements of water that
flow horizontally in the upper part of the
oceans surface.
Surface currents develop from friction between
the ocean and the wind that blows across its
surface.
3
Ocean Surface Currents
4
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
Gyres are huge circular-moving current systems
that dominate the surfaces of the oceans.
The Coriolis effect is the deflection of
currents away from their original course as a
result of Earths rotation.
5
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
? Ocean Currents and Climate
When currents from low-latitude regions move
into higher latitudes, they transfer heat from
warmer to cooler areas on Earth.
As cold water currents travel toward the
equator, they help moderate the warm temperatures
of adjacent land areas.
6
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
Upwelling is the rise of cold water from
deeper layers to replace warmer surface water.
Upwelling brings greater concentrations of
dissolved nutrients to the ocean surface.
7
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
Density currents are vertical currents of
ocean water that result from density differences
among water masses.
An increase in seawater density can be caused
by a decrease in temperature or an increase in
salinity.
8
16.1 The Composition of Seawater
? A Conveyor Belt
In a simplified model, ocean circulation is
similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the
Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific
Oceans, and back again.
9
Conveyor Belt Model
10
Order of Events
  • Read the section A Conveyor Belt page 453
  • Create a flowchart showing the movement of water
    starting with the phrase warm water flows
    towards the poles and end with the phrase the
    cycle repeats
  • HINT there should be 7 steps
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