APES Semester 1 in review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: APES Semester 1 in review


1
APES Semester 1 in review
2014, The year everyone gets a 5!
2
Who Lives Where and Why? Evolutionary
response Resource Partitioning - Whenever there
is competition for the same resources, someone
loses out!
3
Evolution
4
Speciation (Galapagos Finches)
5
Geological Context (space and time for
evolution)
  • Plate tectonics
  • Geological time scale (fig. 5-21)
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Selective breeding
  • Artificial selection
  • Natural selection

6
Island biogeography. Founder effec
7
The Green Revolution
  • To eliminate hunger by improving crop performance
  • Movement to increase yields by using
  • New crop cultivars
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Mechanization
  • Results
  • Did not eliminate famine
  • Population still increasing
  • Increase cost of production
  • An increased negative environmental impact
  • Didnt work for everyone

8
Chapter 13 Fossil FuelsExxon Valdez, Drilling
in ANWR
  • Coal-several (400) hundred years
  • Natural Gas at least a 50 year supply in the
    United States

Oil- Peak Oil passed
9
More Energy Facts
  • We get 50 of our crude oil from foreign sources
  • Alaska pipeline built to help increase production
    of domestic crude oil
  • Types of coal
  • Peat (not coal) ? Lignite (brown coal) ?
    Bituminous coal (soft coal with high sulfur) ?
    Anthracite (hard coal with low sulfur)

10
K- Selected Species populations of a roughly
constant size have low reproductive rates.
offspring require extensive postnatal care until
they have sufficiently matured. They are very
limited in resourses therefore they are a very
competitive species. Elephants, Rhinos and long
lived plants are examples of a k-selected
species. R-Selected Species populations that
experience rapid growth of the J-curve variety.
offspring produced are numerous, mature quite
rapidly, and require very little postnatal care.
this population grows fast, reproduces quickly,
and dies quickly. Bacteria and mice are
examples of r- selected species.
11
Carrying capacity changes
12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
Ch 6 and 7 The Human Population
  • Chapter 7
  • Fertility rates
  • World bank
  • 1994 UN conference in Cairo- program of action
  • Chapter 6
  • World population trends
  • Calculations
  • Demographic transition
  • Age structure diagrams
  • Developed vs. developing countries

16
Population Density
  • Population Density (or ecological population
    density) is the amount of individuals in a
    population per unit habitat area
  • Some species exist in high densities - Mice
  • Some species exist in low densities - Mountain
    lions
  • Density depends upon
  • social/population structure
  • mating relationships
  • time of year

17
Population Dispersion
Population dispersion is the spatial pattern of
distribution There are three main
classifications Clumped individuals are lumped
into groups ex. Flocking birds or herbivore
herds due to resources that are clumped or
social interactions most common
http//www.johndarm.clara.net/galleryphots/
18
Population Dispersion
http//www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/creosotebus
h2.html
19
Age Structure
  • The age structure of a population is usually
    shown graphically
  • The population is usually divided up into
    prereproductives, reproductives and
    postreproductives
  • The age structure of a population dictates
    whether is will grow, shrink, or stay the same
    size

20
Age Structure Diagrams
Positive Growth Zero Growth
Negative Growth (ZPG) Pyramid
Shape Vertical Edges Inverted
Pyramid
21
Population Dynamics Outline
  • Characteristics of a Population
  • Population Dynamics and Carrying Capacity
  • Reproductive Strategies
  • Conservation Biology
  • Human Impacts
  • Working with Nature

22
  • Biotic Potential
  • factors allow a population to increase under
    ideal conditions, potentially leading to
    exponential growth
  • Environmental Resistance
  • affect the young more than the elderly in a
    population, thereby affecting recruitment
    (survival to reproductive age)

23
(No Transcript)
24
Population Growth Rates
(b) crude birth rate number birth per 1000
individuals (d) crude death rate number death
per 1000 individuals (r) growth rate natural
increase in population expressed as percent per
years (If this number is negative, the population
is shrinking.)   equation rate birth death
But other factors affect population growth in
a certain area
25
Population growth rates
  • increase population decrease population
  • births ? ? deaths
  • immigration ? ? emigration
    (exit)
  • r (birth - death) (immigration-emigration)
  • immigration migration of individuals into a
    population from another area or country
  • emigration migration of individuals from a
    population bound for another country

26
Growth Rate Example
r (birth - death) (immigration-emigration)
example population of 10,000 has
100 births (10 per 1000) 50 deaths
(5 per 1000) 10 immigration (1 per 1000) 100
emigration (10 per 1000) You try.
B D I
E r( 10/1000)
(5/1000) (1/1000) (10/1000) r(0.01-0.005)
(0.001 0.01) r 0.005 0.009 -0.004 or
0.4 per year
27
Know Rule of 70 If the growth rate is 1 and the
population size is 10,000, how many years will it
take to get to a population of 40,000? Population
doubling
70/rate 70/1 70 years to double
Double Time Example
In 70 years the population will be 20,000
1 D.T. ? 20,000
2 D.T. ? 40,000
(70 years)(2) 140 years 
In 140 years, the population will be 40,000
people. SHOW YOUR WORK!!!!!!!!!
28
Demographic Transition
29
Bottom Line as countries develop, first their
death rate drops and then their birth rate
drops Reasons for the phases Phase II ?
medical care ? nutrition
(births still high) ? technology Phase
III ? birth control ? education (of
women) ? lower mortality rate of infants ?
less child labor
30
Developed vs. Developing
  • Developed Countries
  • Canada, U.S., Australia, Western Europe (Denmark)
  • Developing Countries
  • Latin America, China, Africa (Kenya)
  • 1/5 of the worlds pop. Lives in absolute
    poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and dont
    have enough food
  • 80 of worlds pop. Lives in developing co. and
    growing

31
Fertility Rates
  • Total fertility avg. of children born per
    woman
  • For developed countries 2.1
  • For developing countries 2.6
  • Fertility of 2.0 replacement level
  • Under 2.0 shrinking population
  • Over 2.0 growing pop.
  • For developed countries 2.1
  • For developing countries 2.6(or higher)

32
World Bank
  • Special agency of the United Nations
  • Receives from developed co. and loans to
    developing co.
  • Sometimes this backfires by increasing debt
  • Oversees all types of issues, not just
    environmental issues
  • Ex. electricity, roads, new modern technology

33
Toxicology
  • Extrapolation from animal to human
  • Usually physiology of other mammals is like
    humans, so rats, mice, dogs, cats, etc. make good
    surrogates.
  • But, CATS CAN NOT take Tylenol, Aspirin
  • DOGS can not take chocolate.
  • Then, what can experimental animals tolerate that
    humans can't ??

34
Toxicology
  • Expense of laboratory studies
  • Drug approval by Food Drug Administration (FDA)
    takes years, .
  • Safety of medicines
  • Effectiveness of medicines
  • Studies of environmental chemicals, biological
    agents also takes time money.

35
Toxicology
  • Other factors
  • Bioaccumulation increased concentration in
    specific tissues over time.
  • Biomagnification increased concentration up a
    food web.

17 June 2010
EnvHealthTox.ppt
35
36

How Much Exposure to a Particular Toxic Chemical
Causes a Harmful Response?
50
Method Measure chemicals median lethal dose
(LD50) the amount received in one dose that
kills 50 of the organisms (usually rats or mice)
in a test population within a 14 day period.
Threshold Level
0.0001 0.001 0.1
1.0
Dose mg/kg (ppm)
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
Biomagnification
  • Biomagnification- the increase in a chemical
    concentration in animal tissues as the chemical
    moves up the food chain.

40
Persistence
  • Persistence- how long a chemical remains in the
    environment

41
Risk Analysis
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Title: APES Semester 1 in review


1
APES Semester 1 in review
2014, The year everyone gets a 5!
2
Who Lives Where and Why? Evolutionary
response Resource Partitioning - Whenever there
is competition for the same resources, someone
loses out!
3
Evolution
4
Speciation (Galapagos Finches)
5
Geological Context (space and time for
evolution)
  • Plate tectonics
  • Geological time scale (fig. 5-21)
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Selective breeding
  • Artificial selection
  • Natural selection

6
Island biogeography. Founder effec
7
The Green Revolution
  • To eliminate hunger by improving crop performance
  • Movement to increase yields by using
  • New crop cultivars
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Mechanization
  • Results
  • Did not eliminate famine
  • Population still increasing
  • Increase cost of production
  • An increased negative environmental impact
  • Didnt work for everyone

8
Chapter 13 Fossil FuelsExxon Valdez, Drilling
in ANWR
  • Coal-several (400) hundred years
  • Natural Gas at least a 50 year supply in the
    United States

Oil- Peak Oil passed
9
More Energy Facts
  • We get 50 of our crude oil from foreign sources
  • Alaska pipeline built to help increase production
    of domestic crude oil
  • Types of coal
  • Peat (not coal) ? Lignite (brown coal) ?
    Bituminous coal (soft coal with high sulfur) ?
    Anthracite (hard coal with low sulfur)

10
K- Selected Species populations of a roughly
constant size have low reproductive rates.
offspring require extensive postnatal care until
they have sufficiently matured. They are very
limited in resourses therefore they are a very
competitive species. Elephants, Rhinos and long
lived plants are examples of a k-selected
species. R-Selected Species populations that
experience rapid growth of the J-curve variety.
offspring produced are numerous, mature quite
rapidly, and require very little postnatal care.
this population grows fast, reproduces quickly,
and dies quickly. Bacteria and mice are
examples of r- selected species.
11
Carrying capacity changes
12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
Ch 6 and 7 The Human Population
  • Chapter 7
  • Fertility rates
  • World bank
  • 1994 UN conference in Cairo- program of action
  • Chapter 6
  • World population trends
  • Calculations
  • Demographic transition
  • Age structure diagrams
  • Developed vs. developing countries

16
Population Density
  • Population Density (or ecological population
    density) is the amount of individuals in a
    population per unit habitat area
  • Some species exist in high densities - Mice
  • Some species exist in low densities - Mountain
    lions
  • Density depends upon
  • social/population structure
  • mating relationships
  • time of year

17
Population Dispersion
Population dispersion is the spatial pattern of
distribution There are three main
classifications Clumped individuals are lumped
into groups ex. Flocking birds or herbivore
herds due to resources that are clumped or
social interactions most common
http//www.johndarm.clara.net/galleryphots/
18
Population Dispersion
http//www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/creosotebus
h2.html
19
Age Structure
  • The age structure of a population is usually
    shown graphically
  • The population is usually divided up into
    prereproductives, reproductives and
    postreproductives
  • The age structure of a population dictates
    whether is will grow, shrink, or stay the same
    size

20
Age Structure Diagrams
Positive Growth Zero Growth
Negative Growth (ZPG) Pyramid
Shape Vertical Edges Inverted
Pyramid
21
Population Dynamics Outline
  • Characteristics of a Population
  • Population Dynamics and Carrying Capacity
  • Reproductive Strategies
  • Conservation Biology
  • Human Impacts
  • Working with Nature

22
  • Biotic Potential
  • factors allow a population to increase under
    ideal conditions, potentially leading to
    exponential growth
  • Environmental Resistance
  • affect the young more than the elderly in a
    population, thereby affecting recruitment
    (survival to reproductive age)

23
(No Transcript)
24
Population Growth Rates
(b) crude birth rate number birth per 1000
individuals (d) crude death rate number death
per 1000 individuals (r) growth rate natural
increase in population expressed as percent per
years (If this number is negative, the population
is shrinking.)   equation rate birth death
But other factors affect population growth in
a certain area
25
Population growth rates
  • increase population decrease population
  • births ? ? deaths
  • immigration ? ? emigration
    (exit)
  • r (birth - death) (immigration-emigration)
  • immigration migration of individuals into a
    population from another area or country
  • emigration migration of individuals from a
    population bound for another country

26
Growth Rate Example
r (birth - death) (immigration-emigration)
example population of 10,000 has
100 births (10 per 1000) 50 deaths
(5 per 1000) 10 immigration (1 per 1000) 100
emigration (10 per 1000) You try.
B D I
E r( 10/1000)
(5/1000) (1/1000) (10/1000) r(0.01-0.005)
(0.001 0.01) r 0.005 0.009 -0.004 or
0.4 per year
27
Know Rule of 70 If the growth rate is 1 and the
population size is 10,000, how many years will it
take to get to a population of 40,000? Population
doubling
70/rate 70/1 70 years to double
Double Time Example
In 70 years the population will be 20,000
1 D.T. ? 20,000
2 D.T. ? 40,000
(70 years)(2) 140 years 
In 140 years, the population will be 40,000
people. SHOW YOUR WORK!!!!!!!!!
28
Demographic Transition
29
Bottom Line as countries develop, first their
death rate drops and then their birth rate
drops Reasons for the phases Phase II ?
medical care ? nutrition
(births still high) ? technology Phase
III ? birth control ? education (of
women) ? lower mortality rate of infants ?
less child labor
30
Developed vs. Developing
  • Developed Countries
  • Canada, U.S., Australia, Western Europe (Denmark)
  • Developing Countries
  • Latin America, China, Africa (Kenya)
  • 1/5 of the worlds pop. Lives in absolute
    poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and dont
    have enough food
  • 80 of worlds pop. Lives in developing co. and
    growing

31
Fertility Rates
  • Total fertility avg. of children born per
    woman
  • For developed countries 2.1
  • For developing countries 2.6
  • Fertility of 2.0 replacement level
  • Under 2.0 shrinking population
  • Over 2.0 growing pop.
  • For developed countries 2.1
  • For developing countries 2.6(or higher)

32
World Bank
  • Special agency of the United Nations
  • Receives from developed co. and loans to
    developing co.
  • Sometimes this backfires by increasing debt
  • Oversees all types of issues, not just
    environmental issues
  • Ex. electricity, roads, new modern technology

33
Toxicology
  • Extrapolation from animal to human
  • Usually physiology of other mammals is like
    humans, so rats, mice, dogs, cats, etc. make good
    surrogates.
  • But, CATS CAN NOT take Tylenol, Aspirin
  • DOGS can not take chocolate.
  • Then, what can experimental animals tolerate that
    humans can't ??

34
Toxicology
  • Expense of laboratory studies
  • Drug approval by Food Drug Administration (FDA)
    takes years, .
  • Safety of medicines
  • Effectiveness of medicines
  • Studies of environmental chemicals, biological
    agents also takes time money.

35
Toxicology
  • Other factors
  • Bioaccumulation increased concentration in
    specific tissues over time.
  • Biomagnification increased concentration up a
    food web.

17 June 2010
EnvHealthTox.ppt
35
36

How Much Exposure to a Particular Toxic Chemical
Causes a Harmful Response?
50
Method Measure chemicals median lethal dose
(LD50) the amount received in one dose that
kills 50 of the organisms (usually rats or mice)
in a test population within a 14 day period.
Threshold Level
0.0001 0.001 0.1
1.0
Dose mg/kg (ppm)
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
Biomagnification
  • Biomagnification- the increase in a chemical
    concentration in animal tissues as the chemical
    moves up the food chain.

40
Persistence
  • Persistence- how long a chemical remains in the
    environment

41
Risk Analysis
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