Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)


Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Any microorganism, plant or animal that has purposely had its genome altered using genetic engineering technology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Any microorganism, plant or animal that has
    purposely had its genome altered using genetic
    engineering technology

Traditional Genetic Modification
  • Also called Selective Breeding
  • Farmers would always save the best seeds (bigger,
    sweeter or more resistant to disease, etc) from
    their crops to plant for next year.
  • As a result each year the farmer got slightly
    better crops. Change was slight but over many
    generations the change was significant.

For example..
  • Balsas teosinte, a wild
  • grass typically found
  • in Mexico, was
  • modified into
  • drum roll please

Modern Corn
Transgenic Manipulation
  • One or more genes are artificially inserted into
    the DNA of the plants chromosomes.
  • The gene can come from the same type of plant or
    even another type of organism

Bt Crops
  • Plants with the Bt sequence of genes can produce
    proteins that protect them from various insects
    such as European corn borer, southwester corn
    borer, tobacco budworm and Colorado potato

Lets Engineer..
  • Take toxin from BT DNA and combine with a vector
    (What is a vector?)
  • Short piece of DNA capable of replicating on its
    own when inside a bacterial cell.
  • Now another gene which will make the plants
    resistant to a herbicide is added.
  • The vector, which incorporates the Bt gene, is
    now placed into a bacterium cell.

  • Causes disease in plants.
  • Has the ability to transfer a portion of it DNA
    into plant cells
  • Once inside a plant cell, its DNA will be
    incorporated into the DNA of one of the plants

Grow the bacterium
  • By adding it to a growth medium
  • Each time the bacterium divides, so do the
    vectors within
  • Before the blink of an eye you have millions of
    copies of the bacterium and of the vector that
    contains the Bt gene

Now for the plant cells.
  • Add small pieces of whatever plant you want to
    modify (e.g. tomato, corn) to the Agrobacteria
  • The DNA of the bacteria enters the plants cells
    and the cells nuclei
  • The vectors DNA (which includes the Bt and
    herbicide resistant gene) becomes integrated with
    the plant cells DNA

Grow the plant cells
  • By placing the cells into the growth medium for
  • In the growth medium, the plant cells multiply
    and form stems, roots and leaves

Here comes the herbicide
  • Spray the plants with a herbicide and ONLY the
    cells with the herbicide resistant gene survive
  • Plants are transferred to a growth chamber and
    the plants are allowed to mature

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