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Views of Earth

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Map Scale the relationship between the distances on the map and real distances on Earth s surface Map Legend explains what the symbols used on the map mean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Views of Earth


1
Views of Earth
2
Plains
  • Plains are large, flat areas of land that have
    only small changes in elevation.
  • Often have thick, fertile soils
  • Coastal plains are found near the ocean.
  • Kansas is on an interior plain called the Great
    Plains.

3
APPALACHIAN PLATEAU
OZARK PLATEAU
4
Plateau
  • A plateau is a large, flat area of land that is
    higher than the surrounding land.
  • Edges rise steeply from land around them.

5
Mountain
  • A mountain is a high, natural place on Earth.
  • Elevation can vary greatly between mountains.
  • There are 4 main types
  • Folded
  • Upwarped
  • Fault-block
  • Volcanic

6
Folded Mountains
  • Formed from forces inside Earth that have pushed
    layers of land together, like a throw rug pushed
    against a wall.
  • The Appalachian Mountains are an example.

7
Upwarped Mountains
  • Blocks of Earths crust are pushed up by forces
    inside Earth.
  • Examples Adirondacks in New York, Southern
    Rockies, and the Black Hills of S. Dakota.

8
Fault-Block Mountains
  • Made of huge, tilted blocks of rock separated
    from surrounding rock by faults.
  • Examples Grand Tetons of Wyoming and Sierra
    Nevada of California

9
Volcanic Mountains
  • Form when molten material reaches the surface of
    Earth through a weak area in the crust.
  • Molten material can gradually build up into a
    mountain shape.
  • Examples Mount Rainier in Washington, Mount
    Shasta in California, Mauna Loa in Hawaii

10
Volcanic Mountains
11
Canyon
  • A canyon is a deep valley with very steep
    sidesoften carved from Earth by a river.
  • Grand Canyon, Arizona is an example of a very
    large canyon.

12
Mesa
  • A mesa is a land formation with a flat area on
    top and steep walls - usually occurring in dry
    areas.
  • Smaller than a plateau.
  • This one is in Arizona.

13
Sea Level
  • Sea Level is the average height, or elevation of
    where the sea surface meets the land.

14
Valley
  • A valley is a low place between mountains.

15
Glacier
  • A glacier is a slow-moving river of ice.
  • There are valley glaciers and continental
    glaciers. Some glaciers even float in the ocean.

16
VIEWPOINTS
  • To pinpoint a location on Earth, mapmakers use a
    series of gridlinesor coordinates.
  • These coordinates are made up of
  • Lines of latitudelines that run around the
    Earth, parallel to the equator.
  • Lines of longitudelines that run from pole to
    pole.
  • The lines are divided by degrees.
  • There are 360 degrees in a circle (Earth).
  • Each degree is divided into 60 minutes.
  • Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.

17
LATITUDE
  • Used to measure distances north and south in
    degrees
  • The equator divides the earth into a northern and
    southern half or hemisphere.
  • Lines of latitude start at the equator and go
    north to the north pole (¼ of the way around the
    earth) to 90 degrees.
  • Lines also go south of the equator to the south
    pole (also ¼ of the way around the earth) to 90
    degrees.

18
LINES OF LATITUDE
90N
0
90S
19
LONGITUDE
  • Begins at the prime meridian (0 degrees), which
    cuts pole-to-pole through Greenwich, England
  • Points west of Greenwich are measured from 0 to
    180 degrees to the other side of Earth going
    west.
  • Points east of Greenwich are measured from 0 to
    180 degrees to the other side of Earth going
    east.
  • There are 360 degrees in a circle, so both halves
    add up to 360.

20
LINES OF LONGITUDE
0
21
PRIME MERIDIAN v. EQUATOR
  • The prime meridian does not circle Earth. It
    goes from pole-to-pole through Greenwich England,
    but does not go from pole-to-pole on the other
    side.
  • The other side of the earth is 180 degrees.
  • The equator DOES circle Earthall the way around
    its belly.
  • The lines of latitude measure north and south and
    are like rungs of a ladder (lat-itude, lad-der).

22
TIME ZONES
  • The earth is like a big clock. But its a
    24-hour clock, not a 12-hour clock!
  • Thats because each day takes 24 HOURS.
  • There are 24 time zones around the world, which
    divide the earth into a clock.
  • The International Date Line is where the
    Earth-clock starts each new day, and the rest of
    the world follows.
  • The IDL is really close to the 180 degree line of
    longitude.
  • Time zones are not perfectly arranged. People
    have adjusted them somewhat to suit themselves.
    Go figure!

23
24
23
1
2
The 24 hour spot is one hour ahead
of the next spot west, since
Earth rotates to the
east.
22
3
21
20
4
5
19
Direction of Earths Rotation
6
18
7
17
8
16
9
15
14
10
11
13
12
24
MAPS
  • Maps help you tell where you are and where you
    are going.
  • Map projections are made when points and lines on
    a globes surface are transferred onto paper.
    All flat maps have some type of distortion.
  • There are 3 types of map projections
  • Mercator Projection
  • Robinson Projection
  • Conic Projection

25
Mercator Projection
  • Used mainly on ships
  • Advantages of using this kind of map
  • Shows correct shapes of continents.
  • Disadvantages
  • Areas of continents are distorted.
  • Lines of longitude appear parallel (when they
    really arent). This makes the poles appear
    larger.
  • Greenland looks larger than S. America (which it
    is not).

26
Mercator Projection
27
Robinson Projection
  • Shows accurate continent shapes and more land
    areas
  • Lines of latitude are parallel (as they should
    be).
  • Lines of longitude are curved (as they should
    be).
  • Less distortion near poles.

28
Robinson Projection
29
Conic Projection
  • Road maps and weather maps are conic projections.
  • Used to produce maps of small areas
  • Made by projecting points and lines from a globe
    onto a cone.

30
Conic Projections
31
Topographic Maps
  • Show the changes in elevation of Earths surface.
  • Used by land developers, hikers, and farmers to
    see how they need to work with the rise and fall
    of the land
  • Use connected lines to show changes in elevation.
  • The closer the lines, the steeper the slopes.
  • Lines cannot cross one another because one
    continuous line is always at the same elevation.

32
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33
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34
Map Terms
  • Map Scalethe relationship between the distances
    on the map and real distances on Earths surface
  • Map Legendexplains what the symbols used on the
    map mean.
  • Compass or compass roseshows the directions on
    the map. North is usually toward the top.

35
Legend
Compass Rose
Scale
36
Geologic Maps
  • Show cross sections of Earth so we can visualize
    what is under the surface
  • Geologists determine what
  • is below the
  • surface by
  • drilling into
  • rock and soil
  • to get core
  • samples

37
3-Dimensional Maps
  • Google Earth is a good example of a 3-D map.

38
Landsat and Other Satellite Imagery
  • Satellites circle Earth collecting imagery and
    other data
  • for weather
  • for climate change
  • for spying
  • for geologic changes
  • for mapmaking

39
Some Satellite Images
40
GPS
  • Stands for Global Positioning System
  • Uses at least 3 satellites (out of 24) to
    triangulate your location.
  • Triangulation involves pinpointing the exact
    location of where the 3 satellites data (or
    more) intersect one another.
  • http//videos.howstuffworks.com/howstuffworks/38-h
    ow-gps-works-video.htm

41
WEATHERING AND SOIL
This formation is called a tor.
42
WEATHERING
  • Weathering is a process that breaks down rock
    into smaller pieces.
  • Two different types of weathering
  • Mechanical
  • Chemical

43
Mechanical Weathering
  • Mechanical weathering occurs when rocks are
    broken apart by physical processes.
  • Something has to hit, grind, or crack rock.
  • Those things can be
  • Plants and animals
  • Ice Wedging
  • Chuck Norris

44
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45
Mechanical Weathering by Plants and Animals
  • Plant roots are very strong and can push rocks
    apart.
  • Animals dig and burrow, loosening sediments and
    bringing them to the surface to weather more.
  • Tiny living organisms also help break down rock.

46
Mechanical Weathering by Ice Wedging
  • Ice wedging occurs in climates where water enters
    cracks and freezes.
  • Water expands when it freezes, pushing rock
    apart.
  • This process repeats itself, the crack widens,
    and the rock eventually breaks apart.

47
Surface Area and Speed of Weathering
  • As rocks break apart into smaller pieces, more
    surfaces are exposed to weathering.
  • The inside of the rock is now also exposed to
    weathering, so weathering will occur faster.

48
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49
Chemical Weathering
  • Chemical weathering occurs when chemicals break
    down rock or change the rock into different
    minerals.
  • These chemicals can come from
  • Natural acids
  • Plant acids
  • Oxygen

50
Chemical Weathering by Natural Acids
  • Water can chemically react with carbon dioxide
    and create a weak acid called carbonic acidthe
    same acid found in many soft drinks.
  • This acid reacts with rock that contains calcite,
    like limestone, and dissolves it.
  • Other rocks are also affected.

51
Cave Formation from Chemical Weathering
  • Caves form when acidic groundwater dissolves
    underground limestone.
  • Stalactites can form on cave ceilings from
    dripping dissolved rock.
  • Stalagmites can form on the floor when the drips
    hit

52
Chemical Weathering from Plant Acids
  • Plant roots and decaying plants give off acids
    that can dissolve rock.
  • Plants thrive on the broken down rock (new soil)
    and take the nutrients into their roots.

53
Chemical Weathering by Oxygen
  • Oxidation is the process of oxygen chemically
    combining with other matter to change it.
  • Rust is caused by oxidationoxygen combining with
    iron.
  • Many rocks contain
  • iron and will turn
  • reddish through
  • oxidation. The
  • reddish material
  • is softer and
  • eventually crumbles
  • like rust.

54
Weathering by Climate
  • Climate is the pattern of weather in an area over
    many years.
  • Warm, wet climates cause weathering to happen
    more quickly.
  • Chemical reactions happen faster with water and
    heat.
  • Cold, dry climates slow weathering down.

55
How Climate Affects Different Types of Rock
  • Soft rocks break down easier in wet climates.
  • Limestone
  • Marble
  • Hard rocks dont allow water to soak in as much,
    so they are harder to weather in wet climates.
  • Granite
  • Basalt

56
Soil Formation
  • Five things affect soil formation
  • Climate
  • Types of parent rock
  • Slope of land
  • Types of vegetation in the area
  • Amount of time rock has been weathering

57
THE NATURE OF SOIL
  • Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, decayed
    organic matter, mineral bits, water, and air.
  • Can take thousands of years to form
  • Decayed organic matter turns into nutrient rich
    material called humus.
  • http//www.ucopenaccess.org/courses/APEnvSci/cours
    e20files/multimedia/lesson17/animations/2c_soil_f
    ormation.html

58
Soil Profile
  • Make-up of different layers of soil
  • Horizon O top organic layerhumus.
  • Horizon Atop layer of soil.
  • Fertile layer with more humus and less rock and
    mineral particles than other soil horizons

59
Horizon B
  • Horizon B middle soil layer
  • Contains less humus and is lighter in color than
    A horizon
  • Minerals travel from A horizon to B horizon in a
    process called leaching.

60
Horizon C
  • Bottom layer
  • Has very little organic matter and is not
    strongly affected by leaching
  • Contains rock the parent material of the soil
  • Soil Formation Animation
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