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The building blocks of life

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The building blocks of life Organisms are made of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry Organic = carbon based molecules. Carbon atoms are covalently bonded into ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The building blocks of life


1
The building blocks of life
  • Organisms are made of carbon-based molecules

2
Organic chemistry
  • Organic carbon based molecules.
  • Carbon atoms are covalently bonded into rings and
    chains.
  • What is the chemical formula of this molecule?
  • Consists of different numbers of 3 atoms.

3
Macromolecules
  • Are large molecules formed from smaller molecules
    (covalently bonded).

4
Table of most abundant elements found in living
organisms
Chemical/ symbol Atomic number Atomic mass Bonds formed
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Sulfur
5
Carbohydrates
  • FORM? General chemical formula is CH2O
  • There are 3 types of carbohydrates
  • 1. simple sugars(monosaccharides)
  • 2. disaccharides
  • 3. polysaccharides
  •  FUNCTION?Living organisms use carbs for energy
    storage and structural support (cellulose)

6
Carbohydrates
Type of carbohydrate Examples Their role in living things
Monosaccharides Glucose Provide energy
Disaccharides Sucrose Lactose Provide energy
Polysaccharides Glycogen Starch Cellulose Storage
7
Review Questions on Carbohydrates
  • What atoms make up the carbohydrate molecule?
  • What do living organisms use carbohydrates for?
  • Give an example for a monosaccharide,
    disaccharide, and polysaccharide.

8
Lipids
  • FORM?Made of carbon and hydrogen
  • Examples of lipids are
  • 1. saturated/unsaturated fats
  • 2. phospholipids (cell membrane)
  • 3. steroids
  • FUNCTION ?Living organisms use lipids for storing
    energy and to provide barriers (cell membrane)

9
Review Questions on Lipids
  1. What are some common examples of lipids?
  2. What two atoms are lipids primarily composed of?
  3. What is the function of lipids?

10
Nucleic acids
  • FORM?Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides (C, H,
    N, O, and P)
  • A nucleotide has 3 parts to the molecule sugar,
    phosphate group, and nitrogen base.
  • Examples are DNA, RNA, and ATP
  • FUNCTION?store and communicate genetic
    information, cellular energy.

11
Comparing DNA and RNA
12
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
13
Review Questions Nucleic Acids
  1. What atoms make up nucleic acids?
  2. Give three examples of nucleic acids.
  3. What do nucleic acids do inside cells?
  4. What is the difference between RNA and DNA?

14
Proteins
  • FORM?Proteins are made of amino acids.
  • The shape of the protein determines what it can
    do.
  • FUNCTION ?control cell processes and the rate of
    reactions.
  • Examples include enzymes, muscle fiber, and
    antibodies.

15
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16
Review Questions for Proteins
  1. What are the building blocks of proteins?
  2. What kind of bonds hold proteins together?
  3. What are the different shapes of proteins?
  4. What do proteins do for living organisms?
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