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Chapter 2.3: Chemistry of Cells

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Title: Chapter 2.3: Chemistry of Cells


1
Chapter 2.3 Chemistry of Cells
  • Biochemistry

2
Organic Compounds
  • Organic molecules are molecules that contain
    Carbon atoms bonded usually to Hydrogen, Oxygen
    or other Carbon atoms.
  • The four most important organic compounds found
    in living things are
  • - Carbohydrates
  • - Lipids
  • - Proteins
  • - Nucleic Acids

3
Carbohydrates (The dreaded carb!)
  • Made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  • For every Carbon atom there is an Oxygen and two
    Hydrogens. 1 2 1
  • Carbohydrates are a huge source of energy.
  • Carbs are made of single sugar molecules called
    monosaccharides.
  • An example of a monosaccharide is glucose C6H12O6
    Notice the ratio!

4
Carbohydrates cont.
  • Does this look familiar?
  • This is a monosaccharide called glucose.
  • A single sugar molecule can easily be pieced
    together with another sugar to make a
    disaccharide.
  • When this is done 1 molecule of water is
    released.

5
Forming a disaccharide
  • Notice that when you remove a water molecule the
    two molecules bond together to form a much larger
    molecule.
  • What do you think will happen if you throw in a
    water molecule?

6
Forming a carbohydrate
  • If you take more than two glucose molecules and
    bond them together you form a polysaccharide.
  • Each one of the little blue hexagons a glucose
    molecule

7
Examples of Carbohydrates
  • What is the carbohydrate that is stored in
    plants?
  • Hint
  • Starch
  • The carbohydrate that is found in animals is
    called glycogen.
  • These polysacharides store a lot of energy in the
    form of sugar.
  • Sugar turns into fat.
  • Hence the carb diet
  • When you break down a polysaccharide not only do
    you lose water you release energy.

8
Lipids
  • A Lipid is a non-polar organic molecule that is
    one of the principal structural materials of
    living cells.
  • A lipid is not soluble in water Why?
  • Lipids are oily or greasy in texture.
  • Examples of lipids are fats, phospholipids,
    steroids and wax.
  • Some lipids can be pieced together to form larger
    molecules.

9
Phospholipids
  • Phospholipids, like fat, and cholesterol are made
    of two distinct parts.
  • - Glycerol
  • (Polar Head)
  • - Fatty Acid tails (Non-polar tail)

10
Phospholipids Cont.
  • If you take a bunch of phospholipids and put them
    in water what do you think might happen?
  • Because of the properties of phospholipids, when
    in the presence of water a group of them will
    form what is called a phospholipid bi-layer.
  • This is what makes up the cell membrane.

11
FAT
  • Fat a lipid in an organism that stores ENERGY.
  • Fat is also made of glycerol and fatty acids.
  • Glycerol is an alcohol
  • Fatty acids are a bunch of Carbons bonded to
    Hydrogens

Do you notice any similarity between a fat and a
phospholipid?
12
Different types of fat
  • There are two different types of fat that store
    energy in the body.
  • Saturated fat The Carbons in the fatty acid are
    all bonded to two Hydrogens, except for the last
    which is bonded to three. This forms a straight
    molecule.
  • Unsaturated fat Some Carbons are only bonded to
    one Hydrogen, making a double bond and causing a
    kink in the chain.

13
Saturated and Unsaturated Fat
  • Which fat is the bad fat? Why?

14
Protein
  • Proteins are made of a chain of amino acids
    linked together.
  • Great! Whats an amino acid?
  • Amino Acid The building blocks of a protein.
    There are 20 different amino acids, each with a
    different chemical structure.
  • All amino acids are made of Carbon, Hydrogen,
    Oxygen and Nitrogen.
  • Some of the 20 amino acids are made of sulfur.

15
Proteins cont.
  • Each amino acid has a similar chemical structure
    but different functional groups.
  • Another type of functional group is the R
    group. This is what gives us our 20 different
    amino acids

16
Proteins cont.
  • Some amino acids are polar
  • Some amino acids are electrically charged.
  • These give proteins a very distinct shape.

17
Nucleic Acids an intro
  • Nucleic Acid a long chain of nucleotides.
  • Once again Great! Whats a nucleotide?
  • Nucleotide part of a nucleic acid that has
    three parts.
  • 1. Sugar
  • 2. Nitrogen base
  • 3. Phosphate group

18
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are put together to make a Nucleic
Acid like so
19
Nucleic Acid
20
Nucleic Acids cont.
  • There are two types of nucleic Acids
  • - Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • Double stranded
  • - Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
  • Single stranded

21
ATP
  • ATP Adenosine tri-phosphate (ENERGY)
  • A single nucleotide with two extra phosphates.
  • Main energy resource for cells.
  • Energy from carbs and fat are stored temporarily
    as ATP.
  • When ATP is broken down it turns into ADP and
    releases energy.

22
ATP
When one of the phosphate groups are broken off
Energy is released
23
ATP cycle
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