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Plant Science

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Plant Science Agriscience Applications – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Science


1
Plant Science
  • Agriscience Applications

2
Careers in Plant Science
  • Objective
  • Investigate career opportunities related to
    plant science industries

3
Careers in Plant Science
  • Career Areas
  • Forest Careers
  • Growing, managing and harvesting trees for wood
    and its by-products
  • Horticulture Careers
  • Floriculture- flower production and use
  • Landscape and nursery- plants used around homes
    and businesses for aesthetic purposes

4
Careers in Plant Science
  • Forest Careers
  • Forester
  • Helps with the science of growing trees
  • Forest Ranger
  • Management of forest including fire prevention
  • Logging Foreman
  • Supervise the harvesting of trees

5
Careers in Plant Science
  • Floriculture (Horticulture)
  • Floral designer
  • Flower grower
  • Greenhouse manager
  • Retail florist
  • Wholesale florist

6
Careers in Plant Science
  • Landscaping and nursery (Horticulture)
  • Greenskeeper- cares for golf courses
  • Landscaper- installs plants
  • Landscape architect
  • Nursery operator- grows trees and shrubs
  • Turf farmer- grows turf (grass) for sale

7
Plant Parts and Functions
  • Objective
  • Explain the function of major plant parts as
    related to plant growth and health

8
Plants
  • Composed of many parts
  • Roots
  • Steams
  • Leaves
  • Flowers

9
Roots
  • Often the largest part of the plant
  • Squash can have miles of roots
  • Adventitious roots
  • Found in places unexpected
  • Poison ivy
  • Mistletoe

10
Root
  • Two types of systems
  • Taproot- main root that usually grows down
  • Carrots
  • Fibrous roots- thin, hair like, and numerous
  • Grass
  • Corn

11
Root Tissue
  • Root cap- outermost part of a root
  • Tough cells that penetrate the soil
  • Pushes through soil partials

12
Roots
  • Area of cell division
  • Allows roots to grow longer
  • New cell replace worn away cells
  • Area of cell elongation
  • Between the root cap and the plan base
  • Cells become longer
  • Cells become specialized

13
Roots
  • Xylem
  • Carries water and nutrients to the upper portion
    of the plant
  • Phloem
  • Pipeline
  • Carries food to the roots
  • Food is stored in the roots

14
Roots
  • Areas of cell maturation
  • Where cells mature
  • Root hairs emerge
  • Develop on the surface of the root
  • Absorb water and nutrients
  • Damaged easily
  • Cannot be replaced

15
Stems
  • Support leaves, flowers, fruit
  • Types of stems
  • Woody
  • Herbaceous
  • Other stems
  • Bulbs (onions)
  • Rhizomes (wiregrass)
  • Tubers (potato)

16
Leaves
  • Manufactures food for the plant
  • Converts sunlight into food
  • Photosynthesis

17
Leaves
  • Help in the identification of plants
  • Leaf margins
  • Shape and size varies with each species
  • Simple leaves
  • Compound leaves

18
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19
Flowers
  • Functions to produce seeds
  • Types of flowers
  • Perfect (both male and female)
  • Imperfect
  • Pollination
  • The union of pollen with the female part of the
    flower

20
Assignment
Using pages 274 to 289 write a definition of the
following terms in your notebook
  • Root cap
  • Root hairs
  • Woody
  • Fruit
  • Vegetable
  • Perfect flower
  • Herbaceous
  • Stoma
  • Bulbs
  • Rhizomes
  • Node
  • Internode
  • Simple leaves
  • guard cells
  • Imperfect flower
  • Cuticle

21
Photosynthesis
Objective Explore the photosynthesis process as
related to growth and development of a plant
22
Process
  • Light energy is connected to chemical energy
  • Chloroplast contains chlorophyll
  • Simple sugars are made (glucose)
  • Carbon dioxide is used
  • Oxygen is produced

23
Photosynthesis
6CO212H2O C6H12O26O2
24
Slowing Photosynthesis
  • Low Carbon dioxide
  • Greenhouse
  • Carbon dioxide generators

25
Slowing Photosynthesis
  • Low Light
  • Dark rooms
  • Light intensity matters
  • Temperature
  • Best at 65-85 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Extreme temps can stop photosynthesis

26
Respiration
  • Food is used
  • Energy is released
  • Oxygen is used
  • Carbon dioxide is produced
  • Occurs in both light and dark

27
Transpiration
  • Release of water vapor from the stomata
  • 90 of the water entering the roots
  • 10 is used in chemical processes
  • Functions
  • cooling
  • transportation
  • maintaining turgor pressure

28
Plant Reproduction
Objective Describe flower and seed parts,
including their function
29
Plant Reproduction
  • Two types of propagation
  • Sexual
  • use of seed for reproducing plants
  • only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor
  • often least expensive and quickest
  • Asexual
  • vegetative
  • exact duplicate

30
Parts of the Flower
  • Stamen (male part)
  • Filament
  • Anther- manufactures pollen
  • Pollen- male sexual reproductive cell

31
Parts of the Flower
  • Pistil (female part)
  • Stigma- receives the pollen
  • Style- connection to the ovary
  • Ovary- contains the ovules or female reproductive
    cells

32
Parts of the Flower
  • Petals (corolla)
  • Colored part of the flower
  • Attract insects or other natural pollinators

33
Parts of the Flower
  • Pollen
  • Stamen (Male) Anther
  • Filament
  • Stigma
  • Style Pistil (Female)
  • Ovary

34
Flower Parts
35
The Seed
  • Parts of the seed
  • Seed Coat offers protection
  • Endosperm supplies food for the seed
  • Embryo is the young plant

36
Germination
  • The seed starts to sprout and grow
  • Requires four environmental factors
  • Water
  • Air
  • Light
  • Temperature

37
Environmental Factors
  • Water imbibition (absorption of water)
  • Tough seed coat
  • Scarifying seeds
  • Air is needed for respiration
  • Seeds are viable or alive

38
Environmental Factors
  • Light
  • Some seeds need light while others do not
  • Seeds must have the right temperature to
    germinate

39
Asexual Propagation
  • Cutting vegetative parts of the plant
  • leaf cuttings
  • root cuttings
  • stem cuttings
  • layering
  • grafting
  • T-budding
  • tissue culture (micropropagation)

40
Assignment
  • Complete the Self Evaluation on page 331 to 333
    sections A to D. For section D make all False
    answers true.

41
Soil and Plant Media
  • Objective Analyze basic soil and media
    requirements for growth of agricultural crops

42
Soil and Plant Media
  • Soil is the top layer of the earth's surface
  • Sphagunm moss
  • root growth
  • Perlite
  • volcanic glass
  • starting new plants
  • media mixes

43
Soil and Plant Media
  • Vermiculite
  • mineral mica-type material
  • stating plant seeds
  • cuttings
  • media mixes

44
Soil and Plant Media
  • Peat Moss
  • used in media mixes

45
Soil pH
  • Improper pH affects availability of nutrients
  • limits plant intake

46
Amending soil pH
High Alkalinity
Change to acidic by adding sulfer or aluminum
sulfate
47
Amending soil pH
High Acid
Change to more alkaline by adding lime
48
Amending soil pH
  • Lime is usually applied as finely ground
    dolomitic limestone
  • calcium
  • magnesium

49
Fertilizers
  • Objective Explain nutrient requirements and
    soil amendments needed for growth of agricultural
    crops

50
Fertilizers
N-P-K
  • Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium
  • Example 10-10-10

51
Fertilizers
  • Fertilizers must become soluble (liquid form)
    before they can be used by plants
  • Organic fertilizers
  • Manure
  • Bone meal (phosphorus)
  • Soybean meal

52
Fertilizers
  • Organic fertilizers
  • slow acting
  • long lasting
  • lacking some primary nutrients
  • Inorganic
  • High level of nutrients

53
Plant Identification
  • Plant ID for Agriscience

54
Chlorophytum comosum
  • COMMON NAME Spider plant
  • FOLIAGE arching leaves with cascading wiry
    stems
  • FLOWERS small white flowers
  • ID FEATURE many times will contain tiny
    plantlets at the apex of leaves

55
Chlorophytum comosum
56
Euphorbia pulcherrima
  • COMMON NAME Poinsettia
  • FORM shrub
  • FOLIAGE large alternate leaves with or without
    teeth on the margin
  • FLOWER cup-shaped flowers in a cluster above
    the showy red, pink, or creamy leaf bracts with a
    large yellow gland on the rim of the flower

57
Euphorbia pulcherrima
58
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Red petals are actually bracts, not flowers.
59
Hedera helix
  • COMMON NAME English Ivy
  • FORM a vine climbing by aerial rootlets or a
    prostrate groundcover
  • FOLIAGE leaves are dark green with white veins,
    leathery evergreen foliage, alternate leaf
    arrangement, 1.5 to 4 long, juvenile leaves are
    3 to 5 lobed and adult leaves are not lobed

60
Hedera helix
61
Hedera helix
62
Liriope muscari
  • COMMON NAME Liriope
  • FORM grass-like perennial 12 to 18 inch tall
    clumps
  • FOLIAGE strap-like, arching, glossy, dark green
    leaves (to 1 wide)
  • FLOWERS erect, showy flower spikes with tiered
    whorls of dense, violet-purple flowers

63
Liriope muscari
64
Liriope muscari
65
Nephrolepis exaltata
  • COMMON NAME Boston Fern
  • FORM evergreen fern, up to 5 feet tall
  • Reproduces by spores located on the bottom side
    of leaves

66
Nephrolepis exaltata
67
Nephrolepis exaltata
68
Philodendron scandens
  • COMMON NAME Parlor Ivy
  • FORM trailing growth form
  • FOLIAGE Heart shaped, glossy, dark green
    leaves, 4 long and 3 wide

69
Philodendron scandens
70
Saintpaulia ionantha
  • COMMON NAME African violet
  • FORM from miniature varieties of 4 inches wide,
    to large varieties more than 15 inches wide
  • FOLIAGE large, flat, succulent, pubescent
    leaves
  • FLOWERS varies in color from pink, white, blue,
    red and bicolor

71
Saintpaulia ionantha
72
Saintpaulia ionantha
73
Saintpaulia ionantha
74
Spathiphyllum cv.
  • COMMON NAME Peace Lily
  • FORM perennial herb
  • FOLIAGE leaves are basal, elongated, pointed at
    both ends dark green with conspicuously indented
    veins
  • FLOWERS small on spadix surrounded by a white
    or greenish, flat or concave spathe

75
Spathiphyllum cv.
76
Spathiphyllum cv.
77
Tradescantia zebrina
  • COMMON NAME Purple Wandering Jew
  • FORM trailing vine-like plant, vines can grow
    to several feet in length
  • FOLIAGE 2 wide and 4long leaves that are
    purple with silver stripes

78
Tradescantia zebrina
79
Tradescantia zebrina
80
Tradescantia zebrina
This is actually a green variety of wandering jew.
81
Viola X wittrockiana
  • COMMON NAME pansy
  • FORM low, bushy growing habit with a height of
    .25 to .75 feet tall and a width of .5 to .75
    feet
  • FLOWERS white, yellow, black, brown, lavender,
    purple, blue, pink, often with blotches that
    resemble animals faces

82
Viola X wittrockiana
83
Viola X wittrockiana
84
Viola X wittrockiana
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