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KINGDOM ANIMALIA Characteristics of Animals

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Title: KINGDOM ANIMALIA Characteristics of Animals


1
KINGDOM ANIMALIACharacteristics of Animals
2
Picasso time!
  • 3 minutes!
  • Draw the first thing that comes to mind when you
    hear the word.
  • ANIMAL

3
Picasso time!
  • How many of you drew a familiar animal such as a
    dog , cat or horse?
  • How many drew a wild animal?
  • How many drew more than one type of animal?
  • Did anyone draw something that shows the general
    characteristics of an animal, rather than a
    specific animal?

4
Picasso time!
  • If you knew nothing about animals, what would you
    conclude about animals based on these drawings?

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Animalia
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General Characteristics
  • All animals are eukaryotic and multicellular
  • All animal cells do not have cell walls
  • All animals are heterotrophic
  • - They are unable to obtain energy directly from
    the sun and must therefore obtain food and energy
    from other Heterotrophic or Autotrophic organisms

29
To survive Animals must
  • Feed to gain nutrients
  • Respire to use oxygen
  • Have an internal transport for o2, nutrients, and
    waste
  • Excrete their wastes
  • Respond to their environment
  • Move (actually some are sessile!)
  • Reproduce

30
How would you group animals?
  • Frog, horse, shark, snake, jellyfish, shrimp,
    lobster, octopus, snail, sea star, eagle,
    cricket, crab, salmon, dolphin, monkey,
    earthworm, tapeworm, butterfly, moose, iguana,
    turtle, bat, eel, squid, bumble bee, sea urchin,
    leech, earthworm, tarantula spider, oyster, clam
  • What are the Unifying Characteristics of each
    group you have made?

31
Animal Cell Diagram
32
Animal Species
  • Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of
    animals inhabit the earth.
  • About 800,000 species have been identified.

33
Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

34
Animal Phyla
  • Biologists recognize about 36 separate phyla
    within the Kingdom Animalia.
  • We will look at 9 phyla
  • 8 invertebrate phyla

35
Major Animal Phyla
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Animal Classification
  • Level of Organization (Tissues)
  • Type of Body Plan
  • Type of Symmetry
  • Type of Coelom
  • Segmentation
  • Embryological Development

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1. Level of Organization
  • All living organisms can demonstrate different
    levels of organization
  • Atoms,
  • Molecules,
  • Cells,
  • Tissues,
  • Organs,
  • Organ Systems,
  • Organisms.

39
1. Level of Organization
  • Cellular level
  • - No tissues present, just cells
  • Tissue level
  • - Has tissues but no organs
  • - Has 2 germ layers
  • Endoderm inner layer of cells
  • Ectoderm outer layer of cells
  • Organ level
  • - Has 3 germ layers
  • Endoderm inner layer of cells
  • Ectoderm outer layer of cells
  • Mesoderm middle layer of cells

40
TISSUE LAYER ORGAN ORGAN SYSTEMS THEY FORM
Ectoderm Nervous system Skin
Mesoderm Muscles Circulatory System Skeletal System Reproductive System
Endoderm Lining of gut and respiratory tracts Liver Pancreas
41
1. Level of Organization cont
  • The bodies of most animals (all except sponges)
    are made up of cells organized into tissues.
  • Each tissue is specialized to perform specific
    functions.
  • In most animals, tissues are organized into even
    more specialized organs.

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1. Level of Organization cont
  1. Cellular Level
  2. Tissue Level
  3. Organ Level

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2. Body Plan
  • Sac-Like Plan
  • - Has an incomplete digestive system with only
    one opening which serves the function of both the
    mouth and the anus
  • Tube-Within-a-Tube Plan
  • - Has a complete digestive system with two
    openings a mouth for food input and an anus for
    waste output

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2. Body Plan cont
  1. Sac-Like Plan
  2. Tube-Within-A-Tube Plan

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3. Body Symmetry
  • How many ways can you divide a pizza into perfect
    halves?

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3. Body Symmetry cont
  • How many ways can you divide a chair into perfect
    halves?

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3. Body Symmetry cont
  • How many ways can you divide a rock into perfect
    halves?

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3. Body Symmetry cont
  1. Asymmetrical body (ex. Rock)
  2. Radial Symmetry (ex. Pizza)
  3. Bilateral Symmetry (ex. Chair)

49
Body Symmetry
  • Asymmetry (sponge)
  • Radial symmetry (sea anemone)
  • Pentaradial symmetry (starfish, sea urchin)
  • Bilateral symmetry (human, insect)

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Body Symmetry
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Body symmetry
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Animal Symmetry
  • The most primitive animals are asymmetrical.

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a. Asymmetrical
  • Ex. The Sponges

54
Radial Symmetry
  • applies to forms that can be divided into
    similar halves by more than two planes passing
    through it.
  • Animals with radial symmetry are usually sessile
    (remain in a fixed place), free-floating, or
    weakly swimming.

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b. Radial Symmetry
  • Ex. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Anemone

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c. Bilateral Symmetry
  • Animals with bilateral symmetry are most
    well-suited for directional movement which makes
    them motile

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Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry
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Cephalization
  • Bilateral Symmetry usually has led to
    cephalizationthe process by which sensory organs
    and appendages became localized in the head end
    of animals.

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4. Type of Coelom
  • A coelom is an internal body cavity that develops
    from the mesoderm tissue layer during an animals
    development.
  • This cavity lies between the gut and the body
    wall and is lined by epithelial cells which make
    up the peritoneum.

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4. Type of Coelom cont
  1. Acoelomates
  2. Pseudocoelomates
  3. Coelomates

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Acoelomate
Pseudocoelomate
Coelomate
Body Cavity () Peritoneum
Body Cavity (-) Peritoneum
No Coelom
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm
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a. Acoelomates
  • These animals have no other cavity than the gut.
  • They are often called the solid worms.

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b. Pseudocoelomates
  • These animals have a body cavity (the
    pseudocoelom) which is not completely lined with
    mesoderm.
  • The tube within a tube body plan.
  • This category is also composed of mostly worms.

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c. Coelomates
  • These animals have a true coelom lined with
    mesodermal peritoneum.
  • Most animals are coelomate.

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5. Segmentation
  • Segmentation refers to the repetition of body
    parts that contain similar structures along the
    length of the body.
  • This can lead to specialization of body parts
    because various segments become differentiated
    for specific purposes

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5. Segmentation cont
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Animal Evolution
  • We typically study animals in three groups which
    reflect their evolutionary history.
  • A. The Lower Invertebrates
  • These phyla demonstrate a fairly linear evolution
    (simple biology)
  • They include Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes
    and Nematodes

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Early embryonic development
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The blastopore becomes.
  • The mouth in protostomes
  • The anus in deuterostomes

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Animal Evolution
  • B. The Protostomes
  • This is one of two main branches of animal
    evolution
  • Named this way due to embryo development
  • They include the Annelids, Molluscs, and
    Arthropods

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Animal Evolution
  • C. The Deuterostomes
  • These are the the animals on the other great
    branch of animal evolution
  • Include the Echinoderms and the Chordates
    (including us!)
  • Represent the most highly evolved animals

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Animals
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Heterotrophs
  • No cell walls
  • 7 must have behaviours
  • Evolutionary advances

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Evolutionary Advances effect behaviour
  1. Multicellular body plan
  2. True tissues (germ layers)
  3. Bilaterally symmetrical body plan (vs. radial,
    asymmetrical)
  4. Tube-within-a-tube body plan (vs no body
    cavity)
  5. Coelomate body plan (vs. pseudoceolomate)
  6. Segmentation (vs. non segmented)
  7. Prostostome (vs deuterostome)

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The 7 animal must have behaviours
  • Feed to gain nutrients
  • Respire to use oxygen
  • Have an internal transport for o2, nutrients, and
    waste
  • Excrete their wastes
  • Respond to their environment
  • Move (actually some are sessile!)
  • Reproduce

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Other terms to know
  • Ventral - the underside
  • Dorsal - the back of the animal the side
    opposite the ventral side. The vertebral column
    of vertebrates is on the dorsal side of the
    animal.
  • Lateral - toward the side
  • Median - toward the middle
  • Anterior - the head end
  • Posterior - the end opposite the head end
  • Caudal - toward the tail
  • Cranial - toward the head

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Other terms to know (continued)(will not be on a
test or quiz, but are useful for labs etc.)
  • Longitudinal - along a line from the head to the
    tail
  • Transverse - along a line that is 90 to the
    longitudinal axis (see above)
  • Superficial - shallow
  • Pectoral - toward the forelimbs
  • Pelvic - toward the rear limbs
  • Distal - far from
  • Proximal - near
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