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Unit 1 Matter

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Unit 1 Matter If we all did the things we are capable of doing, we would literally astound ourselves. Thomas A. Edison – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1 Matter


1
Unit 1 Matter
  • If we all did the things we are capable of
    doing, we would literally astound ourselves.
    Thomas A. Edison

2
Matter
  • Has mass
  • Takes up space

3
Matter
  • Has mass
  • Takes up space
  • Does include Does not include
  • Air gravity
  • the Statue of Liberty Liberty
  • Love letters Love
  • Light bulbs Light
  • Vacuum cleaners Vacuum

4
Phases of matter
5
Phases of matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

6
Phases of matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • best defined on substancesmixtures are
    harder to classify.

7
Phases of matter
Volume Shape
Solid Definite Definite
Liquid Definite Indefinite
Gas Indefinite Indefinite
8
Phases of matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • and plasma?

9
Phases of matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • and plasma? Plasma is an ionized gas.
  • ?Electrons are removed from atoms by high
    temperature or high voltage.
  • ?Chemists dont do much with plasma. Leave it to
    the physicists.

10
Properties
  • You can describe a sample of matter by describing
    its properties.
  • Chemical properties describe the types of
    chemical reactions it can undergo.
  • Physical properties are all other properties.

11
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances

12
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A mixture can be separated using physical
    changes. (no new substances are formed)
  • A substance cannot.

13
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.

14
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element is composed of identical atoms
  • A compound is composed of atoms of different
    elements chemically bonded together

15
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal

16
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • Metals are on the left of the periodic chart
  • Nonmetals are on the right

17
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • A compound is either ionic or covalent

18
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • A compound is either ionic or covalent
  • An ionic compound has a metal and a nonmetal an
    ionic bond is formed by the transfer of electrons
  • A covalent compound has nonmetal atoms only
    covalent bonds are the sharing of electrons

19
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • A compound is either ionic or covalent
  • A mixture is either homogeneous or heterogeneous

20
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • A compound is either ionic or covalent
  • A mixture is either homogeneous or heterogeneous
  • A homogeneous mixture is called a solutionhas
    the same composition throughout
  • A heterogeneous mixture has chunks.

21
Types of Matter
  • All matter is either a substance or a mixture of
    substances
  • A substance is either an element or a compound.
  • An element can be a metal or a nonmetal
  • A compound is either ionic or covalent
  • A mixture is either homogeneous or heterogeneous

22
Types
Matter
23
Types
Matter
Mixture
Substance
24
Types
Matter
Mixture
Substance
Compound
Element
25
Types
Matter
Mixture
Substance
Compound
Element
Metal
Nonmetal
26
Types
Matter
Mixture
Substance
Compound
Element
Molecular
Metal
Nonmetal
Ionic
27
Types
Matter
Homogeneous
Mixture
Heterogeneous
Substance
Compound
Element
Molecular
Metal
Nonmetal
Ionic
28
Types
Matter
Homogeneous
Mixture
Heterogeneous
Substance
Compound
Element
Molecular
Metal
Nonmetal
Ionic
29
What type of matter?
  • salt water
  • nitrogen gas
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • nitrous oxide
  • iron
  • tossed salad
  • alphabet soup
  • copper
  • stainless steel
  • barium
  • air
  • chlorine gas
  • tin (II) chloride
  • sulfur dioxide
  • water
  • Gatorade
  • wood
  • solid sulfur
  • sodium oxide
  • silver (I) oxide
  • gold
  • 18k gold
  • barium sulfide
  • brass
  • syrup
  • ammonia
  • sulfuric acid
  • ozone
  • rubber

30
Formal Lab Writeup
  • --Must be typed/printed
  • Label the sections
  • Title
  • Purpose
  • Procedure
  • Data/observations
  • Calculations/analysis
  • Conclusion

31
Particles
  • A substance has identical particles. A mixture
    doesnt.
  • Particles (atoms, ions, and molecules) are
    different for different types of substances.
  • Particles can be separated from each other by
    physical means, but can be changed only by
    chemical reactions

32
Particles
  • Ionic compounds
    -
  • Covalent compounds
  • Elements

33
Particles
  • Ionic compounds are composed of ions. (One set
    of ions with balanced charges is called a formula
    unit)
  • Covalent compounds are composed of molecules
  • Elements
  • --atoms for metals and noble gasses
  • --molecules for other nonmetals

34
What type of particles?
  • salt water
  • nitrogen gas
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • nitrous oxide
  • iron
  • tossed salad
  • alphabet soup
  • copper
  • stainless steel
  • barium
  • air
  • chlorine gas
  • tin (II) chloride
  • sulfur dioxide
  • water
  • Gatorade
  • wood
  • solid sulfur
  • sodium oxide
  • silver (I) oxide
  • gold
  • 18k gold
  • barium sulfide
  • brass
  • syrup
  • ammonia
  • sulfuric acid
  • ozone
  • rubber

35
Physical properties
  • hardness
  • brittleness
  • malleability
  • ductility
  • pressure
  • density
  • color
  • melting point
  • boiling point
  • vapor pressure
  • shape
  • luster
  • size of particles
  • crystal structure
  • volatility
  • state
  • temperature
  • conductivity
  • magnetism
  • volume
  • solubility
  • mass

36
Intensive vs. Extensive
  • hardness
  • brittleness
  • malleability
  • ductility
  • pressure
  • density
  • color
  • melting point
  • boiling point
  • vapor pressure
  • shape
  • luster
  • size of particles
  • crystal structure
  • volatility
  • state
  • temperature
  • conductivity
  • magnetism
  • volume
  • solubility
  • mass

37
Intensive vs. Extensive
  • hardness
  • brittleness
  • malleability
  • ductility
  • pressure ?
  • density
  • color
  • melting point
  • boiling point
  • vapor pressure
  • shape ?
  • luster
  • size of particles
  • crystal structure
  • volatility
  • state
  • temperature
  • conductivity
  • magnetism
  • volume
  • solubility
  • mass

38
How would you separate
  • A mixture can be separated into its components by
    physical means.
  • A compound can be separated into simpler
    substances by chemical means only

39
How would you separate
  • the two components of saltwater?

Contents Salt and water!
40
How would you separate
  • The salt and water can be separated from each
    other by evaporating or boiling off the water,
    leaving the salt
  • The hydrogen and oxygen in the water or the
    sodium and chlorine in the salt can be separated
    by chemical reaction only.

41
Let us take a moment
42
Let us take a moment
  • to jeer at anyone who claims you can separate
    the hydrogen from the oxygen in water by boiling
    it.

43
Let us take a moment
  • to jeer at anyone who claims you can separate
    the hydrogen from the oxygen in water by boiling
    it.
  • Boiling changes the state of the liquid to a
    gasstate is a physical property, so boiling is a
    physical change!

44
How would you separate
  • answers might include
  • Vaporizing
  • Sorting
  • Distilling
  • Dissolving
  • Liquefying
  • Filtering
  • Freezing.
  • all physical changes

45
How would you separate
  1. A solution of alcohol and water?
  2. Mud (water and silt)?
  3. A mixture of chalk dust and water?
  4. A mixture of chalk dust and powdered sugar?
  5. Beans and rice?
  6. Ripe and unripe tomatoes?
  7. The carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide?

46
Chemical Reactions
  • When a chemical reaction occurs
  • new substances are formed!

47
For example
  • Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen
    gas (by chemical means only!)
  • We write
  • H2O ? H2 O2

48
For example
  • Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen
    gas (by chemical means only!)
  • We write
  • H2O ? H2 O2

forms
and
49
For example
  • Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen
    gas (by chemical means only!)
  • We write
  • H2O ? H2 O2
  • Or, better yet
  • 2 H2O?2 H2 O2

50
For example
  • 2 H2O?2 H2 O2
  • The water is gone
  • The new hydrogen and oxygen gasses have new
    chemical and physical properties

51
Watch
52
Watch
53
Watch
2 H2O ? 2 H2 O2
54
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

55
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

56
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

2 H2O2 ? 2 H2O O2
57
First rule of reactions!
  • Matter is neither created, nor destroyed.
  • The mass before the reaction is the same as the
    mass after the reaction

58
First rule of reactions!
  • Matter is neither created, nor destroyed.
  • The mass before the reaction is the same as the
    mass after the reaction
  • This is called the law of conservation of mass

59
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
Reactants
Products
60
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

Reactants
Products
61
2 H2O2?2 H2O O2
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

Reactants
Products
62
Same atoms same mass
  • (hydrogen peroxide forms water oxygen gas)

Reactants
Products
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