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Classification of Living Things

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Title: Classification of Living Things


1
Classification of Living Things
2
Classification of Living Things
  • Taxonomy Branch of biology that names organisms
    according to their characteristics.
  • Putting things into orderly groups based on
    similar characteristics.
  • Why do scientists classify?
  • Biologists classify living organisms to answer
    questions such as
  • How many known species are there?
  • What are the defining characteristics of each
    species?
  • What are the relationships between these species?

3
Aristotle
  • Aristotle
  • Greek philosopher and teacher more than 2000
    years ago
  • The first person to group or classify organisms

(300 B.C.)
4
Aristotle
PLANTS
  • ANIMALS

Based on size of stem
Based on where they lived
5
Limitations of Early Classification
  • 1. Not all organisms fit into Aristotles
    2 groups (plants or animals)

Ex Bacteria Fungi
Images from http//www.leighday.co.uk/upload/pu
blic/docImages/6/Listeria20bacteria.jpg
http//danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg
6
Limitations of Early Classification
  • 2. Common names can be misleading

Ex A jelly fish isnt a fish, but a seahorse
is!
Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but its an
animal!
Image from http//www.alaska.net/scubaguy/ima
ges/seacucumber.jpg
7
Limitations of Early Classification
  • 3. Common names vary from place to
    place

Ex puma, catamount, mountain lion,
cougar are all names for same animal
Image from http//www4.d25.k12.id.us/ihil/images
/Cougar.jpg
8
Limitations of Early Classification
  • 4. Same organisms have different names in
    different countries.

Chipmunk Streifenhornchen (German) Tamia
(Italian) Ardilla listada (Spanish)
Image from http//www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/
chipmunk_pictures.htm
9
Limitations of Early Classification
  • Early Solution
  • Description of Organism Using Latin Names

RED OAK Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis
setaceo-mucronatis
oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing
hairlike bristles
10
Limitations of Early Classification
  • Problem with Latin Name descriptions?
  • Names too long and difficult to remember
  • Names dont illustrate evolutionary relationships

11
Carolus Linneaus
  • Devised a new classification system based on
    morphology
  • (Organisms form and structure)

(1707-1778)
Father of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature
12
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Linnaeuss Classification System
  • Organisms grouped in a hierarchy of seven
    different levels
  • Each organism has a two part scientific name
  • Binomial Nomenclature

13
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Species
Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach
14
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Genus Species
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Felidae
Panthera
leo
http//www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_
b/2004-lion.jpg
15
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16
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17
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Binomial Nomenclature Two name naming system
  • Italicized or Underlined
  • 1st Name Genus
  • Capitalized
  • 2nd Name Species Identifier
  • Lower case

18
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Vampire bat Desmodus rotundus

Image from http//212.84.179.117/i/Vampire20Bat
.jpg
Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus
Image from http//www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/
chipmunk_pictures.htm
19
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Humans

Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
Image from http//www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images
/photo_baby.jpg
20
Modern Taxonomy
  • Modern taxonomy involves the use of Linnaeuss
    naming/classification system, but with additional
    kingdoms.

21
Modern Taxonomy
  • Organizes living things in the context of
    evolution

22
Modern Taxonomy
  • Scientists use a variety of information in order
    to classify organisms
  • Fossil Record
  • Morphology
  • Embryology
  • Chromosomes
  • Macromolecules (DNA and Proteins)

23
1. FOSSIL RECORD
We can trace some changes over time through the
fossil record.
  • Evolutionary history

PHYLOGENY
24
2. MORPHOLOGY
Shape and Function
  Image from http//www.angelfire.com/ab7/evo
lution12/evolutionclues.html
25
Morphology
  • Homologous Characteristics
  • Same embryological origin (may have similar
    structure and function)
  • Example Bat Wing and Human Arm
  • Homologous characteristics suggest a
  • recent common ancestor

26
Morphology
Bat wing and human arm develop from same
embryonic structures
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
27
Morphology
  • Analogous Characteristics
  • May have similar structure and function, but
    different embryological origin
  • Example Bird Wing and Butterfly Wing
  • Analogous characteristics evolved separately.
  • Organisms not necessarily closely related.

28
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
Bird wing and butterfly wing have evolved with
similar function BUT different
structure inside.
http//uk.dk.com/static/cs/uk/11/clipart/bird/imag
e_bird003.html
Insects and birds NOT closely related!
http//www.naturenorth.com/butterfly/images/05a20
tiger20wing.jpg
29
I dont get it!
  • Analogous characters ? the same function but
    different underlying construction.
  • Homologous characters ? different functions, but
    show an anatomical similarity inherited from a
    common ancestor. Important for cladograms!

30
3. Embryology
Animals whose embryos develop in a similar
pattern may be related
Image from http//calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseu
m/litu/03_3.shtml
31
Even differences show relatedness
amnion /amnion/ (amne-on) bag of waters the
extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and
mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the
fetus and the amniotic fluid
http//www.southtexascollege.edu/nilsson/4_gb_lect
urenotes_f/4_gb_24_cla_ani_ve_spr2003.html
32
4. Chromosomes
Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.
Human http//www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px
-Human_karyogram.png Chimpanzee Middle School
Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.
33
Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48
chromosomes
Even differences show relatedness
Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we
dont have Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair
(2) they dont have.
Human http//www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px
-Human_karyogram.png Chimpanzee Middle School
Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.
34
5. Macromolecules
  • Comparison of macromolecules such as Proteins and
    DNA
  • Organisms with similar sequences are (thought to
    be) more closely related.

35
Macromolecules
36
Evolutionary Relationships
  • Determined through the use of
  • Morphology
  • Fossil Record
  • Embryology
  • Chromosomes
  • Macromolecules
  • Evolutionary relationships can be illustrated on
    a phylogenetic tree

37
Cladistics
  • Shows evolutionary relationships based on
    shared derived characteristics
  • Cladistic relationships illustrated through the
    use of a Cladogram

Phylogeny Evolutionary History
38
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39
Cladogram
  • The greater the number of derived characters
    shared by groups, the more recently the groups
    share a common ancestor.

40
Domains
  • Domains are taxonomic groups that are even bigger
    than kingdoms. Each of the six kingdoms belongs
    to a single domain.
  • Three Domains
  • 1. Archaea
  • 2. Bacteria
  • 3. Eukarya

Do Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach?
41
Domain Bacteria
  • Eubacteria are prokaryotes whose cell walls
    contain peptidoglycan.
  • True bacteria

42
Domain Archaea
  • Archaea are thought to be more ancient than
    bacteria and yet more closely related to our
    eukaryote ancestors.
  • Cell walls without
  • peptidoglycan
  • They are called extremophiles because they can
    live in extreme environments.

43
Domain Eukarya
  • All eukaryotes are classified in Domain Eukarya.
  • Domain Eukarya contains Kingdom Protista, Kingdom
    Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia.

44
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Some archaebacteria are heterotrophs, but some
    are autotrophs.
  • Most archaebacteria are unable to move, but a few
    can move.
  • Archaebacteria are the old known life forms.
  • Why are archaebacteria not classified with
    modern bacteria?
  • Archaebacteria and eubacteria are chemically
    different!

45
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Cool archaebacteria info
  • Three divisions of archaebacteria Methanogens
    methane producing organisms
  • Thermophiles These can live in extremely hot,
    acidic environments like sulfur springs.
  • Halophiles Can only live in bodies of
    concentrated salt water, like the Dead Sea.

46
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Traditional prokaryotic bacteria
  • Unicellular.
  • Some are autotrophic, some are heterotrophic.
  • Found in soil, water, human body, etc.
  • Esterichia coli (E. coli) is found in large
    numbers in human intestines, where it produces
    vitamin K.

47
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Unlike archaebacteria, eubacteria require oxygen.
  • Some bacteria contain cilia or flagella which
    allows them to move.

48
Kingdom Protista
  • Eukaryotic organisms.
  • This is why they are not considered bacteria!
  • Most protists are single-celled but some are
    simple, multicellular organisms
  • Junk Drawer Kingdom or Odds and Ends Kingdom
  • Some protists are autotrophic, some protists are
    heterotrophic.
  • Animal-like protists, plant-like protists

49
Kingdom Protista
Most protists are able to move, but some cannot
50
Kingdom Fungi
  • Fungi are eukaryotic organisms.
  • Most are multicellular, only one type of fungi is
    unicellular (yeast).
  • Fungi are heterotrophic.
  • Decomposers
  • Do NOT photosynthesize!
  • Fungi are not able to move.
  • Reproduce by spores.
  • Molds and mushrooms are
  • examples of fungi.

51
Kingdom Fungi
  • Molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi.
  • Fungal cell walls contain chitin.
  • (cell walls of plants contain cellulose).
  • The study of fungi is known as mycology.
  • Fungi are more closely related to animals than to
    plants!
  • Usually, the only fungi that we see are
    reproductive structures. Tasty!!

52
Kingdom Plantae
  • Plants are eukaryotic, multicellular organisms.
  • They are autotrophs- they make their food through
    photosynthesis.
  • Plants can be found on land and in shallow water
    (where there is light)

53
Kingdom Plantae
  • Plant cells have cell walls
  • Made up of cellulose, to provide them with a
    rigid structure
  • Some plants reproduce through both asexual and
    sexual reproduction.

54
Kingdom Animalia
  • This kingdom contains many complex, multicellular
    organisms.
  • All animals are heterotrophic.
  • All animals are able to move, even if it is only
    during some stages of the life cycle.

55
Kingdom animalia
  • All animals are eukaryotic organisms, but animal
    cells do not have a cell wall.
  • Most animals reproduce through sexual
    reproduction, but some are able to reproduce
    asexually (or both!).
  • The most simple organism
  • in the kingdom animalia
  • is a sponge.

56
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57
  • A dichotomous key is a classification key that
    gives the students two choices to choose from
    before moving on to the next set of choices. 

58
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59
Dichotomous Key activity
  • With the person at your table, create a
    dichotomous key for the shoes at the front of the
    room. Remember, this should be a series of two
    choices that each lead you to next series or to
    the correct shoe. You can use descriptions in
    your choices, such as, casual or dress shoe.

60
1 a. Mens ----------go to 2 1b. Womens ------go
to 3 2 a. Casual ----------Converse 2 b. Dress
------------ Merrell 3 a. Casual -----------go
to 4 3 b. Dress ------------go to 7 4 a. Open
toe -------go to 5 4 b. Closed toe -----go to
6 5 a. Brown ------------Route 66 flip-flop 5 b.
Black --------------Yellowbox flip-flop 6 a.
Brown ------------Merrell 6 b. Blue
----------------Reef 7 a. Open toe---------go to
8 7 b. Closed toe-------go to 9 8 a. Purple
------------Mossimo 8 b. Silver
-------------Kelly Katie 9 a. Pointy toe
------ DL 9 b. Round toe------Madden Girl
61
What type of morphological characteristic are
these an example of?
Homologous
62
If the Bobcat and Lion are in the same Order,
they are also in the same _______________.
Class, Phylum, Kingdom
63
What type of morphological characteristic are
these an example of?
Homologous
64
  • Which two are analogous?
  • Which two or homologous?

65
What type of morphological characteristic are
these an example of?
Analogous
66
Fill in the cladogram with the following
organisms Pigeon, Hagfish, Chimpanzee, Lizard,
Perch, Mouse, Salamander
67
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68
Fill in the concept map with the missing kingdoms.
69
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70
Write the Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes
scientific name in the correct format for
binomial nomenclature.
  • crotalus atrox

Crotalus atrox
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