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Language and Thought

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Language and Thought Its all about communication!!! Good site for next year: http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/markport/language/aspects/spg2003/04morph.htm – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Language and Thought


1
Language and Thought
Its all about communication!!! Good site for next
year http//www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/markpo
rt/language/aspects/spg2003/04morph.htm
2
  • Should the U.S. establish an official language?
  • BTW, we do not have one right now.

3
  • Start with Moving Images Estimating Risk The
    Availability Heuristic
  • How was the availability heuristic at work
    concerning the road rage in the video?

4
Language
  • Our spoken written or gestured words and the way
    we combine them to communicate meaning.

Believe it or not, this communication is a form
of language!!!
5
1 Cool Thing
  • Can you udrensantd what im wirtnig rhgit now?
    Read the rest
  • I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulaclty
    uesdnatnrd what I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal
    pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a
    rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosnt
    mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a word are,
    the olny iprmoatnt tihng is that the frist and
    lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. This is
    bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter
    by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
    Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

6
Phonemes
  • In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive
    sound unit.
  • Chug has three phonemes, ch, u, g.
  • How many in the English language?
  • Tongue Twisters

How many phonemes does platypus have?
7
Morphemes
  • In a language, the smallest unit that carries
    meaning.
  • Can be a word or part of a word (prefix or
    suffix).
  • How many in the English language?

8
Semantics
  • The set of rules by which we derive meaning in a
    language.
  • Semantic rule Add ed to the end of the
    wordwhat does this mean?
  • LAUGH-ED NOW THE MEANING IS THAT IT HAPPENED IN
    THE PAST

The Chinese languages do not have expansive
semantic rules. They usually have totally
different symbols for different tenses. Anyone
know Chinese??
9
Syntax
  • The ORDER!
  • In English, adjectives come before nouns, but not
    in Spanish!!

Is this the White House or the House White?
10
Grammar
  • A system of rules in a language that enables us
    to communicate and understand others.
  • SEMANTICS SYNTAX GRAMMAR
  • Ebonics grammar

11
Language Development
  • How many words do you think you know now?

Probably around 80,000.
After age 1 you average about 13 words a day.
12
Language Development
  • Cooing Stage 3 months
  • Babbling Stage starting at 3-4 months, the
    infant makes spontaneous sounds. Not limited to
    the phonemes of the infants household language.
  • One-word stage 1-2 years old, uses one word to
    communicate big meanings.
  • Two word stage at age 2, uses two words to
    communicate meanings- called telegraphic speech.
  • After this, language progresses rapidly!
  • My little brother (3-4) used to say What do you
    need for my help? when he wanted to help my mom
    and me around the house.
  • Language develops rapidly into complete
    sentences, grammar is improved at the grammar
    school age (elementary school)
  • VIDEO Mind 23 Infant Speech Sound
    Discrimination

13
How do we explain HOW WE ACQUIRE OUR LANGUAGE?
14
Skinner
  • Skinner thought that we can explain language
    development through his BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
    (disregard the old PPT on thisit is too
    confusing).
  • Via operant conditioning, positive reinforcement
    of appropriate grammar and language ENTIRELY
    explains how children learn the aspects of
    language.
  • Yes, honey that is a kitty cat. You are so
    smart.
  • No, honey, say I would like a cookie, not me
    want cookie.

The young boy adjusts his grammar to achieve the
reward.
15
Chomsky Nativist Theory of Acquisition
  • Inborn Universal Grammar
  • We acquire language too quickly for it to be
    learned.
  • WE ARE BORN WITH AN INNATE ABILITY TO LEARN
    VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE VERY QUICKLY
  • BUT, THE EXACT LANGUAGE, DIALECT, ACCENTS, AND SO
    FORTH ARE DETERMINED BY THE PARTICULAR
    ENVIRONMENT / SOCIETY
  • We have this learning box inside our heads that
    enable us to learn any human language.
  • The language and accents we learn are predictable
    by geography and culture.
  • English babies dont come out speaking Chinese,
    right?!
  • Video Mind 24 Language Predisposition

16
Does language influence our thinking?
17
Whorfs Linguistic Relativity
  • The idea that language determines the way we
    think (not vice versa).
  • The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their
    language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the
    past.

18
Do people that speak more than one language think
differently depending on their language at that
time?
19
Thinking without Language
  • We can think in words.
  • But more often we think in mental pictures.

In 1977, Reggie Jackson hit 3 HRs against the
Dodgers. He has stated that before each at bat,
he visualizes crushing a home run. Do you think
visualization helps?
20
Do Animals think?
21
Kohlers Chimpanzees
  • Kohler exhibited that Chimps can problem solve.

22
Honeybees seem to communicate
23
Apes and Signing
VIDEO Moving Images The Case of Kanzi (Animal
Language)
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