Mengapa dalam pemasaran kita perlu mempelajari perilaku konsumen? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mengapa dalam pemasaran kita perlu mempelajari perilaku konsumen?

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Title: Consumer Behavior Author: HP Authorized Customer Last modified by: UNIVERSITAS PERBANAS Created Date: 2/5/2003 8:14:54 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mengapa dalam pemasaran kita perlu mempelajari perilaku konsumen?


1
  • Mengapa dalam pemasaran kita perlu mempelajari
    perilaku konsumen?

2
(No Transcript)
3
Consumer Decision Model
MARKETING STRATEGY
  • INDIVIDUAL
  • DIFFERENCES
  • Motivation
  • Personality
  • Information
  • Processing
  • Perception
  • 4. Learning Process
  • 5. Knowledge
  • 6. Attitude

DECISION PROCESS Problem Identification Informa
tion Search Alternative Evaluation Purchasing
Satisfaction
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • FACTORS
  • Culture
  • Social-Economy
  • Family
  • Household
  • Reference Group
  • Situation

IMPLICATION
4
Pertanyaan
  • Mengapa Anda mengambil S1?
  • Mengapa memilih kuliah di STIE Perbanas?
  • Apa yang ingin Anda capai selama kuliah di STIE
    Perbanas?
  • Setelah kuliah selama ini, apakah sesuai dengan
    harapan Anda?

5
Model of the Motivation Process
Learning
Unfulfilled needs and wants
Tension
Goal or need fulfillment
Drive
Behavior
Cognitive processes
Tension reduction
6
Motivation
  • It is the drive to satisfy needs and wants, both
    physiological and psychological, through the
    purchase and use of products and services.
  • Blackwell
  • Solomon definition the processes that lead
    people to behave as they do. It occurs when a
    need is aroused that a consumer wants to satisfy.
  • Utilitarian needs.
  • Desire to achieve a functional or practical
    benefit.
  • Hedonic needs.
  • Desire to obtain experiential or emotional
    benefits.

7
  • Needs are created by a discrepancy between to
    mental states.
  • The actual state, which is where we are now.
  • The desired state, which is where we would like
    to be.

8
Innate Needs
Physiological needs for food, water, air,
clothing, shelter, and sex. Also known as
biogenic or primary needs.
9
Acquired Needs
Needs that are learned in response to ones
culture or environment (such as the need for
esteem, prestige, affection, or power). Also
known as psychogenic or secondary needs.
10
  • Do marketers create needs?

11
Goals
  • Generic Goals
  • the general categories of goals that consumers
    see as a way to fulfill their needs
  • e.g., I want to buy a vehicle
  • Product-Specific Goals
  • the specifically branded products or services
    that consumers select as their goals
  • e.g., I want to buy a Mercedes

12
Table 4.1 Means-End Analysis
relax
red wine
hot tub
low sugar
low calories
diet cola
cure headaches
pain reliever
keep teeth
toothbrush
cleanliness
dishwasher
kill germs
feel happy
flowers
good health
learn about health
television
mental health
books
music instrument
start day right
breakfast
good diet
apples
chicken
13
Kelompokkan produk-produk di bawah ini sesuai
dengan motivnya
  • Education
  • Greeting card
  • Insurance
  • Medicines
  • Furniture

14
Maslows Motive Hierarchy
  • The Hierarchy of Needs Approach is predicated on
    four premises.
  • All humans acquire a similar set of motives
    through genetic endowment and social interaction.
  • Some motives are more basic or critical to
    others.
  • The more basic motives must be satisfied to a
    minimum level before other motives are activated.
  • As the basic motives become satisfied, more
    advanced motives come into play.

15
Maslows Motive Hierarchy
  • Self-actualization This involves the desire for
    self-fulfillment, to become all that one is
    capable of becoming.
  • 4. Esteem Desires for status, superiority,
    self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem
    needs. These needs relate to the individuals
    feelings of usefulness and accomplishment.
  • Belongingness Belongingness motives are
    reflected in a desire for love, friendship,
    affiliation, and group acceptance.
  • 2. Safety Feeling physical safety and security,
    stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth
    are manifestations of safety needs. They are
    aroused after physiological motives are minimally
    satisfied, and before other motives.
  • 1. Physiological Food, water, sleep, and to a
    limited extent, sex, are physiological motives.
    Unless they are minimally satisfied, other
    motives are not activated.

Advanced Basic
16
Levels of needs in the Maslow hierarchy
17
Problem with Maslows Hierarchy
  • Simplistic
  • Gardening
  • I like the work in the soil
  • I feel safe in the garden
  • I can share my produce with others
  • I can create something of beauty
  • My garden gives me sense of peace
  • May not be consistent across culture
  • Mangan ora mangan asal ngumpul

18
Mc Clelland Motivation Theory
  • Need for Achievement
  • The need to experience emotion in connection
    with evaluated performance
  • Need for Affiliation
  • The need to be with people
  • Need for Power
  • Need to have control or influence over another
    person, group or the world at large
  • Mobile phone? Shopping mall? Personal web? Loud
    boom boxes radio? Higher education?

19
Purchase Motives
  • Why do you consume particular products?
  • Manifest Motives are those that are consciously
    known and freely admitted.
  • Latent motives are either unknown or not likely
    to be admitted by the consumer?
  • Manifest and Latent motives in prospective
    Cadillac buyers.

20
Latent and Manifest Motives In a Purchase
Situation
A large car is more comfortable
It will demonstrate that Im successful
Purchase a Cadillac
Its a high-quality car that performs well
A number of my friends drive a Cadillac
Its a powerful, sexy car and itwill help make me
powerful and sexy
The linkage between behavior and motives that
are known and freely admitted The linkage
between behavior and motives that are either
unknown or are such that the consumer is
reluctant to admit or reveal them
21
Motivational Research
Qualitative research designed to uncover
consumers subconscious or hidden motivations.
The basic premise of motivational research is
that consumers are not always aware of, or may
not wish to renewal, the basic reasons underlying
their actions.
22
Freuds Theory of Motivation
  • Freud assumes that real psychological focus
    shaping peoples behavior are largely
    unconscious.
  • He sees the person as repressing many urges in
    the process of growing up and accepting social
    rules.
  • These urge are never eliminated or perfectly
    controlled, they emerge in dreams, in slips of
    the tongue, in neurotic behavior.

23
Selected Product Personality Profiles Uncovered
by Motivational Research
Baking An expression of femininity and
motherhood, baking evokes pleasant nostalgic
memories of the odors pervading the house when
ones mother was baking. To man, a woman is
subconsciously and symbolically going through the
act of giving birth when baking a cake, and the
most fertile moment occurs when the baked product
is pulled out of the oven.
Ice Cream Ice cream is associated with love and
affection. It derives particular potency from
childhood memories, when it was given to a child
for being good and withheld as an instrument of
punishment. people refer to ice cream as
something they love to eat. Ice cream is a
symbol of abundance people prefer round
packaging with an illustration that runs around
the box panel because it suggests unlimited
quantity.
24
continued
Power Tools Power tools are a symbol of
manliness. They represent masculine skill and
competence and are often bought more for their
symbolic value than for active do-it-yourself
application. Ownership of a good power tool or
circular saw provides a man with feelings of
omnipotence.
Beer For most people, beer is an active, alive
sensuous beverage that provides the drinker with
a feeling of security. People generally describe
the beer they like as alive, foamy, and
sparkling, and disliked brands as flat,
dead, or stale.
25
Dichters list of Consumption Motives
Motive Mastery over environment Status Rewards Individuality Love and affection Masculinity Femininity Disalienation Magic-mystery Examples of Consumption Decisions Kitchen appliances, power tools Scotch, car Candies, gift to oneself Foreign car, tattoos Giving children toys Toy guns, heavy shoes Decorating Listening to and calling in talkshow (a desire to feel connected) Belief in UFOs, crystals, visiting Elvis Presley museum and buying related products
26
Motivation and Marketing Strategy
  • Segmenting
  • Positioning
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