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Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations

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Title: Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations


1
Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations
  • Key Terms

2
  • Group Two or more individuals who interact with
    one another, share goals and norms and have a
    subjective awareness as we.
  • Dyad Group consisting of two people.

3
  • Triad Group consisting of three people.
  • Triadic segregation The tendency for triads to
    segregate into a coalition of the dyad against
    the isolate.

4
  • Group size effects Effects of group number on
    group behavior.  
  • Primary groups Groups consisting of intimate,
    face-to-face interaction and relatively
    long-lasting relationships.

5
 
  • Secondary groups Groups with large membership,
    less intimate, and less long lasting.
  • Expressive needs Intimacy, companionships and
    emotional support, provided by primary groups.

6
 
  • Instrumental needs Needs that are task oriented.
  • Reference groups Serve as a standard for
    evaluating values, attitudes, and behaviors.

7
 
  • Attribution theory Individuals generate a
    distorted perception of the motives and
    capabilities of other people's acts based on
    whether the person is an in-group or an out-group
    member.
  • Social network A set of links between
    individuals or between other social units.
    Networks based on race, class, and gender form
    with particular readiness, especially job
    networks.  

8
 
  • Groupthink The tendency for group members to
    reach a consensus opinion, even if that decision
    is downright stupid.  
  • Risky shift The tendency for groups to weigh risk
    differently than individuals.

9
  • Formal organization A large secondary group,
    highly organized to accomplish a complex task or
    tasks and to achieve goals in an efficient
    manner.
  • Normative organizations Voluntary organizations,
    such as clubs, political parties and advocacy
    organizations.

10
 
  • Coercive organizations Characterized by
    membership that is largely involuntary. (prisons,
    mental hospitals)
  • Total institution An organization cut off from
    the rest of society in which individuals who
    reside there are subject to strict social
    control. 

11
 
  • Utilitarian organizations Large organizations
    that are joined by individuals for specific
    purposes, such as monetary reward.
  • Bureaucracy A type of formal organization
    characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear
    division of labor, explicit rules, and
    impersonality.

12
  • Voluntary organizations Include organizations
    such as the PTA, political parties, religious
    organizations, the NAACP, BNai Brith, LaRaza,
    and other organizations that are concerned with
    specific issues.
  • Total institution An organization cut off from
    the rest of society where individuals who reside
    there are subject to strict social control.
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