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The Middle East Prior to WWI

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Title: The Middle East Prior to WWI


1
The Middle East Prior to WWI
2
  • Background on the Middle East (ME)
  • Territory Turkey to Afghanistan part of N.
    Africa
  • Birthplace for 3 monotheist rel. Judaism,
    Christianity, Islam
  • Ottomans 500 yrs
  • Aft. WWITurkey
  • Great Britain (GB)Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq
  • FrSyria, Lebanon

3
  • Nation Building
  • Turkey 1st republic in ME (1923)
  • Theocracy (Koran)
  • Mustafa Kemal Father of the Turks
  • Persia controlled by GB and Russia (RU)
  • Never under Ottoman control
  • Shah
  • 1935Iran

4
Mustafa Kemal Father of the Turks
5
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Bedouin Shaykh
  • Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud
  • Palestine (PAL)
  • Jews 586 BCE Chaldeans
  • Returned to PAL by Persians
  • Israel taken off map in AD 6
  • Fled PAL or stayed w/ Otto. Arabs

6
  • Jewish nationalisthomeland
  • Zionist
  • Kibbutzim social farming communities

7
(No Transcript)
8
Anti-Semitism Begins
  1. Pogroms in E. Europe RU forced many to FR, GB,
    GER, US, PAL

9
  • 1894 Capt Alfred Dreyfus
  • Jew in FR army officer
  • Secrets to GER wh/ 12 yrs. in prison
  • Dreyfus Affair

10
  • Balfour Declaration (1917)
  • Sir Arthur Balfour both Jews and Pal. w/
    homeland
  • Ea. side believed they had GB support
  • 85,000 (1914) to 445,000 (1930) ¼ of pop.
  • Riots broke out immigration limited

11
The Middle East WWII-present
12
Preview
  • What is happening in this photograph?
  • Who are the people that are blindfolded?
  • Why is this event significant?

13
(No Transcript)
14
Processing
  • People are being taken hostage.
  • American citizens
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis
  • Still have a bad relationship with them today
    view ea. other as threat

15
  • Israel
  • 1948 recreated as ind. Nation
  • PAL felt Jews had best land wh/ war w/ Egypt,
    Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria
  • Arab refugees
  • PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
  • Yasser Arafat 1988 said PAL ind. Nation
  • PAL not recognized by the global community

16
Yasser Arafat Died November 11, 2004 at the age
of 75. The exact cause of his illness is unknown.
17
  • 1978 border dispute btw. Egypt and Israel finally
    settled
  • Anwar Sadat Egypt
  • Menachim Begin Israel
  • Jimmy Carter US
  • Nobel Peace Prize 2002
  • Still working in ME

18
(No Transcript)
19
  • On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during
    the annual victory parade in Cairo. The
    assassination had been planned by Omar
    Abdel-Rahman, a cleric later convicted in the
    U.S. for his role in the 1993 World trade Center
    bombing.

20
  • The officers in charge of the parade security for
    Sadat were on hajj to Mecca. As the air force
    jets flew overhead, distracting the crowd, a
    troop truck halted before the presidential
    reviewing stand, and a lieutenant strode forward.
    Sadat stood to receive his salute, whereupon the
    assassins rose from the truck, throwing grenades
    and firing assault rifle rounds. The attack
    lasted about two minutes.

21
  • Culture conflicts
  • Economy
  • Oil Organization of Petroleum Exports (OPEC)
  • Rt. Price for their product
  • Oil crisis 1973 shortages increased prices wh/
    forced options
  • Conservation
  • Alternatives

22
  • Making the connection
  • The recent oil crisis (2007 to present) has
    forced what new options?
  • Why do you think the US is reluctant to reduce
    its dependence on foreign oil?

23
  • Tension
  • 1975 Persian Gulf countries w/ highest per capita
    income in the worldblending of old new
  • Islamic fundamentalist
  • Obedience to the basic laws of the religion

24
  • Iran
  • Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi wanted modernization
    like the west great friend of US
  • Conservative Muslims ayatollahs wanted an
    Islamic republic in strict obedience to Koran

25
  • Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Death to the Shah Down with America 1979
    Shah fled to US AK to power 1979 US embassy
    taking 60 AM hostage for 444days
  • Released in 1981 when Reagan cam to power
  • Demand Shah be returned to Iran for trial

26
October 22, 1979 received treatment in NY Died in
Egypt on July 27th, 1980, aged 60.
27
Ayatollah Khomeini
28
Ronald Reagan
29
  • Iraq
  • War w/ Iran over rel. differences
  • Saddam Hussein in power in Iraq wh/ secular
    leadership

30
  • Hussein
  • Opposed W. influence wanted to lead an United
    Arab World against Israel
  • 1979 20 cabinet members executed wh/ total
    obedience due to fear
  • Sword of the Arabs

31
  • Iraq under Hussein
  • Testing new world order
  • Charter of Paris 1990
  • August 2, 1990 Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait
  • w/I 1 hr. 100,000 Iraqi soldiers _at_capt. Kuwait
    city
  • President George Bush naked aggression

32
Saddam Hussein
33
41st President George Bush
34
  • Kuwait
  • War w/ Iran 80 bil debt
  • 120 mile shoreline w/ best deep H20 port
  • 2 islands blocked Iraq fr. Gulf
  • Wanted oil reserves
  • Good position to invade Saudi Arabia

35
  • President George Bush
  • No 1 nation can dominate the ME
  • Production of nuclear weapons threatened Israel
    wh/ war

36
  • Upset global balance of power
  • Hussein compared to Hitler
  • Gather allies
  • Operation Desert Shield
  • Congress voted for war 01-16-1991
  • Operation Desert StormPersian Gulf War
  • Kuwait City freed 02-27-1991

37
1993 attack on World Trade Center News footage
video
38
(No Transcript)
39
What is happening in this picture?
40
  • September 11, 2001
  • Attack on the World Trade Center, New York City
  • Al-Qaeda
  • Osama Bin Laden
  • Afghanistan
  • Saddam Hussein Iraq

41
Osama bin Laden
42
President Bush addresses a joint session of
Congress on September 20, 2001
43
  • President George W. Bush
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • 2nd Persian Gulf War
  • 8 years of fighting

44
  • President Obama
  • Slowly w/drawing troops
  • Leaving 33,000 troops there for undetermined
    amount of time
  • Concerned w/ Iran
  • Sworn to protect Israel

45
  • Making the Connection
  • How old were you when 09/11 happened?
  • How has 09/11 directly affected you?

46
(No Transcript)
47
ISIS
  • http//abcnews.go.com/WN/fullpage/isis-trail-terro
    r-isis-threat-us-25053190
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