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Earth Systems CRT Review

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Standard II: Students will understand that the features of Earth s evolving environment affect living systems, and that life on Earth is unique in the solar system. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Systems CRT Review


1
Earth Systems CRT Review
2
Observation, fact, inference
  • observation using your senses to obtain
    information about the world around you
  • Fact something that has happened and in known to
    be true (you can see or measure it)
  • Inference a conclusion based on a series of
    facts, a kind of prediction" you did not see or
    measure ityet)(I smell McDonalds)

3
Hypothesis and theory
  • Hypothesis an idea or explanation based on
    observations that can be tested (I think it
    smells like McDonalds)
  • Theory an explanation based on observation,
    experimentation, and reasoningit has been
    tested

4
Standard I Students will understand the
scientific evidence that supports theories that
explain how the universe and solar system
developed.
  • Objective 1 Describe the big bang theory and
    evidence supporting it.
  • Objective 2 Relate the structure and
    composition of the solar system to the processes
    that exist in the universe.

5
Life in the Universe
  • As far as we know, Earth is the only planet with
    life.
  • Why? Earth has the right temperature, atmosphere,
    and water to sustain life.
  • Next closest planet? Mars-It does have an
    atmosphere but not just like Earths), it has
    somewhat moderate temperatures (but too cold at
    times), it has polar ice caps (but not water or
    liquid water)
  • We are searching Mars for evidence of water for
    possible past life (although a fossil would be
    great)

6
Formation of Universe (Big Bang Theory Common
Today)
  • Models and theories have changed over time as new
    evidence (observations) was obtained.
  • Hubble- Red Shift (in light spectrum) supports a
    Big Bang by showing that all stars are moving
    away from each other
  • Expanding Universe- red shift supports the motion
    of stars and galaxies away from each other and a
    central point where the big bang happened
  • Doppler effect an apparent shift in the
    frequency of a wave due to the motion of an
    object
  • Big Bang- all of the matter and energy present
    today was compressed into a small space. -when
    hydrogen and helium formed- The rest of matter
    HEAVY ELEMENTS) formed in stars or supernova
    explosions by combining lighter elements

7
Doppler effect
8
Life Cycles of Stars
  • Stars are born (nebular theory)
  • They all start like our sun converting hydrogen
    into helium by high temperature and nuclear fusion

9
H-R Diagram Hertzsprung-Russell
10
H-R Diagram Hertzsprung-Russell
11
H-R Diagram Hertzsprung-Russell
12
Life Cycle of Stars by MASS
White dwarf then black dwarf?
Star like our sun
Red giant
Planetary nebula
Nebula-gas and dust
Protostars
supernova
Massive star
Red supergiant
Neutron star and/or black hole
13
Standard II Students will understand that the
features of Earths evolving environment affect
living systems, and that life on Earth is unique
in the solar system.
  • Objective 1 Describe the unique physical
    features of Earths environment that make life on
    Earth possible.
  • Objective 2 Analyze how ecosystems differ from
    each other due to abiotic and biotic factors.
  • Objective 3 Examine Earths diversity of life
    as it changes over time.

14
Diversity of Life
  • Biodiversity means many different kinds of life
    forms

15
Diversity of Life
Less biodiversity
Lots of biodiversity
WHY?
WHY?
Why is there sometimes more or less biomass?
(Biomass is the total mass of living material)
16
Energy Flow
Sun-source of energy
Producers-plants-turn sunlight into food for
consumers
Consumers- eat produces to get their energy
Decomposers- break down dead Organisms to release
CO2 and Nitrogen back into the environment
17
Energy Flow
18
Standard III Students will understand that
gravity, density, and convection move Earths
plates and this movement causes the plates to
impact other Earth systems.
  • Objective 1 Explain the evidence that supports
    the theory of plate tectonics.
  • Objective 2 Describe the process within Earth
    that result in plate motion and relate it to
    changes in other Earth systems.

19
Continental drift
  • Alfred Wegener proposed it 100 years ago
  • He had strong evidence of fossils, glacial
    deposits, rocks, climate
  • He could not explain the forces that moved the
    plates

20
Continental drift
21
Continental drift
22
Earthquakes and volcanoes
  • Most occur along plate boundaries

23
Plate tectonics
  • Earth is divided into sections that move about on
    convection currents in the upper mantle

24
Plate tectonics 3 boundary types
Convergent, divergent, transform
25
Plate tectonics 3 boundary types
Convergent, divergent, transform
Which type?
transform
26
Plate tectonics 3 boundary types
Convergent, divergent, transform
Which type?
divergent
Ex. seafloor spreading
27
Plate tectonics 3 boundary types
Convergent, divergent, transform
Which type?
convergent
28
Hawaiian Volcanoes Hot Spot
29
Dinosaur extinction theory
  • An asteroid or large meteor hit Earth about 65
    million years ago

30
Dinosaur extinction theory
  • An asteroid or large meteor hit Earth about 65
    million years ago

Meteor crater in Arizona meteorite was thousands
of time smaller
31
Standard IV Students will understand that
water cycles through and between reservoirs in
the hydrosphere and affects the other spheres of
the Earth system.
  • Objective 1 Explain the water cycle in terms of
    its reservoirs, the movement between reservoirs,
    and the energy to move water. Evaluate the
    importance of fresh water to the biosphere.
  • Objective 2 Analyze the physical and biological
    dynamics of the oceans.

32
Tides
  • Caused by gravity

33
Tides
  • Caused by gravity

34
Water cycle
The sun is the source of energy
35
The water cycle
36
Standard V Students will understand that
Earths atmosphere interacts with and is altered
by the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
  • Objective 1 Describe how matter in the
    atmosphere cycles through other Earth systems.
  • Objective 2 Trace ways in which the atmosphere
    has been altered by living systems and has itself
    strongly affected living systems over the course
    of Earths history.

37
Carbon Dioxide
  • Greenhouse effect warming of Earth due to
    greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor,
    methane) trapped in the atmosphere
  • Greenhouse effect is increasing and has been for
    about the past 120 years

38
Carbon Dioxide
  • Fossils fuels- gas, coal, oil
  • Fossil fuels are a major source of carbon dioxide

39
Carbon cycle
40
Carbon cycle
Animals PEOPLE
41
Carbon dioxide levels and temperature increases
42
Carbon dioxide levels and temperature increases
43
What would you conclude?
Temperature change over time
Carbon dioxide change over time
Is there a link between carbon dioxide and
temperature??
44
Ozone
  • A special oxygen molecule that absorbs
    ultraviolet light, protecting us from the sun.

45
Standard VI Students will understand the
source and distribution of energy on Earth and
its effects on Earth systems.
  • Objective 1 Describe the transformation of
    solar energy into heat and chemical energy on
    Earth and eventually the radiation of energy to
    space.
  • Objective 2 Relate energy sources and
    transformations to the effects on Earth systems.

46
Weather and climate
  • Weather- the condition of the atmosphere right
    now (wind, temperature, precipitation, etc.)
  • Climate- the average weather over a long period
    of time.

47
Coriolis effect
Due to Earths rotation wind and ocean currents
in the Northern Hemisphere appear to curve to the
right
48
Coriolis effect
Due to Earths rotation wind and ocean currents
in the Northern Hemisphere appear to curve to the
right
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