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Title: Analysis%20of%20time%20series


1
Analysis of time series
  • Riccardo Bellazzi
  • Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica
  • Università di Pavia
  • Italy
  • riccardo.bellazzi_at_unipv.it

2
(No Transcript)
3
Time series
  • Time series a collection of observations made
    sequentially in time
  • Many application fields
  • Economic time series
  • Physical time series
  • Marketing time series
  • Process control
  • Characteristics
  • successive observations are NOT independent
  • The order of observation is crucial

4
Why time series analysis
  • Description
  • Explanation
  • Prediction
  • Control

Understand, then act
5
Outline
  • Dynamic systems basics
  • Basic concepts
  • Linear and non linear dynamic systems
  • Structural and black box models of dynamic
    systems
  • Time series analysis
  • AI approaches for the analysis of time series
  • Knowledge-based Temporal Abstractions
  • Knowledge-discovery through clustering of time
    series

6
Outline
  • Dynamic systems basics
  • Basic concepts
  • Linear and non linear dynamic systems
  • Structural and black box models of dynamic
    systems
  • Time series analysis
  • AI approaches for the analysis of time series
  • Knowledge-discovery through clustering of time
    series
  • Knowledge-based Temporal Abstractions

7
Dynamical systems
  • System a (physical) entity which can be
    manipulated with actions, called inputs (u) and
    that, as a consequence of the actions, gives a
    measurable reaction, called output (y)
  • Dynamic the system changes over time in
    general, the output does not only depend on the
    input, but also on the current state of the
    system (x), i.e. on the system history

u
y
x
8
A dynamical system (example)
  • A simple circuit with two lamps and one switch
    with values 0 (u1) or 1 (u2). The output can be
    yy1 (lamp1 on), y2 (lamp2 on), y3 (off). The
    system is configured to have four states, x1, x2,
    x3, x4

u1
x1
y1
x1
x4
x2
y2
u2
u2
x3
y3
x4
x2
x3
u1
9
Dynamical system definition
  • A dynamical system is a process in which a
    function's value changes over time according to a
    rule that is defined in terms of the function's
    current value and the current time.

10
Modeling a dynamical system
u1
  • Two ingredients
  • A state transition function X(t)f(t,t0,X0,u(.))
  • An output transformation Y(t)h(t,x(t))

x1
x4
u2
u2
x2
x3
u1
x1
y1
x2
y2
x3
y3
x4
11
Main classes of dynamical systems
  • Continuous / discrete
  • Linear / nonlinear
  • Time invariant / variant systems
  • Single / Multiple Input / Outputs
  • Deterministic / stochastic

12
Discrete and continuous systems
  • Discrete the time set is the set of integer
    numbers (t1,2,,k,). The system is typically
    modeled with difference equations
  • Continuous the time set is the set of non
    -negative real numbers. The system is typically
    modeled with differential equations

13
Equilibrium
The pair defines an equilibrium if and
only if The output at the equilibrium is
given by
14
Compartmental models
x1 drug concentration in the gastrointestinal
compartment (mg/cc) x2 drug concentration in
the hematic compartment (mg/cc) k1 transfer
coefficient for the gastrointestinal compartment
(h-1) k2 transfer coefficient for metabolic and
excretory systems (h-1)
States and inputs
x1 , x2, u1, u2
15
Equilibrium
Given constant inputs, u1 and u2,
16
Stability of equilibria
An equilibrium x a is asymptotically stable if
all the solutions starting in the neighbourhood
of a moves towards it.
17
Stability of trajectories
Stable
Unstable
Asymptotically stable
18
Phase portrait
The locus in the x1-x2 plane of the solution x(t)
for all t gt 0 is a curve that passes through the
point x0. The x1-x2 plane is usually called the
state plane or phase plane. For easy
visualization, we represent f(x)(f1(x),f2(x)),
x (x1,x2 ), as a vector, that is, we assign to
x the directed line segment from x to x
f(x). The family of all trajectories or solution
curves is called the phase portrait.
19
A Phase portrait of a pendulum
20
The phase portraits
  • Fixed or equilibrium points
  • Periodic orbits or limit cycles
  • Quasi periodic-attactors
  • Chaotic of strange attractors

Non linear dynamic systems theory studies the
property of the system in the phase plan
21
Linear systems
  • Linear systems f and g are linear in x and u
  • Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems

Theorem An equilibrium point of a LTI system is
stable, asymptotically stable or unstable if and
only if every equilibrium point of the system is
stable, asymptotically stable or unstable
respectively
22
Linear systems
  • The dynamics is characterized by the eigenvalues
    of the matrix A

23
Linear systems input/output representation
  • A linear system can be represented in the
    frequency domain

u(t)
y(t)
g(t) G(s)
Y(s)
U(s)
24
Reachability
Definition A state is reachable if there
exists a finite time instant and an input
, defined from 0 to , such that A system such
that all its states are reachable is called
completely reachable
25
Observability
Definition A state is called
unobservable if, for any finite , A system
without unobservable states is called completely
observable
26
Decomposition
27
Outline
  • Dynamic systems basics
  • Basic concepts
  • Linear and non linear dynamic systems
  • Structural and black box models of dynamic
    systems
  • Time series analysis
  • Some AI approaches for the analysis of time
    series
  • Knowledge-discovery through clustering of time
    series
  • Knowledge-based Temporal Abstractions

28
Data Models
  • Input/output or black box
  • Description of the system only by knowing
    measurable data
  • Typically based on minimal assumptions on the
    system
  • No infos on the internal structure of the system

29
Modeling with black-box
30
Data Models
SYSTEM
DATA
Modeling
PURPOSE
INPUT-OUTPUT RELATIONSHIP
PARAMETER ESTIMATE
MODEL
31
Data Models
  • Time series
  • Impulse response
  • Transfer functions (linear models)
  • Convolution / deconvolution (linear models)

32
Data models (Input-output) Example
Unknown parameters
33
System Models
  • White or grey box
  • Description of the internal structure of the
    system based on physical principles and on
    explicit hypotesis on causal relationships
  • After comparison with experimental data are aimed
    at understanding the principles of the system

34
System Models
SYSTEM
DATA
A priori knowledge
Modeling
Purpose
PARAMETER ESTIMATE
STRUCTURE
Assumptions
MODEL
35
SYSTEM MODELS (STRUCTURAL) COMPARTMENTAL MODELS
y1 x1/V1
u
x1
V1
k01
Unknown parameters pk01, V1T
Unknown parameters pk01, k12, k21, V1T
36
Structural models
Guesses/ Prior kb
Guesses/ Prior kb
37
Modeling time series
  • Time series data are correlated data are
    realizations of stochastic processes
  • Stochastic linear discrete input-output models
  • Two approaches
  • Model the data as a function of time (a
    regression over time)
  • Model the data as a function of its past values
    ARMA models
  • Often, assumption of stationarity (the mean and
    variance of the process generating the data do
    not change over time)

38
Autoregressive (AR) models
  • AR(h) is a regression model that regresses each
    point on the previous h time points. Example is
    AR(1)
  • Each value is affected by random noise with zero
    mean and variance s2
  • Can be learned with linear estimation algorithm

39
Moving Average (MA)
  • A different kind of model is the Moving Average
    model (MA(h))
  • It propagates over time the effect of the random
    fluctuations
  • The autocorrelation function may help in choosing
    proper models
  • An iterative estimation process is needed

40
ARMA
  • It can be used to obtain a more parsimonious
    model, with difficult autocorrelation functions

41
Exogenous inputs
  • The system can be driven not only by noise but
    also by eXogenous inputs

This is the general ARMAX model
42
Non linear models
  • Also non-linear stochastic models have been
    proposed in the literature
  • Examples are NARX models
  • NARX models can be easily learned from data with
    Neural Nets

43
Non linear AR models
  • Dynamic Bayesian Nets

Y1k-1
Y1k-1
Y2k-1
Y2k-1
44
From black-box to structural stochastic models
Y1
Y1
X1
X1
Examples - Kalman filters - Dynamic BNs - Hidden
Markov Models
X2
X2
Y2
Y2
45
Observable and partially observable models
k
k1
k
k1
X1
X1
X2
X2
Y2
Y2
Fully observable
Partially observable
46
Delay coordinate embedding
  • How to reconstruct a state-space representation
    from a uni-dimensional time series y
  • Sampled data
  • Idea add n state variables using the values of y
    with a delay of tau

47
Example
  • Data generated by a linear system with two state
    variables

48
Example
Time Y1 0 0 0.0100
0.0092 0.0200 0.0171 0.0300
0.0238 0.0400 0.0295 0.0500 0.0343
0.0600 0.0383 0.0700 0.0415
0.0800 0.0441 0.0900 0.0462
Time X1 X2 0 0
0.0343 0.0100 0.0092 0.0383
0.0200 0.0171 0.0415 0.0300 0.0238
0.0441 0.0400 0.0295 0.0462
Embedding Delay0.05
To 2 dimensions
From 1 dimension
49
Plots
Tau0.265
Tau0.0442
True
50
Challenges
  • Finding the embedding parameters
  • Estimate the number of state variable
  • Estimate the delay
  • Algorithms proposed in the literature
  • Autocorrelation
  • Pineda-Somerer
  • False near neighbour

51
Outline
  • Dynamic systems basics
  • Basic concepts
  • Linear and non linear dynamic systems
  • Structural and black box models of dynamic
    systems
  • Time series analysis
  • Some AI approaches for the analysis of time
    series
  • Knowledge-discovery through clustering of time
    series
  • Knowledge-based Temporal Abstractions

52
Clustering of time series
  • Several methodologies available
  • Similarity-based clustering
  • Model-based clustering
  • Template-based clustering

Zhong, S., Ghosh, J., Journal of Machine Learning
Research, 2003
53
Clustering of time series
  • Several methodologies available
  • Similarity-based clustering
  • Model-based clustering
  • Template-based clustering

Zhong, S., Ghosh, J., Journal of Machine Learning
Research, 2003
54
Similarity-Based Clustering
Key point to define a distance measure
(similarity function) between time
series. Strategy temporal profiles which verify
the same similarity condition are grouped
together. Different classes of algorithms
hierarchical clustering, partitioning methods,
self-organizing maps.
Eisen et al., 1998 Tamayo et al., 1999
55
Similarity-Based Clustering how to choose a
distance
Minkowski metric Given the time series S s1,
, sn T t1, , tn
S
T
p 1 Manhattan p 2 Euclidean p 8 Sup
D(S,T)
56
Euclidean distance limits
Problem
Solutions
Offset Translation
S S - mean(S)
T T - mean(T)
Amplitude Scaling
Noise
Smoothing
57
Other distances (1)
Correlation coefficient
  • Useful for temporal models.
  • Looks for similarities of the shapes of profiles.
  • Disadvantage not robust to temporal dislocations

58
Other distances (2)
Dynamic Time Warping
Warped time axis
Fixed time axis
Idea to extend each sequence by repeating some
element. It is possible to calculate the
euclidean distance between the extended
sequences.
59
Functional genomics Hiercarchical Clustering
with correlation coefficients
Time series of 13 samples of 517 genes of human
fibroblasts stimulated with serum. Dendrograms
are related to the heat-maps of gene expression
over time.
Eisen et al., PNAS 1998 Iyer et al., Science, 1999
60
Clustering of time series
  • Similarity-based clustering
  • Model-based clustering
  • Template-based clustering

Zhong, S., Ghosh, J., Journal of Machine Learning
Research, 2003
61
Model-based Clustering (1)
Key point assume that the data are sampled from
a population composed by sub-populations
characterized by different stochastic processes
clusters processes model Strategy the
temporal profiles generated by the same
stochastic process are grouped in the same
cluster. The clustering problem becomes a problem
of model selection.
Cheesman and Stutz, 1996 Fraley and Raftery,
2002 Yeung et al., 2001
62
Model-based Clustering (2)
  • Given
  • Y the data
  • M a set of stochastic dynamic models and a
    cluster division
  • T the model parameters
  • A suitable approach
  • Bayesian approach select the model which
    maximize the posterior probability of the model M
    given the data Y, P(MY)

Ramoni e Sebastiani, 1999 Baldi e Brunak, 1998
Kay, 1993
63
The Bayesian Solution
Ramoni et al., PNAS 2002
Analysis of gene expression time series CAGED
system (Cluster Analysis of Gene Expression
Dynamics) Assumption time series generated by an
unknown number of autoregressive stochastic
processes (AR) From Bayes theorem P(MY)
proportional to f(YM) (marginal
likelihood) Assumption hypothesis on the
distribution on the model parameters ?
calculation of f(YM) for each possible model in
closed form Model selection agglomerative
process heuristic strategy Cluster number
automatically selected maximizing the marginal
likelihood
64
Clustering of time series
  • Similarity-based clustering
  • Model-based clustering
  • Template-based clustering

Zhong, S., Ghosh, J., Journal of Machine Learning
Research, 2003
65
Template-Based Clustering (1)
Idea group the time series on the basis of the
similarity with a set of qualitative prototypes
(templates)
66
Template-Based Clustering (2)
Data representation from quantitative to
qualitative Templates may capture the relevant
characteristics of an expression profile,
although they can eliminate the spurious effects
caused by noise. They may simplify the process of
capturing the variety of behavior which
characterize the gene expression profiles.
Current Limit templates and clusters have to be
a-priori identified.
67
Template-Based Clustering an example
Hvidsten et al., 2003
Template-based clustering is used to forecast the
gene function on the basis of the knowledge of
known genes.
68
Template-Based Clustering an example
Example all sets of time series with 4 points
69
Template-Based Clustering an example
Matching
70
Template-Based Clustering real gene expression
data
Cluster example 2h-12h Decreasing
71
Template-based clustering with temporal
abstractions
QUALITATIVE representation of expression profiles
72
Temporal Primitives
  • Time point
  • Interval

73
Temporal Entities
  • Events (lttime-point, valuegt)
  • Episodes (ltinterval, patterngt)

Pattern specific data course (decreasing,
normal, stationary, )
74
Time Series sequence of events
75
Data Abstraction Methods
  • Qualitative Abstraction quantitative data are
    abstracted into qualitative (a BGL of 110 U/ml
    is abstracted into normal value)
  • Temporal Abstraction (TA) time stamped data are
    aggregated into intervals associated to specific
    patterns.

76
Temporal Abstractions
  • Methods used to generate an abstract description
    of temporal data represented by a sequence of
    episodes.

77
Temporal Abstractions
78
State Temporal Abstractions
79
Trend Temporal Abstractions
80
Stationary Temporal Abstractions
81
Complex Abstractions
82
Complex Abstractions example
Somogyi Effect response to hypoglycemia while
asleep with counter-regulatory hormones causing
morning hyperglycemia
hyperglycemia at Breakfast OVERLAPS absence of
glycosuria
83
Relationships between intervals Allen algebra
Allen, J.F. Towards a general theory of action
and time. Artificial Intelligence (1984)
84
Clustering with dynamic template generation
  • Idea apply Temporal Abstractions
  • Generate Tas for each temporal profile
  • Cluster together similar TAs

85
TA generation
Linear regression
Original time series
Trend TAs extracted from local slopes
Picewise linear approximation (J.A. Horst, I.
Beichl, 1997)
86
Labeling at different abstraction level (1)
S ? Steady I ? Increasing
I I
I I S I
I S S I
I S I I
87
Labeling at different abstraction level (2)
88
Building clusters
Time series to be clustered ? labels L1, L2, L3
Comparison
L1
Comparison
L2
Comparison
?
L3
89
Results Taxonomy
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae gene expression
L2
Template Increasing Decreasing
L3
(S. Chu et al. The Transcriptional Program of
Sporulation in Budding Yeast. Science, 1998.)
90
Results (1)
GO Process
(B.J. Breitkreutz et al. Osprey a network
visualization system. Genome Biology, 2003)
91
Results (2)
GO Process
92
Results (3)
93
Outline
  • Dynamic systems basics
  • Basic concepts
  • Linear and non linear dynamic systems
  • Structural and black box models of dynamic
    systems
  • Time series analysis
  • AI approaches for the analysis of time series
  • Knowledge-discovery through clustering of time
    series
  • Knowledge-based Temporal Abstractions

94
Conclusions
  • Time is a (the?) crucial aspect of our lives
  • It is therefore crucial for Intelligent data
    analysis
  • Understanding the dynamics of processes through
    modeling
  • IDA as an interdisciplinary field manage time by
    combining systems theory, probability theory, AI,
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