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ECOLOGY

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ecology & environmental problems dr. ron chesser lecture #7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ECOLOGY


1
ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
DR. RON CHESSER LECTURE 7
2
The National Academy of Engineerings
announcement of the top 20 engineering
achievements of the 20th century. 
  • 1. Electrification
  • 2. Automobile
  • 3. Airplane
  • 4. Water Supply and Distribution
  • 5. Electronics
  • 6. Radio and Television
  • 7. Agricultural Mechanization
  • 8. Computers
  • 9. Telephone
  • 10. Air Conditioning Refrigeration
  • 11. Highways
  • 12. Spacecraft
  • 13. Internet
  • 14. Imaging
  • 15. Household Appliances
  • 16. Health Technologies
  • 17. Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies
  • 18. Laser and Fiber Optics
  • 19. Nuclear Technologies
  • 20. High-performance Materials

3
Electrification Sources
4
US ENERGY SOURCES
5
FOSSIL FUELS
THE ENVIRONMENT
6
Do we have enough Energy? -- Energy Crises --
  • Greece and Rome Madagascar
  • OPEC and 1973
  • Chernobyl 3-mile Island
  • Californias Energy Crisis too much of a good
    thing?
  • Natural Gas Prices ENRON

7
US ELECTRICAL POWER
8
COST VS USE

                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                            As the price for electricity (in cents per kilowatt hour) goes up, the amount people use (in kilowatt hours per year) goes down. These charts are for residential use.
9
Increasing Oil Prices?
  • Oil price per barrel, 1890 to 1998, in 1998
    dollars.

10
NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION
11
Our Crisis for Energy
12
PIPELINE CAPACITIES
13
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14
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
15
The Earth is a Greenhouse
Without greenhouse gases, the suns heat would
escape and the average temperature of the Earth
would drop from 15 degrees Celsius to 18
degrees Celsius!
16
NORMAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT
17
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18
ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT
19
Global Warming
  • Global warming refers to a rise in average global
    temperature due to human activities namely, the
    emissions of greenhouse gases produced by the
    burning of fossil fuels, and land-use changes
    like deforestation.
  • Scientists predict that higher temperatures
    will probably be accompanied by an increase in
    extreme weather events, such as flooding and
    drought, as well as global sea-level rise. While
    the first signs of global warming are apparent
    now, a sharp reduction of greenhouse gas
    emissions can significantly slow global warming.

20
How hot will it get?
  • There is a worldwide consensus among climate
    scientists that global average temperature has
    risen about 1F (0.4C-0.8C) in the past 140
    years.
  • According to the IPCC, Earth may warm by 2.5F to
    10.4F (1.4-5.8C) by the end of this century,
    potentially making our planet warmer than at any
    time since dinosaurs were dominant.

21
Global Warming The effects of global warming
are already being seen. For example, in 1998 the
world experienced many extreme weather-related
disasters
  • Two thousand five hundred people drowned and 56
    million were driven from their homes in China,
    due to the flooding of the Yangtze River.
  • The monsoon season put two-thirds of Bangladesh
    under water for more than a month and left 21
    million people homeless.
  • In India, 3000 people died of heat-stroke.
  • Hurricane Mitch hit Honduras with
    180-mile-per-hour winds it washed away an
    estimated 70 of all crops, killed 11,000 people,
    and left a third of the population homeless.
  • Forty-five countries experienced severe droughts,
    a number of which were accompanied by runaway
    fires. A prolonged drought left Russia with its
    lowest grain harvest in 40 years.
  • Healthy rainforests do not burn, but 1998 saw
    serious fires throughout Southeast Asia and the
    Amazon. Fires in southern Mexico were so
    extensive that they led to air quality alerts
    throughout Texas.

22
GLOBAL CHANGE
Arctic ice 'melting from below
                                                  
                               
23
THE GREENHOUSE GASES
Carbon Dioxide or CO2 is the most significant greenhouse gas released by human activities, mostly through the burning of fossil fuels. It is the main contributor to climate change. Methane is produced when vegetation is burned, digested or rotted with no oxygen present. Garbage dumps, rice paddies, and grazing cows and other livestock release lots of methane. You can find nitrous oxide naturally in the environment but human activities are increasing the amounts. Nitrous oxide is released when chemical fertilizers and manure are used in agriculture. Halocarbons are a family of chemicals that include CFCs (which also damage the ozone layer), and other human-made chemicals that contain chlorine and fluorine
24
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25
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United
States 2001 Summary
26
Sources of Nitrous Oxide
27
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28
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
29
CO2 INCREASES
30
Sources of Nitrous Oxide
  • Emissions associated with nitrogen fertilization
    of soils
  • Emissions from the solid waste of animals
  • Industrial processes and wastewater treatment
    facilities
  • fossil fuel combustion
  • 82.7 percent comes from mobile sources,
    principally motor vehicles equipped with
    catalytic converters

31
  • Land Use and Forestry
  • Forest lands in the United States are net
    absorbers of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
  • rate at which forests absorb carbon slows as the
    trees mature
  • rate of reforestation has slowed
  • SOURCES AND SINKS --

32
How are governments addressing this problem?
  • International agreements have called for a
    reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases to
    reduce the effects of future global warming.
  • Over 100 countries, including the European Union,
    Canada and Japan, have ratified the Kyoto
    Protocol.
  • The United States, the biggest emitter of
    greenhouse gases in the world, has refused to
    ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

33
GREENHOUSE EMMISSIONS The Kyoto Target
34
USA
35
RUSSIA
36
FRANCE
37
OZONE
  • Ozone is primarily found in the atmosphere at
    varying concentrations between the altitudes of
    10 to 50 kilometers. This layer of ozone is also
    called the ozone layer (depicted in yellow).
  • Ozone protects life from the harmful effects of
    ultraviolet radiation.
  • Without it life could not exist on Earth

38
Alternate Energy Sources
39
Exam I
  • Chapters 1, 2, 5, 16, pages 51-52, 306-323
  • 50 questions multiple choice
  • Bring a pencil with a good eraser
  • Know your social security number
  • Bring your student ID
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