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Chapter 1 Basic Anatomy

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Chapter 1 Basic Anatomy Chris Rorden Coordinates Introduction to the nervous system Multiple choice What is an example of a common mnemonic? Someone with blue eyes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Basic Anatomy


1
Chapter 1 Basic Anatomy
  • Chris Rorden
  • Coordinates
  • Introduction to the nervous system

2
Multiple choice
  • What is an example of a common mnemonic?
  • Someone with blue eyes.
  • Someone with odd eyes (one blue, one green).
  • The left hand is controlled by the right side of
    the brain.
  • Kings prefer chess over football, generally
    speaking.

3
Mnemonics
  • Mnemonics tools to aid memory
  • Kings prefer chess over football generally
    speaking Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
    genus, species.
  • My very easy method, just set up nine planets
    Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Neptune
    Pluto
  • Other methods include loci (imagine a walk with
    different objects in different locations) or
    rhymes (one is a bun, two is a shoe)

4
Multiple choice
  • What is the symbol for Sagittarius?
  • The Water Carrier.
  • The Archer.
  • The Sea-goat.
  • The Lion.

5
Sagittarius
6
SLP and Neuroscience
  • Speech-Language Pathology
  • Study of developmental and acquired disorders of
    human cognition, language and speech
  • Complete neurolinguistic assessments and
    management
  • Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuroradiology
  • Neuroembryology
  • Neurophysiology
  • Neuropathology

7
The Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Brain Spinal Cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • Cranial Nerves (never enter spinal column)
  • Spinal Nerves
  • All nerves to muscles and sensory reception sites

8
Terms for Fiber Tracts
  • Fiber tracts like the internet sending
    information across distances
  • Bundle - a group of fibers
  • Column - a pillar of fibers
  • Fasciculus - a small bundle
  • Funiculus - a cord a cord of nerve fibers in a
    nerve trunk
  • Lemniscus - a ribbon of fibers
  • Tract - a large group of fibers, a pathway
  • You should be familiar with primary pathways

9
Organization
  • CNS
  • Relays incoming and outgoing messages
  • Integrates Information
  • Higher mental functions (language, cognition)
  • Regulates

10
The two hemispheres
  • Left hemisphere is dominant for language and
    handedness
  • Right hemisphere is dominant for music, emotion,
    and spatial processing
  • Bilateral Anatomical Symmetry
  • Connected by Corpus Callosum
  • Unilateral Functional Differences
  • Little lateralization of function at birth
  • Gradual development of specialization

11
Laterality and Function
  • Sensory information projects to opposite
    hemisphere
  • Object felt in right hand, Information processed
    by left hemisphere
  • Pain felt in left foot, Information processed by
    right hemisphere
  • Motor functions are also contralateral

Motor Functions
Sensory Functions
12
Types of Brain Tissue
  • Gray Matter The neurons or cells which have
    specialized neurologic functions (motor or
    sensory)
  • White Matter Axons which form pathways for
    conducting different types of information.

13
Distinct Pathways
  • Connections are not random specific.
    organization of connections.
  • Carry information from peripheral body parts to
    specific areas of the brain - project to
    particular cortex (outside bark) of the brain
  • Each peripheral body part has a receptive area of
    the brain responsible for processing or receiving
    input
  • Example visual cortex

14
Plasticity of the Brain
  • Brain injury is permanent, but individuals can
    show recovery.
  • Plasticity refers to the brains ability to
    reorganize and modify functions and adapt to
    internal and external changes
  • Important for learning
  • Important for rehabilitation
  • Younger brains tend to be more plastic

15
How do we learn about brain function?
  • Classically, examine deficits following brain
    injury, infer that damaged brain area is required
    for task.
  • Today, most studies of brain function utilize
    neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI (functional
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or PET(Positron
    Emission Tomography) These studies usually
    focus on normal brains

16
MRI scan
  • This image is in radiological orientation (left
    is shown on right).
  • Images can also be in neurological orientation
    (left on left)
  • These structural scans can show abnormalities and
    injury.

L
17
CT Scans
  • CT scans use X-Rays to see inside body.
  • Excellent for bone
  • Often first scan in acute care (e.g. unconscious
    patient can not tell us if they have pacemaker,
    cochlear implant, or other contraindications to
    MRI).

18
PET/SPECT Images
  • Measures of blood flow can help determine brain
    metabolism. PET Inject radioactively labeled
    glucose.
  • Note reduced uptake in posterior region.

19
Combining anatomy and metabolism
  • Anatomical scans (T2 MRI) have excellent spatial
    resolution.
  • Metabolic scans can identify abnormalities (e.g.
    tumor).
  • Combining takes advantage of complementary
    strengths

20
Relative Coordinates
  • On the globe we talk about North, South, East and
    West.
  • Lets explore the coordinates for the brain.

21
Orientation
  • Human anatomy described as if person is standing
  • If person is lying down, we would still say the
    head is superior to feet.

22
Orientation - animals
  • Dorsalback

Dorsal
Rostral
Caudal
Ventral
  • Cranialhead
  • Rostralbeak
  • Caudaltail
  • Ventralbelly

23
Coordinates Dorsal Ventral
  • Human dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal differ
    for brain and spine.
  • Head/Foot, Superior/Inferior, Anterior/Posterior
    not ambiguous.

Dorsal Ventral
Superior Inferior
Dorsal Ventral
24
Coordinates Human
  • Human dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal differ
    for brain and spine.
  • Head/Foot, Superior/Inferior, Anterior/Posterior
    not ambiguous.

C
R
R
R
C
Posterior
Anterior
C
25
Anatomy Relative Directions
lateral lt medial gt lateral
Posterior ltgt Anterior
Ventral/Dorsal aka Inferior/Superior aka Foot/Head
Ventral ltgt Dorsal
Anterior/Posterior aka Rostral/Caudal
Posterior ltgt Anterior
26
Coordinates - Anatomy
  • 3 Common Views of Brain
  • Coronal (head on)
  • Sagittal (profile)
  • Axial (birds eye), aka Transverse. The book
    calls this Horizontal but it is not horizontal
    when we are lying in a scanner.

27
Coronal
  • Corona crown a coronal plane is parallel to
    crown that passes from ear to ear
  • Coronal cut creates anterior, posterior portions

28
Transverse
  • Transverse perpendicular to the long axis
  • These cuts are also referred to as Axial.

Example cucumber slices are transverse to long
axis.
29
Sagittal
  • Sagittal arrow like
  • Sagittal cut divides object into left and right
  • sagittal suture looks like an arrow.

top view
30
Sagittal and Midsagittal
  • A Sagittal slice down the midline is called the
    midsagittal view.

midsagittal
sagittal
31
Oblique Slices
  • Slices that are not cut parallel to an orthogonal
    plane are called oblique.
  • The oblique blue slice is neither Coronal nor
    Axial.

Cor
Oblique
Ax
32
Distance from midline
  • Medial near sagittal midlineOptic chiasm C
    medial of eyes
  • Lateral far from sag. MidlineEyes are lateral
    of optic chiasm
  • Ipsilateral same sideDamage to A will cause
    blindness in ipsilateral eye
  • Contralateral different sideDamage to D will
    lead to a contralateral field cut.
  • Note after brain injury (lesions) we talk about
    contralesional and ipsilesionalDamage to visual
    cortex G leads to problems with contralesional
    vision.

33
Relative positions
  • Distance From Body
  • Proximal, Central near center of body
  • Think proximity
  • Shoulders are proximal parts of arms
  • Distal,peripheral away from body
  • Think distant
  • Fingers are distal parts of the arms
  • Distance from Surface
  • Superficial, external near surface
  • The bump bruised superficial tissue.
  • Profound, deep far from surface
  • The car crash injured deep organs.

34
Movements
Flexion
Extension - Increasing angle between two body
parts (-Flexion). Adduction - Pulls body part
toward midline (-Abduction) Pronation - A
rotation of the forearm that moves the palm from
an anterior-facing position to a posterior-facing
position (-Supination)
Supination
Pronation
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
35
Types of cells in the brain
  • Neuron Cell which is responsible for receiving,
    transmitting and synthesizing information
  • cell body contains organelles for metabolism and
    a nucleus
  • Glial Cells Support cells for Neurons (CNS
    oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells,
    radial glial PNS Satellite and Schwann cells)

36
Neuron Types
  • Neurons come in different types some only
    communicate locally, while others have very long
    axons that communicate with distant regions.

37
Glial Cells
  • Glial cells have crucial functions
    www.mult-sclerosis.org/glialcells.html
  • Repair, maintenance and cleaning. They produce
    new myelin when it become damaged, lay down scar
    tissue, and remove dead cells and other debris.
  • Physical support. They have hairlike filaments
    which hold the neurons in place and allow the
    central nervous system to retain its structural
    integrity.
  • CNS development. Help migration of neurons.
  • Chemical regulation. Supply chemicals such as
    potassium and calcium and regulate
    neurotransmitter levels.
  • Ten times as many glial cells as neurons

38
Multiple choice
  • Why is the difference between a tumor and a
    cancer?
  • Cancer involves neurons, tumors involve other
    cells (e.g. glial cells).
  • Tumor involves neurons, cancer involves other
    cells (e.g. glial cells).
  • Tumor is due to virus, cancer is due to bacteria
  • A tumor can be benign, pre-malignant or
    malignant, whereas cancer is by definition
    malignant.

39
Tumors
  • Tumor from the Latin "swelling
  • In medicine, swelling due to abnormal,
    uncontrolled cell division
  • Brain tumors are usually due to glial cells
    (gliomas).
  • Glial cells more common, so higher probability of
    cell becoming cancerous.
  • Neurons usually stop dividing earlier.

40
The Central Nervous System
  • Telencephalon (Cerebrum)
  • Cortex
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Diencephalon
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus)
  • Mesencephalon (Midbrain)
  • Colliculi
  • Substancia Nigra
  • Rhombencephalon
  • Cerebellum
  • Pons
  • Medulla

41
Deep Structures
  • Basal Ganglia Initiates movements
  • Caudate nucleus, Putamen,Globus pallidus
  • Diencephalon
  • Thalamus Relay from body to cortex
  • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland Regulation
    (e.g. hormone secretion)

42
Deep Structures
  • Basal Ganglia Initiates movements
  • Caudate nucleus(red)
  • Putamen (green)
  • Globus pallidus (blue)
  • Diencephalon
  • Thalamus (yellow)
  • Hypothalamus (not shown)

43
Brain Stem
  • Midbrain
  • Early auditory/visual processing
  • Dopamine for movement control
  • CN III and IV emerge
  • Pons
  • CN V, VI, VII VIII
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Pyramidal decussation nerves from left cross to
    right side and vise versa
  • CN IX, X, XI, XII

44
The cortex
  • Cortex Bark shell of brain mostly gray
    matter
  • 80 of human brain
  • 20 of squirrel brain

45
Multiple choice
  • What does temporal usually refer to?
  • Space.
  • Color.
  • Time.
  • Loudness.

46
Multiple choice
  • Why is it called the temporal lobe?
  • This area handles memory remembering previous
    times.
  • This lobe processes hearing hearing requires
    good temporal precision.
  • This lobe is under the temples, where the hair
    turns gray early in life.
  • This area helps with counting which we use for
    timing events.

47
Cortical folding
  • Cortical folding increases surface area.
  • Ridges are called Gyri (singular Gyrus)
  • Greek gyros circle, hence a coil of brain
    cortex
  • Valleys are called Sulci (singular Sulcus).
  • Latin a groove.

Gyri Sulci
48
Gray and White Matter
  • The outer surface of the cortex is gray matter
    lots of interconnected neurons (like cities)
  • Underneath is the white matter the highways
    connecting regions.

49
Functional Classifications
  • Some neurons transmit general information
  • Pain and Temperature
  • Originate in surface structures
  • Other neurons transmit specialized information
  • Specialized receptors
  • Hearing and vision
  • Somatic Skeletal muscles
  • Visceral Refer to internal vital body organs
  • Can be either
  • Afferent Sensory
  • Efferent Motor

50
Cortical layers
  • Neurons are in six layers
  • I. Molecular layer
  • II. External granular layer
  • III. External pyramidal layer
  • IV. Internal granular layer
  • V.Internal pyramidal layer
  • VI. Fusiform layer
  • Functions
  • Superficial layers (I-III) inter-cortical
    connections
  • IV input from thalamus
  • V,VI outputs to leave cortex

51
The big folds
  • The folds of your brain are like a fingerprint
    there are a few general patterns, with individual
    variability.
  • Two main folds
  • Central SulcusFissure of RolandoRolandic sulcus
  • Lateral sulcusSylvian fissure

52
Describing cortex location
  • Brodmann Areas (BAs, 1909)
  • Appearance of cortex under microscope
  • Not necessarily function
  • Arbitrary numbers are hard to remember
  • Some are crucial for a speech pathologist
  • 44 Brocas Area
  • 22 Wernickes Area

53
Brodmann Areas (medial slice)
  • Note that gray matter is located in the
    longitudinal fissure (between the two hemispheres)

54
Cortical Names
  • Much of cortex referred to by combination of
    coordinatelobegyrus
  • E.G. Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG)
  • Middle Temporal Gyrus(MTG)
  • Lateral Occipital Gyrus (LOG)

55
Cortical names
  • Tip of an object called a pole
  • Frontal Pole
  • Temporal Pole

56
Sulci names
  • Many of sulci referred to by combination of
    coordinatelobesulcus
  • Superior temporal sulcus (STS)
  • Inferior frontal sulcus (IFS)
  • Precentral and postcentral sulciare just
    anterior and posterior to the central sulcus.

57
Brain function
  • Anatomy is interested with the structure of an
    organism.
  • Physiology is interested in the function of the
    structure.
  • We are still learning about brain function
  • Modern maps of brain function are primitive

58
Brain function
  • Much of the primate cortex devoted to vision.
  • In some monkeys, up to 50 of neocortex is
    devoted to vision.

59
Brain function
  • Two striking features of human brain
  • Lots of cortex left over (yellow) not devoted
    to specific task we are flexible
  • Not much of the cortex is solely devoted to
    language.
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