ESL 101: Practical Suggestions for Accommodating English Language Learners in the Regular Classroom Elana Hohl, St. James the Less Columbus, Ohio ehohl@cdeducation.org - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ESL 101: Practical Suggestions for Accommodating English Language Learners in the Regular Classroom Elana Hohl, St. James the Less Columbus, Ohio ehohl@cdeducation.org

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Title: ESL 101: Practical Suggestions for Accommodating English Language Learners in the Regular Classroom Elana Hohl, St. James the Less Columbus, Ohio ehohl@cdeducation.org


1
ESL 101 Practical Suggestions for
Accommodating English Language Learners in the
Regular Classroom Elana Hohl, St. James the
Less Columbus, Ohio ehohl_at_cdeducation.org
2
  • Read the IM conversation on the next page. Use
    the information from the conversation to answer
    the questions.

3
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz LTNS
  • Bandit Chillin School
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz the 411 on Ethan?
  • Bandit Cant talk PAW
  • Pnutbuttr L8R then
  • Bandit No OK now
  • Pnutbuttr IZ movin?
  • Bandit HSIK
  • Pnutbuttr Heard he was -(
  • Bandit Who Susan? ()
  • Pnutbuttr UL miss him
  • Bandit NBD
  • Pnutbuttr 8-0
  • Bandit Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on
  • Pnutbuttr Who
  • Bandit Alex . . . SETE
  • Pnutbuttr Wow B
  • Bandit Agreed. BRB
  • Pnutbuttr B4N

4
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz LTNS
  • Bandit Chillin School
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz the 411 on Ethan?
  • Bandit Cant talk PAW
  • Pnutbuttr L8R then
  • Bandit No OK now
  • Pnutbuttr IZ movin?
  • Bandit HSIK
  • Pnutbuttr Heard he was -(
  • Bandit Who Susan? ()
  • Pnutbuttr UL miss him
  • Bandit NBD
  • Pnutbuttr 8-0
  • Bandit Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on
  • Pnutbuttr Who
  • Bandit Alex . . . SETE
  • Pnutbuttr Wow B
  • Bandit Agreed. BRB
  • Pnutbuttr B4N
  • Why cant Bandit IM back when Pnutbuttr first
    contacts her?
  • What does Bandit call Susan for telling about
    Ethan moving?
  • How does Bandit feel about Ethan moving? Why?
  • What does the word LOL mean?
  • When does Bandit plan to see Pnutbuttr?

5
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz LTNS
  • Bandit Chillin School
  • Pnutbuttr Wuz the 411 on Ethan?
  • Bandit Cant talk PAW
  • Pnutbuttr L8R then
  • Bandit No OK now
  • Pnutbuttr IZ movin?
  • Bandit HSIK
  • Pnutbuttr Heard he was -(
  • Bandit Who Susan? ()
  • Pnutbuttr UL miss him
  • Bandit NBD
  • Pnutbuttr 8-0
  • Bandit Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on
  • Pnutbuttr Who
  • Bandit Alex . . . SETE
  • Pnutbuttr Wow B
  • Bandit Agreed. BRB
  • Pnutbuttr B4N
  • Pnutbuttr Whats up? Long time no see.
  • Bandit Ive been hanging out at school.
  • Pnutbuttr Whats the information on Ethan?
  • Bandit Cant talk. My parents are watching.
  • Pnutbuttr Ill talk to you later then.
  • Bandit No, its OK now.
  • Pnutbuttr Is he moving?
  • Bandit How should I know?
  • Pnutbuttr I heard he was confused.
  • Bandit From who? Susan? () She has a big
    mouth.
  • Pnutbuttr Youll miss him.
  • Bandit No big deal.
  • Pnutbuttr Im shocked.
  • Bandit Yeah, laugh out loud. Ive moved on.
  • Pnutbuttr Who?
  • Bandit Alex . . . Smiling from ear to ear.
  • Pnutbuttr Wow. Hes hot.
  • Bandit I agree. Be right back.
  • Pnutbuttr Bye for now.

6
  • 1. Was this activity easy or difficult?
  • 2. What would have helped you be more successful
    with this activity?
  • 3. How does this relate to the ELLs in your
    class?

7
Lets clarify a few acronyms
  • ELL - English language learner (the student)
  • ESL - English as a second language (the program)
  • LEP - limited English proficient (former term for
    ELL)
  • TESOL - teaching English to speakers of other
    languages (the professional organization)
  • L1 - first language
  • L2 - second language

8
Why do we need to think about the ELL in our
classrooms?
  • Growing number of immigrants in our schools,
    particularly those of Hispanic origin.
  • Public schools have been dealing with meeting the
    needs of second language learners from many
    countries--immigrants and refugees--for years.
    Recent phenomenon in Ohios parochial schools due
    to the states voucher system.
  • We have a moral obligation to educate all of the
    students in our classrooms.
  • St. James has seen a growth from 8 to 150 in the
    past 4 years.

9
What factors do we need to consider to
accommodate these students in our classrooms?
  • Background of Student
  • BICS vs.CALP
  • Content Area Classrooms
  • Teaching Strategies

10
Background of Student
  • Age of the Student
  • Individual personality
  • Language background
  • Educational background
  • of student
  • of parent
  • Background experiences
  • Socio-economic level

11
BICS vs. CALP
  • BICS - Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
    or social language--the language of everyday
    conversation and social interaction learned in 6
    months to 3 years
  • CALP - Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    or academic language--the language of academic
    settings learned in 5 to 7 years--or longer

12
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13
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14
What do students identify as reasons why content
area subjects are difficult?
15
  • Homework--no one to help me at home
  • Vocabulary, vocabulary, vocabulary
  • No background in the subject
  • Too many new concepts
  • Tests, notes, text too difficult
  • Too much to write and remember
  • Pacing is too fast
  • Teacher speaks too fast
  • Dont like to read

16
What do students identify as reasons why they
feel comfortable in a content area class?
17
  • The teacher tries to understand what I say.
  • The teacher is nice to me.
  • The teacher explains things to me.
  • The teacher uses easier words to explain things
    to me when I dont understand.
  • When there are fewer students in the class I
    dont feel embarrassed making mistakes.
  • My English doesnt have to be perfect.

18
What have students told us they need us to do to
help them succeed in the classroom?
19
  • Explain things to me help me to understand
  • Use easier words
  • Teach us how to do it (model)
  • Repeat in different ways (scaffold)
  • Use verbal and non-verbal cues
  • Write on the board
  • Use positive reinforcement

20
  • Speak slower
  • Give us more time to do the work/assignment
  • Say it more than once so we can get it
  • Do group work so someone can explain to me
  • Dont write in cursive
  • Write it AND tell me
  • Give me written notes so I can study at home

21
  • Teaching in primary grades tends to be more
    context embedded (show and tell/hands
    on/movement)
  • Teaching in secondary grades tends to be less
    context imbedded and require more listening
    without the benefit of visual clues (lectures,
    read and respond to textbooks).
  • Learning for ELLs at the secondary level depends
    on teachers using strategies and accommodations
    to help their students learn.

22
Language confusion in the content classes?
Some examples
23
Math
  • A submarine is 285 feet under the surface of the
    ocean. A helicopter is flying at 285 feet above
    sea level. Given that the helicopter is directly
    above the submarine, how far apart are they?
  • 285 feet
  • 4215 feet
  • 4785 feet
  • 4,500 feet

24
Social Studies
  • the right to bear arms

25
Language Arts
  • Q Which words from the passage are used as
    persuasion in that they express an attitude of
    sympathy for animals that are prey to big cats?
  • A. how they move and hunt
  • B. might eat fruit, field mice and large
    insects
  • C. dinner, which is usually an unfortunate
    antelope.
  • D. that they are wild, powerful animals.

26
Surviving High Stakes Testing
  • ELLs must acquire the language skills
  • needed for everyday communication--skills that
    native English speakers usually bring to school
  • as well as those needed for subject matter
    learning.

27
  • Children do not learn this kind of language on
    their own or through simple immersion in an
    English speaking environment.
  • Mastering academic English--and thus surviving
    high stakes testing
  • and graduating from high school--
  • requires instructional activities and strategies
    that actively promote language development in the
    context of learning intellectually challenging
    content.

28
How to Modify for the ELL in Your Content Area
Classroom Realistic Suggestions from Teachers
in the Trenches
29
  • Suggestions for Modifying and Note-taking

30
  • Activate prior knowledge
  • Brainstorm as a group
  • Combine language objectives with content area
    objectives
  • Use word associations (Ex. synonym and same)
  • Pre-teach essential vocabulary
  • Provide visual ways to remember things
  • Make real world associations (Ex. slope and
    snowboarding)
  • Categorize vocabulary (Ex. by parts of speech,
    similarities, etc.

31
  • Connect to the cultures and backgrounds of
    diverse students (Ex. examine foods unique to
    students cultures to determine food groups)
  • Classify information from texts using graphic
    organizers and other visual representations
    (tables, T-charts, KWL charts, Venn diagrams)
  • Connect through pictures and realia
  • Complete tasks in small groups with specific
    responsibilities assigned to each student
    (recorder, reporter, supervisor)
  • Give students specific items to identify rather
    than broad vocabulary words (Ex. Explorers--where
    from, where going, when and why, result/outcome
  • Student presentations through active
    involvement--chants, plays.drama, visuals, models
    dioramas, posters

32
  • Sample Modifications for
  • Social Studies and Science

33
  • Identify and make students responsible for the
    big ideas
  • Break assignments into parts
  • Pair ELLS with a competent science/social studies
    partner
  • Reduce number of requirements within each part of
    the assignment
  • Check frequently for understanding
  • Write examples/directions on the board (visuals)
  • Show ELLs a successfully completed assignment
  • Add participation to the standard of grading
  • Choose an element that the ELL can relate to
  • Give extended time
  • Give mini-deadlines rather than one due date

34
  • Test Modifications and Accommodations

35
  • Use old tests for review so students can become
    familiar with format, types of questions
  • Reduce length of test as appropriate
  • Provide review sheet
  • Reduce language complexity
  • Highlight key words
  • Reduce number of choices (eg. 4 to 3 multiple
    choice responses)
  • Provide a word bank for fill-in-the-blank
  • Reduce essay requirements. Assign a specific
    writing topic prior to the test.
  • Read the test aloud to students with more basic
    English proficiency
  • Provide extended time to complete the test
  • Give open book/open note test

36
Adapting Strategies for Classroom Instruction
What do we need to think about when we plan our
lessons?
37
  • Activating and building background knowledge
  • Checking for comprehension
  • Giving clear directions
  • Creating homework routines
  • Increasing opportunities for teacher-student
    interaction
  • Increasing opportunities for student-student
    interaction
  • Adapting textbooks
  • Modifying the language of assignments
  • Modifying assessments
  • Giving alternative assessments

38
  • Creating an environment where the student feels
    comfortable about asking questions and making
    mistakes.

39
Activating and Building Background Knowledge
  • Brainstorm
  • Think-pair-share
  • Use graphic organizers when possible, such as
    K-W-L charts, webs, venn diagrams
  • Personalize the lessons (through comparisons,
    real world connections, etc.
  • Link lessons to past learning and experiences

40
Checking for Comprehension
  • Never ask an ELL student, Do you understand?
  • - Use signals (thumbs up, thumbs down)
  • - Ask them to complete the sentence
  • - Ask them to show you
  • - Ask an open-ended question
  • (Not all questions are created equal.)
  • End with review. It reinforces and provides
    feedback.

41
Giving Clear Directions
  • Help students identify multiple steps.
  • Give both oral and written directions.
  • Model what you want the student to do.
  • Show the student examples of good work.
  • Have the students repeat the directions back to
    you.
  • Ask for questions.

42
Creating Homework Routines
  • Allow the student adequate time to write down the
    homework.
  • Write the assignment down in the same place every
    day.
  • Allow time to begin in class.
  • Allow extra time to complete the assignment.

43
Increasing Opportunities for Teacher-Student
Interaction
  • Lower anxiety.
  • Encourage participation.
  • Lengthen wait time.
  • To involve ELLs, begin with Yes/No and one-word
    response questions, and gradually up the ante
    as student gains more knowledge and language
    skills.
  • Try to understand the message rather than the
    language.
  • Repeat, review and summarize.

44
Increasing Opportunities for Student-Student
Interaction
  • Small group work
  • Give explicit directions
  • Discuss group responsibilities
  • Mix groups
  • Check for comprehension/clarification
  • Provide a time frame
  • Monitor groups as they work
  • End with sharing
  • Use peer tutoring
  • Pair ELLs with reliable students (same language
    or English-speaking)

45
Adapting Textbooks
  • Pre-select and pre-teach essential vocabulary
  • Highlight important concepts
  • Use graphic organizers, such as T-notes and Venn
    diagrams
  • Discuss the text. Dont expect the ELLs to be
    able to read it on their own.
  • Find parallel texts/trade books that are written
    on a lower language level
  • Examine new uses of familiar words
  • Discuss synonyms
  • Have students keep personal dictionaries

46
Modifying the Language of Assignments
  • Provide a word bank
  • Assign fewer questions. Choose questions that
    get at the big idea
  • Evaluate for content only-the message and not the
    means
  • Provide models and outlines

47
Modifying Assessments
  • For essay questions, allow students to use
    visuals and graphics, e.g. sequenced pictures,
    labeled diagrams, maps, etc.
  • Replace multiple choice questions (or even short
    answer and essay questions) with completion
    questions which require a much lower
    reading/language demand
  • Example The battle of Antietam was important
    because __________ .

48
  • Once the student can read well enough, use the
    cloze technique, omitting key words from a
    paragraph that students then have to replace.
    (Using a word list is often helpful in
    determining comprehension of key concepts.)
  • Allow use of a dictionary.
  • Allow extended time to complete the tests.
  • Shorten the test by choosing the concepts that
    are the most important.
  • Limit choices on multiple choice tests.
  • Divide word banks into smaller groups.
  • Test the student orally.
  • Allow students to use their notes. (Encourages
    them to pay attention and take notes.)
  • Give an open book test.

49
Giving Alternative Assessments
  • Portfolios
  • Learning logs
  • Self assessments

50
Kids dont care how much you know until they
know how much you care.
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