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Emil Cunningham, Issam Khoury,


Latino/Latina College Student Outcomes Emil Cunningham, Issam Khoury, Samuel Lopez, Hyun Kyoung Ro, & Nate Sorber Final Project HIED 556 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emil Cunningham, Issam Khoury,

Emil Cunningham, Issam Khoury, Samuel Lopez,
Hyun Kyoung Ro, Nate Sorber Final
Project HIED 556
  • Significance of Studying Latino and Latina
  • Changing Demographics
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Research Findings
  • College Choice
  • Persistence
  • Identity Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • Conclusions

Significance of Studying Latino and Latina
Student Populations
  • Greater understanding needed of historically
    underrepresented populations
  • Hispanic/Latino population fastest growing in the
    United States
  • Conceptual Framework of the Latino and Latina
    experience is needed to undergird the work of
    faculty, staff, and administrators at
    institutions of higher education

Changing Demographics of Higher
Education National/Global Context
NCES Projection Statistics to 2015
Changing Latina/o College Students Demographics
of Higher Education at Penn State
Penn State Factbook, 2008
Scholarly Foundations of the Conceptual Framework
Astin (1985, 1993) Tinto (1975, 1993)
  • Re-conceptualizing Tintos Framework and
    expanding Parsing Project
  • Key-Change Pre-College Characteristic vs.
    Evolving Perceptions of Mediating Factors
  • Financial perspective
  • St. John, E. P., Et. al. (2000)
  • Minority perspective
  • Rendon, L. I., Jalomo, R. E., Nora, A. (2000)
  • Psychological aspect
  • Bean, J. P. Eaton, S. B. (2000)

Terenzini Reason (2005) A comprehensive model
of influences on student learning and
A conceptual framework for minority student
outcomes (Latina/Latino students)
Scholarly Foundations of the Conceptual Framework
Terenzini Reason (2005)
Astins (1993) I-E-O Model
  • Student Precollege
  • Characteristics
  • Experiences
  • Sociodemographic traits
  • Academic preparation performance
  • Personal and Social experiences
  • Outcomes
  • Learning
  • Development
  • Change
  • Persistence

Conceptual Framework
A conceptual framework for Latino/Latina student
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development
  • Student Precollege
  • Characteristics
  • Experiences
  • Sociodemographic traits
  • Academic preparation performance
  • Personal and Social experiences

College Choice
  • Outcomes
  • Learning
  • Development
  • Change
  • Persistence

Student Precollege Characteristics Experiences
Overview of Research Project
  • Purpose of Study
  • Data and Methodology
  • Foundation of Research Questions
  • Five Areas of Findings
  • General Conclusions

Purpose of Study
  • The REASON we did this study
  • Hear the student voice
  • Relate the students experiences to our
    conceptual framework and the literature
  • Provide a foundation for future research on the
    Latino and Latina college population.

Data and Methodology
  • Participants
  • Interview Protocols
  • Data Analysis
  • Limitations

Research on Latino and Latina Students that
Formed the Foundation of Interview Questions
  • Campus Climate
  • Hurtado, S. (1994)
  • Loo, C. G. and Rolinson, G. (1986)
  • Nora, A. Cabrera, C. F. (1996)
  • Student Finances
  • Nora, A. (1990)
  • Paulsen, M. B. St. John, E. P. (2002)
  • Cabrera (1992)
  • Persistence amongst Latino and Latina Populations
  • Fry, R. (2002 2004)
  • Swail, W. S., Redd, K. E., Perna, L. W. (2003)
  • Identity Development
  • Torres (2003)
  • Torres-Saillant (2003
  • Patton, McEwen, Rendon, and Howard-Hamilton
  • Cognitive Development
  • None
  • College Choice and Admissions amongst Latino
  • Ceja, M. (2004 2006)

Five Areas of Findings
  • College Choice Process
  • Persistence Finance
  • Persistence Resources and Climate
  • Identity Development
  • Cognitive Development and Classroom

Precollege Characteristics
Student Rich Dario Carolina B. Carolina G. Raquel
Home town Tri-State Area, Philadelphia for 8 years, now Princeton, NJ Military Brat, now 5 miles west of New Orleans Queens, NY Dominican Republic/ Bronx/ Lebanon, PA New York
High school Public Public Public Private/Public Public
Ethnic identity Hispanic-American Puerto Rican Latina/ Columbian Dominican/Latina Latina/Hispanic
First generation No Yes No Yes Yes
Parental SES Lower Middle Class Middle Class Middle Class Lower Middle Class Upper Middle Class
Siblings 1 full sister 1 half sister 1 brother 1 sister Two Sisters 2 brothers 2 sisters
High School GPA/SAT 3.6 1030 3.1 1210 3.33 1800 Top 20th percentile 95th percentile 1040
College Choice Process
Student Precollege Characteristics
College Choice
Protective Agents (parents, siblings)
Institutional Agents (Counselors)
College Choice Process
  • Understanding the College-Choice Process of
    Disadvantaged Students
  • 1) Predispositions (Grades 7-9)
  • 2) Search (Grades 10-12)
  • 3) Choice (Grades 11-12)
  • Educational aspirations
  • Occupational aspirations
  • Student ability
  • Parental encouragement
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Perceived institutional attributes
  • Perceived ability to pay
  • (Cabrera Nasa, 2000)
  • Minority Students Access to
  • Social Capital College Choice
  • 1) Protective agents
  • Family members
  • Community networks
  • 2) Institutional agents
  • Teachers
  • Counselors
  • 3) Social capital
  • can be obtained through college choice,
    experiences, and outcomes
  • (Stanton-Salazar, 1997)

College Choice Process
  • Latino/Latina Students Access to College Choice
  • Protective agents Parents encouragement

Parental involvement
Parental motivation
Parents are oftentimes limited in what they are
able share with their children given their
minimal exposure to and understanding of the
system of educational opportunities available in
this country (Ceja, 2006, p.87).
Mexican parents are very supportive of their
childrens educational goals and encourage their
college aspirations (Gonzalez, Soner, Jovel,
College Choice Process
  • Protective agents Parents encouragement

Parental involvement
My mom always came home with pamphlets, I guess
that was her way. - Carolina B. My mom was
involved in high school work I would have to
translate for her since she doesnt speak English
and has no knowledge of the college process. -
Carolina G.
Parental motivation
Having the life my mom had, she didnt want us
to go through the same thing, and shes all for
paying for it She didnt want us to be in the
place shes been. Being a single mother, she
sent me and my sisters to college. - Carolina
College Choice Process
  • Latino/Latina Students Access to College Choice
  • Protective agents Siblings

Siblings Roles
Older siblings who had attended colleges
replaced parents as information sources when
parents were not able to assist Chicanas with the
college application process (Ceja, 2006).
  • my older sister told me what she saw me doing.
    But as far as the school selection, I just chose
    the schools I was interested in because she is
    studying interior design.
  • Carolina B.
  • (studying business)

College Choice Process
Latino/Latina Students Access to College
Choice Institutional agents High School
Counselor Roles
Tend to replace the lack information and
resources of college choice process of minority
parents (Hossler, Schmit, Vesper, 1999)
  • the counseling wasnt really effective . . .
    they would guide through the admissions process,
    but as far as screening or going through schools
    with me they didnt really do that.
  • - Carolina B.
  • My HS Counselor (one counselor per four or five
    students) was very pessimistic about what I could
  • Raquel
  • Shes a nice lady, but just too passive for me.
  • I needed somebody who knew how to do this
    whole college thing.
  • -Dario

Transitioning from Choice to Mediating Factors
Student Precollege Characteristics
College Choice
Protective Agents (parents, siblings)
Institutional Agents (Counselors)
Mediator Student Finance
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

Mediator Student Finance
The Important Implications of Finance on
Latino/Latina Students
Important Findings from the Literature
  • Tinto (as cited in Braxton 2002) iterated that
    once students enroll in college, finances are
    non-instrumental in playing a role in persistence
  • However, Tinto (1993) revised his integration
    model and included student finances as a central
    component in the adjustment of students to
  • In 1970 City University of New York launches an
    open admission policy guaranteeing admission to
    anyone who satisfies the minimum requirements
    (Mumper, 1998).
  • In community colleges, Hispanic students show a
    price sensitivity with enrollment dropping over 5
    percentage points when tuition prices increased
    1,000 (Heller, 1999)

Mediator Student Finance
Student Financial Aid as a Mediating Factor to
College Experience
Finances Affects College Experience
Cabrera, Nora, and Castenada (as cited in Braxton
2002) conducted research to suggest that if
students do not have sufficient resources their
academic work suffers.
I definitely think that now. I think maybe the
work load was a little different. Now that Im
taking more upper level credits. I take 15 and it
kills me. I think working now hurts me more than
it did before. - Dario Im a fifth
year senior and you lose a lot of the
scholarships and the things that you usually get
because you are only 4 yearsI didnt know if Id
actually go through this year, I might have to
take a year off. - Dario
Mediator Student Finance
Latino/Latina Experiences in Applying for and
Receiving Student Aid
From the Literature
Nora (1990) in writing about danger of applying
to college for Hispanic students writes if
Hispanic community college students who may
qualify for financial assistance are
overestimating actual income on financial aid
forms and being denied financial aid, not only
are the students having to bear more of the costs
of a college education but their chances of
succeeding and attaining some form of credential
are reduced (p. 313)
Fairly aware. I pretty much just sat down with a
calculator, crunched out numbers to figure out.
One lucky advantage my sister and I looked at was
though we dont have much contact with our dad,
he is a resident of PA. SO we were able to put in
for instate tuition. That knocked off a pretty
penny of our tuition that would have been added
on had we not done that. -Rich
None. My parents pay my full college tuition.
Its something Im so grateful for because its
one less stress that I have to deal with. It
makes me want to achieve more. My parents have
supported my brother, are supporting me and now
my sister. -Raquel
Mediator Resources and Climate
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

Resources and Climate Affects Persistence Outcomes
Castellanos Gloria (2007)
Persistence Resources and Climate
The Importance of the Persistence Outcomes to
Latino/Latina Students
Important Findings
Between 1990 and 2000, the Latino population in
the United States increased by 58 making
Latinos the largest minority group in the
country (U.S Bureau of the Census, 1990,
2000). Research suggests that students neither
well prepared to transition nor successfully
prepared to matriculate once they get to college
(Pascarella Terenzini, 2005).
Persistence Resource and Climate
Student Preparation and Assistance
From the Literature
Once at a college or university campus, advising
staff, services, and faculty assistance will
determine, for the most part, whether a Latino
student prepares adequately for graduate or
professional study (Haro, 2004).
Classes here are not like High School . . .
When I came out of high school I was a straight A
student, when I came here, in my first class I
got a C . . . That was one of the biggest shocks
to me. My High School skills prepared me, but
maybe they didnt do a good enough job . . .
Something that used to come easy before, I may
have to work for.
- Raquel After my first math
exam, I went to the student help center, but it
didnt really have the biggest effect on my
overall grade.
- Rich
Persistence Resource and Climate
Campus Resources
Campus Resources
  • Fast start Program
  • College Assistance Migrant Programs (C.A.M.P)
  • Upward Bound
  • Paul Robeson Cultural Center
  • MRCC

Oh yeah. The Robeson Center is a great resource,
and the diverse programs on campus. Im in a
sorority (Chi Upsilon Sigma Latin Sorority) and
do a lot of service., and thats one thing that I
love that Ive pledged. Im involved with the
migrant program back home and would volunteer a
lot. Carolina G.
Not only my department advisor, but my College
Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) advisor has
been very helpful. If you get into Penn State,
you apply to the CAMP Program, they pay for your
books your first year, but the connections in the
program are so strong, that even now, I still go
back. Theyre having a reception for us they
keep up with us throughout our four years.
Student Support Services Program also helps out
minorities. The Multicultural Resource Center
does give out book loans that you can use to pay
for books and you pay them back at the end of the
semester. - Carolina G.
Identity Development Outcomes
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

Identity Development
Key Concepts From the Literature
  • Critical Race Theory Assumptions
  • deeply embedded in social, cultural and political
    structures (Delgado and Stafancic, 2001
    Leadson-Billings, 1999).
  • socially constructed (Morfin, 2006)
  • voices and experiences of people of color are
    central, legitimate and relevant in
    contextualizing race and racial realities
    (Solorzano, 1998)
  • Race is partly performed (Willie, 2003)

How do you Identify?
Self-Identification of Interview Participants
From the Literature
The formation of ethnic identity is based on
ones self as part of an ethnic group (Bernal,
Knight, Ocampo, Garza, Cota, 1993)
More Puerto Rican than anything
Dario Latina Raquel Im Dominican
-Carolina G um ... Hispanic or Latina
-Carolina B Hispanic American -Richard
I dont know, Ive heard so many different
interpretations of what they mean, and Hispanic
came from a term used by those who wanted to
relate to European standards, and away from Latin
American and Caribbean. -Raquel
If they ask what are you?, theres a
difference between Spanish (from Spain), Im
Hispanic or Latina, and those are interchangeable
terms. Some people might say youre not Latina
because youre not from Latin America, and so you
should say youre Carribean. -Carolina
G. Las Culturas Hispanic or Latino?
Identity Development
Social Construction of Identity
From the Literature
The classroom ... is a central site for the
construction of social and racial power
(Roithmayr, 1999)
Look to your right, look to your left. You will
NEVER be in a class with this many students of
color again! - Terrell Jones, Vice Provost
of Educational Equity, as told by Raquel
Persistence Resource and Climate
Latino/Latina and Whiteness
From the Literature
Hispanics and Whiteness (Toress-Saillant)
I dont look like your typical Hispanic -
Dario People dont know Im Latina if Im just
walking down the street - Raquel
Bicultural Orientation Model
  • Fails to account for affiliation with other
    communities of color
  • (Torres, 2003)

Bicultural Anglo
Latino/ Hispanic Marginal
Bicultural Orientation Model
  • Chi Upsilon Sigma Latina Sorority
  • National Hispanic Business Association
  • Latino Caucus
  • Puerto Rican Student Association
  • Marine Corps (Bicultural Orientation)
  • Multicultural Greek Council
  • Urban Dance Troupe

Transitioning from Experience to Outcomes
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

Cognitive Development Outcomes
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

Cognitive Development Theory
  • Perry Theory of Cognitive Development
  • 1) Basic Dualism
  • 2) Multiplicity Pre-legitimate (Strict Dualism)
  • 3) Multiplicity Legitimate but Subordinate (early
  • 4) Late Multiplicity
  • 5) Relativism (Contextual Relativism, Relational
  • 6-9) Commitment to Relativism

Baxter Magoldas Epistmelogical Reflection
Model 1) Absolute Knowing Receiving
Pattern Mastery Pattern 2) Transitional
Knowing Interpersonal Pattern Impersonal
Pattern 3) Independent Knowing
Inter-individual Pattern Individual
Pattern 4) Contextual Knowing
Cognitive Development and Classroom
Transitional Knowing Baxter Magolda
Interpersonal Pattern VS
Impersonal Pattern
Relationships and personal knowledge are
central to the learning process . . . Focus is
more on the uncertain aspects of knowledge and
students attempt to resolve uncertainty by
relying on peers (Bock, 1999, p. 33)
Focus on mastering knowledge, they still rely
on instructors and other authorities to resolve
that uncertainty and to improve their
understanding (Bock, 1999, p . 33)
Cognitive Development and Classroom
Baxter Magoldas Epistmelogical Reflection Model
Transitional Knowing Interpersonal Pattern
Q If you read two articles that are assigned by
the professor that reach opposite conclusions and
you need to write a response, how do you approach
that task? A Well, either I would do more
research on the writers to see how credible they
are, and if they were both credible then I would
look up more on the topic or discuss with other
students to see what they think.
- Carolina B.
Cognitive Development and Classroom
Baxter Magoldas Epistmelogical Reflection Model
Transitional Knowing Impersonal Pattern
Q If you read two articles that are assigned by
the professor that reach opposite conclusions and
you need to write a response, how do you approach
that task? A If two articles are exactly the
same with different answers, Id have to read
more in depth to find out where they broke off.
If that did not help, Id go ask the professor,
how are these both right. If I cant explain it,
then Id ask her or him to explain it to me.
- Dario
Cognitive Development and Classroom
Interpersonal Pattern Approach
Impersonal Pattern Approach
Cognitive Development and Classroom Diversity
Classroom Diversity as a Prerequisite for
Cognitive Dissonance As Manifested in Gender
Related Patterns
(Interpersonal Relationship) Well, coming to
Penn State I thought I was taking a step back . .
. cause coming away from New York City where
everybody is different. So when you come here and
everybody has narrow-minded opinions, it would
help to have people of different backgrounds and
would serve more discussion and there would be
more people with different ideas . . . so you
were not the only person with a different
perspective. In that sense I think it was a step
back. Carolina G.
(Impersonal Debate) Well Ive always been, my
nature is contradictory . . . I dont try to be
rebellious but I am. I dont really choose stuff
as right, but Ill put it out there to other
people to see what they think and base my
decision off of that, or just leave it up in the
air. Id rather that than have to pick one side.
Conclusion and Implications
  • There is no one Latino/a student experience.
  • It is valuable to consider the gender-specific
    experiences between Latino and Latina
  • Parents, siblings, and community played an
    important role in the college choice process of
    the students we interviewed.
  • An understanding of more than just the
    pre-college characteristics of students is
    necessary. Professionals must also appreciate the
    continual role of Mediating Factors on the
    college experience.
  • For the students we interviewed Finances,
    Resources, Campus Diversity, and Psychosocial
    factors all affected students college experience.
  • Student
  • Outcomes
  • Persistence
  • Cognitive development
  • Identity Development

College Choice
Student Precollege Characteristics Experiences
  • Bean, J. P., Eaton, S. B. (2000). A
    psychological model of college student retention.
    In J. M. Braxton (Ed.) Reworking the Student
    Departure Puzzle. Nashville Vanderbilt
    University Press.
  • Ceja, M. (2004). Chicana college aspirations and
    the role of parents Developing educational
    resiliency. The Journal of Hispanic Higher
    Education, 3(4), 1 -25.
  • Ceja, M. (2006). Understanding the role of
    parents and siblings as information sources in
    the college choice process of Chicana students.
    The Journal of College Student Development, 47,
  • Fry, R. (2002). Latinos in Higher Education Many
    enroll, too few graduate. Washington, DC Pew
    Hispanic Center.
  • Gonzalex, K.P., Stoner, C., Jovel, J. (2003).
    Examining the role of social capital in access to
    college for Latinas Toward a college opportunity
    framework. Journal of Hispanic Higher
    Education,2, 146-170.
  • Hossler, D., Schmit, J., Vesper, N. (1999).
    Going to college How social, economic, and
    educational factors influence the decisions
    students make. Baltimore John Hopkins University
  • Hurtado, S. (1992). The campus racial climate.
    Journal of Higher Education, 63(5), 539-569.
  • Loo, C.M., Rolinson, G. (1986). Alienation of
    ethnic minority students at a predominately
    White university. Journal of Higher Education,
  • Nora, A. and Cabrera, A. F. (1996). The role of
    perceptions of prejudice and discrimination on
    the adjustment of minority students to college.
    The Journal of Higher Education, 67(2), 119-148.
  • Patton, L., McEwen, M., Rendon, L., and M.
    Howard-Hamilton (2007). Critical race
    perspectives on theory in student affairs, in
    Harper, S. and Patton, L. (Eds.) (2007).
    Responding to the realities of race on campus.
    San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Paulsen, M. B. St. John, E. P. (2002). Social
    class and college costs Examining the financial
    nexus between college choice and persistence. The
    Journal of Higher Education, 73(2), 189-236.
  • Rendon, L. I., Jalomo, R. E., Nora, A. (2000).
    Theoretical considerations in the study of
    minority student retention in higher education.
    In J. M. Braxton (Ed.) Reworking the Student
    Departure Puzzle. Nashville Vanderbilt
    University Press.
  • St. John, E. P., Cabrera, A. F., Nora, A.,
    Asker, E. H. (2000). Economic influences on
    persistence reconsidered How can finance
    research inform the re-conceptualization of
    persistence models? In J. M. Braxton (Ed.)
    Reworking the Student Departure Puzzle.
    Nashville Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Terenzini, P. T., Reason, R. D. (2005). Parsing
    the first year of college A conceptual framework
    for student college impacts.
  • Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college Rethinking the
    causes and cures of student attrition, 2nd
    edition. Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Torres, V. (2003). Influences on ethnic identity
    development of Latino students in the first and
    second years of college. Journal of College
    Student Development 44 (4), pp. 532-548.
  • Torres-Saillant, S. (2003). Inventing the race
    Latinos and the ethnoracial pentagon. Latino
    Studies 1, pp. 123-151.
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