CHALLENGES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – CHALLENGES PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7fe44c-Y2UyO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

CHALLENGES

Description:

Sustainable Power Development through Green Power Technologies Presented By: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:20
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 55
Provided by: BPG7
Learn more at: http://www.rgpv.ac.in
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: CHALLENGES


1
Sustainable Power Development through Green
Power Technologies
Presented By
Dr. V. K. Sethi
Director-UIT, Rector RGPV State Tech Univ of
MP Head, Energy Deptt

2
The Major Contradictory Challenges Faced by
Developing world
  • Quest for increased Generation capacity -
    Terawatt Challenge
  • Climate Change
  • - rising GHG level
  • Continued focus on coal based generation

3
Government of Indias National Missions
  • National Solar Mission 2009
  • National Renewable Energy Mission
  • A target of 10 of Renewable Energy by 2012
  • National Mission on Combating Climate Change
    through Green Clean Power
  • National Bio-diesel Mission
  • National Mission of Hydro Potential Exploitation
  • National Mission on Clean Coal Technologies for
    Mega Power Generation

4
  • CLIMATE CHANGE CAUSED BY INCREASED GHG EMISSION
  • Green House Gas level rise to a current level of
    390 ppm and consequent climate change, floods and
    draughts has affected 260 million people between
    2000 and 2004 through natural calamities, of
    these, 98 were in developing nations.
  • Developed countries with population of 15 of
    world population have the share of CO2 emissions
    at 50.
  • CO2 level has risen to 390 ppm from 1975 level of
    330 ppm.
  • There is so much momentum in the system that we
    will certainly double CO2 level by end of the
    century.
  • Global temperature rise by 3 to 4 0C will cause
    displacement of over 330 million people in
    developing world.

5
  • China and India are projected to account
    for 30 of the worlds increase in
    energy consumption between 2000-2020 and 92
    of increase in coal use.
  • World Green House inventory is over
    29,000 Million tones per annum (MTPA) with US
    over 20 (India with total emission of about
    1400 MTPA is only at 4.8 .)
  • Coal is going to remain main stay for power
    generation in at least next Three decades for
    India (87,093 MW Coal based generation out of
    1,63,669 MW total power installed capacity)

6
Green House inventory for India for Energy
Sector (Million Tonnes of CO2)
Energy Sector CO2 CO2 equivalent (CO2CH4NOX)
Total Emission 834 (58 of total) 928 (64 of total)
Source IAE 1999
7
Tera-watt Challenge for synergy in Energy
Environment
  • A terawatt Challenge of 2012 for India
  • To give over one billion people in India the
    minimum Electrical Energy they need by 2012, we
    need to generate over 0.2 terra watt (oil
    equivalent to over 3 million barrels of oil per
    day) and 1 TW by 2050,primarily through Advanced
    fossil fuel technologies like CCTs for limiting
    GHG emission levels
  • By 2020 our mix of generation would have the Peak
    in Thermal, certainly it would be the Green
    Thermal Power
  • Thermal 326,000MW
  • Renewable Hydro 104,000 MW
  • Nuclear 20,000 MW
  • Total 450,000 MW

8
Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options
  • World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US -
    about 3TW, India - 0.16 TW) today to support 10
    billion world population. This is Equivalent
    to230 million barrels of oil /day.
  • By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. The
    world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy to
    stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid century.
  • Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that
    solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt
    challenge and at the same time contribute to the
    reduction of climate change, with about 125,000
    TW of global incident sunlight.

9
(No Transcript)
10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Can we address the following issues by roping in
renewables?
  • GDP growth must be sustained and lack of energy
    availability should not pull it down.
  • Exchange crisis should not recur due to bulging
    Oil import bills
  • Climate change is a concern and countries with
    low per capita income are more vulnerable to the
    effects of climate change
  • The answer seems to be .yes.

1/5/2017
12
1/5/2017
12
13
National Solar Mission- Proposed Road Map
Segment Target (2010-13) Target (2013-17) Target (2017-22)
Solar Collectors (million sq. meters) 7 15 20
Off grid Solar applications, MW 200 1000 2000
Utility grid power including rooftops, MW 1000-2000 4000-10000 20000
1/5/2017
13
14
Renewable Energy potential In MP
Source Potential (MW) Installed (MW) Gap (MW)
Conventional Sources - 8457 (other than Central Sector)
RENEWABLES RENEWABLES RENEWABLES RENEWABLES
Wind power 1019 229 806
Small Hydro 400 71 329
Bio mass- Agro 1386
Bio mass- Forest Wasteland 2060
Solar 500
1/5/2017
14
15
State-wise Wind Power Installed Capacity
State Gross Potential (MW) Total Capacity (MW) till 31.03.2010
Andhra Pradesh 8968 136
Gujarat 10,645 1864
Karnataka 11,531 1473
Kerala 1171 28
Madhya Pradesh 1019 229
Maharashtra 4584 2078
Orissa 255 -
Rajasthan 4858 1088
Tamil Nadu 5530 4907
Others 4
Total  (All India) 48,561 11807
16
The National Solar Mission
  • The National Solar Mission is a major initiative
    of the Government of India and State Government
    to promote ecologically sustainable growth while
    addressing Indias energy security challenge.
  • It will also constitute a major contribution by
    India to the Global efforts to meet the
    challenges of Climate Change

17
INDIAN POWER SECTOR - TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE POWER
DEVELOPMENT
  • Total Installed Capacity 1,63,669 MW
  • Thermal Generation over 64
  • Although no GHG reduction targets for India but
    taken steps through adoption of Renewable Energy
    Technologies,Combined cycles, Co-generation, Coal
    beneficiation,Plant Performance optimization
  • Under Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism
    (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of GHG mitigation,
    while promoting sustainable development as per
    Framework Convention on Climate change (FCCC)

18
FRONTALS IN ENERGY ENVIRONMENT
  • GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES PRIMARILY THE
  • CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • ZERO EMISSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPORT, POWER
    PLANTS INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
  • AFFORDABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
  • ENERGY EFFICIENCY
  • CDM OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY SECTOR

19
Mission Energy Security and Energy independence
  • Climate Change Natures Fury
  • Solar for irrigation
  • High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells
  • Hydrogen as Fuel for future
  • Accelerated Program on Thorium based Nuclear
    Reactor
  • Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC
  • Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport
  • Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence
    by2030
  • .Reference Address by President of India 14th
    Aug 2005

20
(No Transcript)
21
We conclude that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is the critical enabling technology that would reduce CO2 emissions significantly while also allowing coal to meet the worlds pressing energy needs.  MIT 2007
Citizens of poor countries have the right to aspire to better standards of living clean coal is key. Arun Ghosh, Global Economic Fellow, Oxford University
For decades, the coal industry has supported quality high-paying jobs for American workers, and coal has provided an important domestic source of reliable, affordable energy.  Charting a path toward clean coal is essential to achieving my Administrations goals of providing clean energy  President Barack Obama, 2010  
22
Prime Clean Coal Technology Options for India for
11th 12th Plans
  • Supercritical Power Plants
  • Integrated Gasification Combined
  • Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants
  • Circulating Fluidized Bed
  • Combustion (CFBC) Power Plants

23
SUPER CRITICAL UNITS
  • Standardized Unit Size 660 MW, 246 ata, 537 oC
  • Station Size 2x660 MW (Minimum)
  • Common Off site facility
  • FW Temperature 270 oC 275 oC with 6 Heaters.
  • Total Capacity Planned 14,560 MW
  • Number of Units 22 Units
  • Includes 6x720 MW and 2x500 MW Imported sets.

24
Main advantages of Super-Critical Steam Cycle
  • Reduced fuel cost due to improved thermal
    efficiency
  • Reduction of CO2 emissions by 15 per unit of
    Power generated compared to sub-critical
  • Very good part load efficiencies
  • Plant costs are comparable with sub-critical units

25
Current State-of-Art
  • Super-critical Steam Power Generation Plants
  • Pressure - 300 bar
  • Temperature - 600oC
  • Efficiency - 45 (LHV Basis)
  • Nickel based alloys allows up 650oC
  • By the year 2011 - 620 oC
  • By the year 2020 - 650-700 oC
  • Cycle Efficiency - 50-55

26
(No Transcript)
27
  • IGCC TECHNOLOGY ...
  • Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of
    utilization of coal, while combined cycle power
    generation gives the highest efficiency.
  • Integration of these two technologies in IGCC
    power generation offers the benefits of very low
    emissions and efficiencies of the order of
    44-48.
  • The comparative indices show that in case of
    IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are
  • 7.1, 20 and 16, respectively, of the
    corresponding emissions from PC plant.
  • - Three major areas of technology that will
    contribute to improvements in IGCC are
  • hot gas de-sulfurisation
  • hot gas particulate removal
  • advanced turbine systems

28
IGCC
29
(No Transcript)
30
Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion
  • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC)
    technology has selectively been applied in India
    for firing high sulphur refinery residues,
    lignite, etc.
  • CFBC Technology is superior to PC Power Plant
    Technology
  • Lower NOx formation and the ability to capture
    SO2 with limestone injection the furnace.

31
(No Transcript)
32
CFBC Vs Other Clean Coal Technologies
  • At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are
    less costly than prevailing IGCC technology.
    However, firing in CFB Boiler is still more
    economical when using high sulfur lignite and
    low-grade coals and rejects.

33
Green Energy solutions
  • Promote CCT in countries like India China
    where coal is main stay fuel for Power
    Generation.
  • Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology
  • Energy Farming
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Major shift towards Green Technologies
  • Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in
    Rural Sector

34
Table 05 Cost of various CO2 (carbon dioxide)
mitigation options in India
Technology Greenhouse gas emission reduction Investment cost Cost-effectiveness (dollars/tonne CO2)
Green Power generation Green Power generation Green Power generation Green Power generation
Cogeneration 1.50 kg/kWh 900 dollars/kW 10 (most cost effective)
Combined cycle 0.96 kg/kWh 818 dollars/kW 54 (cost effective)
Inter-cooled steam-injected gas turbine 0.76 kg/kWh 947 dollars/kW 77
Pressurized fluidized bed combustion 0.18 kg/kWh 1894 dollars/kW 503
Integrated gasification combined cycle 0.23 kg/kWh 1578 dollars/kW 340 (at par)
Pulverized coal super-critical boilers 0.18 kg/kWh 1202 dollars/kW 342 (at par)
Coal washing 0.125 kg/kWh 11 dollars/kW 179
CFBC 0.20 kg/kWh 1000 dollars/kW 250
Renewable energy for power Renewable energy for power Renewable energy for power Renewable energy for power
small hydro 1.3 kg/kWh 1950 dollars/kW 88 (cost effective)
wind farms 1.3 kg/kWh 1405 dollars/kW 257
Biomass 1.6 kg/kWh 710 dollars/kW 102 (cost effective)
Solar thermal 1.3 kg/kWh 3730 dollars/kW 592
Solar PV (photovoltaic) 1.6 kg/kWh 5952 dollars/kW 541
35
Impact Green Projects at RGTU
  • CO2 Capture, Sequestration and Production of
    Multi-purpose fuels Hydrogen, Methane and
    Biodiesel through Algae route
  • Production of CNG from Coalgasification route
  • Solar, Wind Biomass Hybrid System
  • 60 kW Solar-Wind Hybrid system at Hill top of
    RGTU
  • High yield Jatropha plantation and Bio-diesel
    production using indigenously designed Bio-diesel
    reactors

36
  • CO2 Capture Sequestration Project
  • An Impact Project of DST at RGPV Bhopal
  • MODELING SIMULATION OF CARBON RECYCLING
    TECHNOLOGY THROUGH CONVERSION OF CO2 INTO USEFUL
    MULTIPURPOSE FUEL

37
  • Broad area of Research
  • CO2 SEQUESTRATION (Under the National Program on
    Carbon Sequestration NPCS of DST)
  • Sub Area Project Title Modeling Simulation
    of Carbon Recycling Technology Through Conversion
    of CO2 Into Multipurpose Fuels.
  • Objectives of the Proposal
  • 1. To establish a pilot plant for CO2
    sequestration and conversion in to
    multipurpose fuel.
  • 2. To develop Zero Emission Technology Projects
    and recycle Carbon-di-oxide to add value to
    clean energy projects by adopting two pathways
  • Sequester CO2 and convert the same into fuel
    molecules.
  • Use CO2 to grow micro algae to produce
    Bio-diesel and
  • Methane Gas.
  • 3. To develop mathematical chemical models for
    CO2 sequestration, Hydro Gasifier, Catalytic
    conversion Algae pond systems.

38
The following four systems have been
incorporated 1. CO2 Capture
sequestration system Indigenous
Development 2. Catalytic Flash Reduction of CO2
using charcoal from gasifier /lignite. Production
of Hydrogen from CO 3.Production of Methane
using Catalytic Conversion process 4. Production
of Algae from CO2 Sequestration with Solar flux.

39
CO2 Sequestration Pilot Plant installed under the
DST Project
40
Methodology Description of the Pilot Plant-
Rated Capacity of the Capture of CO2 500 kg/
day Source of CO2 Boiler of capacity
100kg/hr. steam Biomass Gasifier of
10kWe Solvent used for capture of CO2 Mono
Ethanol Amine (MEA) SOx NOx Removal Na H
CO3, NaOH Lime. Catalytic Converters /
Reduction Unit - For Methane....
Input CO and H2, Catalyst R - 01
- For Hydrogen.... Input CO and Steam, Catalyst
R - 02 - For CO ...
Input CO2 and Lignite /charcoals
41
(No Transcript)
42
  • Innovations
  • Capture of CO2 from Biomass and a Boiler on
  • Pilot Scale and achieving capture efficiency
    of
  • the order of 78
  • Production of CO in stable form and Water Gas
  • shift reaction to produce fuel molecules like
    H2
  • Catalyst development to produce Methane from
  • the captured CO2
  • Enhancing productivity of selected Micro-Algae
  • for production of Bio- diesel
  • Plant Cost optimization through in-house
  • designing and erection work

43
THE ROAD MAP
  • Government of India has declared its policy on
    CO2 abatement by the announcement and adoption of
    the National Action Plan on Climate Change.
  • It has also made voluntary commitment at the
    Copenhagen Summit that the Country shall decrease
    its Carbon Intensity by 20 by 2020 and 50 by
    2050.
  • The bulk of CO2 is emitted by the Thermal Plants
    in the Power Sector. For EPA regulations to be
    implemented there have to be a road map as to how
    this can be done without major impact on the cost
    or efficiency of the Thermal Plants

44
Solution lies in
  • The thermal plants in India have a thermal
    efficiency of 35 and an emission ratio of
    0.90Kg/kWh of CO2 emissions as published by CEA.
    The reduction of 20 intensity would translate to
    a decrease of 0.20Kg/kWh of CO2 emissions i.e.
    below 0.70Kg/kWh CO2 emissions by 2020.
  • This decrease is possible by a combination of
    abatement and recycling measures. The CO2
    reduction by an Amine system of 30 CO2 capture
    would mean a decrease of Thermal Efficiency by 2

45
Recycling of CO2
  • The CO2 so captured needs to be either compressed
    to be used in Enhanced Oil Recovery or recycled.
    The better option would be that the same be
    recycled.
  • The system additions to the existing thermal
    plants would be a two stage gasifier to use up
    this CO2. This would help recycle the Carbon of
    the CO2 and the treated/ converted CO would be
    re-fed into the Boiler by means of a Gas Burner.
  • This two stage gasifier would be made of a
    Gasifier Chamber where the Coal is gasified by an
    Oxy Fuel Process and this heated Gas fed into the
    second Reactor where treated Carbon is fed to
    react with the CO2 being fed from the Amine
    stripper. The CO2 so fed would be converted into
    CO having a LHV of 2414 kcal/Kg or 64.37 coal
    equivalent in terms of the Indian Coal having an
    average heat value of 3750 kcal/Kg

46
  • Application Potential
  • Long Term
  • Deployment of the Technology to Actual Power
    Plants of NTPC
  • through BHEL / TOSHIBA or any other major
    player
  • Immediate
  • Green Energy Technology Centre (GETC) being
    set-up for Teaching
  • Research (M. Tech PhD)
  • Future action plan
  • Efforts are underway to extend the scope of the
    process by incorporation a Coal gasifier and
    recycling of carbon through collaborative
    research and Distributive Research Initiatives
    (DRI) with Research Organizations and Power
    Industries.

47
Carbon Capture Sequestration
  • Indias position with regard to Carbon Capture
    Storage (CCS) is very clear. We dont make any
    commitment at this stage regarding deployment of
    CCS technologies. India advocates very strongly
    the Carbon Capture Sequestration.
  • Some of the demo pilot projects include.
  • -Pilot project on Geological CO2 sequestration
    in basalt rock formation. The question of
    adoption of CCS will depend on this technology
    being cost effective.
  • -Projects under DST sponsored National Program
    on Carbon Sequestration (NPCS)

48
CO2 mitigation Options Case of Electricity Sector
  • Coal Dominates the electricity sector today
  • Fuel switching (Coal NG)
  • Conventional Plants Carbon Capture
    Sequestration (CCS)
  • (Post Combustion CO2 Capture)
  • Gasification/ Reforming CCS
  • (Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture)
  • Oxyfuel Combustion CCS

49
(No Transcript)
50
(No Transcript)
51
Demo Project Strategy Plan
  • Retrofit of existing 500MW coal fired thermal
    power plant in India.
  • Demo with Post Combustion Capture and CO2 Usage

52
(No Transcript)
53
Issues before the house
  • Promotion of Clean Coal Technologies
  • Technology break thoughts in the areas like CO2
    capture and Clean Coal Technologies
  • Development of low cost solar photo voltaic cells
  • Bringing Energy Efficiency Energy Conservation
    on the top of the National Agenda
  • Promotion of Carbon Trading on the strength of
    Energy Efficiency and Green Environment
    initiatives.
  • Base line methodologies for variety of Clean and
    Green Technologies need to be redefined.

54
Thanks
About PowerShow.com