Section 1: The Nature of Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Section 1: The Nature of Science PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7fdbf7-ZGM3O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Section 1: The Nature of Science

Description:

Section 1: The Nature of Science Preview Scientific Thought Universal Laws Science and Ethics Why Study Science? Summary – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: kyus
Learn more at: http://www.glasgow.k12.ky.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Section 1: The Nature of Science


1
Section 1 The Nature of Science
  • Preview
  • Scientific Thought
  • Universal Laws
  • Science and Ethics
  • Why Study Science?
  • Summary

2
Scientific Thought
  • Scientific thought involves making observations,
    using evidence to draw conclusions, being
    skeptical about ideas, and being open to change
    when new discoveries are made.
  • Scientists carefully observe the world and then
    ask questions about what they observe.
  • Scientific thought requires skepticism.
    Skepticism is a habit of mind in which a person
    questions the validity of accepted ideas.
  • Scientific discoveries can change the way people
    view the world.

3
Universal Laws
  • Science is governed by truths that are valid
    everywhere in the universe. These truths are
    called universal laws.
  • Though branches of science address different
    aspects of the natural world, universal laws
    apply to all branches of science and every
    person.

4
Science and Ethics
  • Ethics are a system of moral principles and
    values.
  • Scientific experimentation and discovery can have
    serious ethical implications. Because of this,
    scientific investigations require ethical
    behavior.
  • Scientists performing investigations must report
    only accurate data, must allow peers to review
    their work, and must behave ethically with the
    people involved in their investigations.

5
Why Study Science?
  • The same critical thinking process that
    scientists use is a tool that you can use in your
    everyday life.
  • An understanding of science can help you take
    better care of your health, be a wiser consumer,
    and become a better-informed citizen.
  • You can use science to investigate a problem in
    your community and discover helpful solutions.
  • By applying scientific thinking to a problem, you
    can help yourself and improve the world around
    you.

6
Summary
  • Scientific thought involves making observations,
    using evidence to draw conclusions, being
    skeptical about ideas, and being open to change
    when new discoveries are made.
  • Science is governed by truths that are valid
    everywhere in the universe. These truths are
    called universal laws.
  • Scientific investigations require ethical
    behavior.
  • An understanding of science can help you take
    better care of your health, be a wiser consumer,
    and become a better-informed citizen.

7
Test Prep
1. A scientist is investigating a new treatment
for a disease that affects thousands of people.
Many people with this disease volunteer to be
part of her study. Which of the following is an
ethical concern that the scientist must address
before conducting her study?
A. The scientist must ensure that the treatment
will be effective. B. The scientist must ensure
that the studys results will not be shared with
other scientists. C. The scientist must inform
the volunteers about the potential dangers of
participating in the study. D. The scientist must
demonstrate the treatment on him or herself.
8
Concept Check
  • 1. How can someone practice scientific thought?
  • 2. What are universal laws in science?
  • 3. How do ethics apply to science?
  • 4. Why should someone who is not planning to
    become a scientist study science?

9
Section 2 Scientific Methods
  • Preview
  • Beginning a Scientific Investigation
  • Scientific Experiments
  • Scientific Theories
  • Summary

10
Beginning a Scientific Investigation
  • Most scientific investigations begin with
    observations that lead to questions.
  • Observation is the act of noting or perceiving
    objects or events using the senses.
  • To answer a question, scientists first formulate
    a hypothesis that leads to scientific
    investigation.
  • A hypothesis is a possible explanation that can
    be tested by observation or experimentation.

11
Visual Concept Hypothesis
12
Scientific Experiments
  • An experiment is a procedure that is carried out
    under controlled conditions to test a hypothesis.
  • A controlled experiment tests one factor at a
    time and uses a control group and an experimental
    group.
  • A control group is a group that serves as a
    standard for comparison in an experiment.
  • The experimental groups are identical to the
    control group except for one factor, called a
    variable.

13
Scientific Experiments, continued
  • The single factor that scientists change in an
    experiment is called the independent variable.
    (do)?
  • Factors that may change in response to the
    independent variable are called dependent
    variables. (result)?
  • Scientists analyze changes to the dependent
    variables in order to understand how the
    independent variable affects the system that they
    are studying.

14
Visual Concept Controlled Experiment and Variable
15
Visual Concept Independent and Dependent
Variables
16
Scientific Experiments, continued
  • There are often cases in which experiments are
    not possible or not ethical.
  • In these cases, researchers perform studies.
  • In a study, researchers gather data about a
    system by making observations rather than by
    manipulating independent variables.

17
Scientific Experiments, continued
  • After conducting an experiment, researchers
    analyze their results to learn whether the
    results support their hypothesis or not.
  • Scientists draw conclusions that explain the
    results of their experiments.
  • Scientists verify their conclusions by conducting
    their experiments many times and by checking to
    see if other scientists have found similar
    results.

18
Visual Concept Scientific Method
19
Scientific Experiments, continued
  • Every person has his or her own point of view. A
    particular point of view is called a bias.
  • Scientists try to prevent bias from affecting
    their work, but bias can still influence an
    experiment.
  • Sources of funding, personal involvement in a
    product, and other conflicts of interest can
    affect an experiment.
  • It is wise to view all scientific claims in their
    context and think critically about them.

20
Scientific Theories
  • In science, a theory is a system of ideas that
    explains many related observations and is
    supported by a large body of evidence.
  • The main difference between a theory and a
    hypothesis is that a hypothesis is a specific,
    testable prediction for a limited set of
    conditions and a theory is a general explanation
    for a broad range of data.
  • Constructing a theory often involves considering
    contrasting ideas and conflicting hypotheses.

21
Scientific Theories, continued
  • If the results of a scientific experiment can be
    reproduced many times, the research may help
    develop a new theory.
  • Future research may cause a theory to be revised
    or even rejected.
  • By investigating and challenging theories,
    scientific understanding grows.

22
Summary
  • Most scientific investigations begin with
    observations that lead to questions.
  • Scientists can conduct controlled experiments and
    perform studies in order to test a hypothesis.
  • The main difference between a theory and a
    hypothesis is that a hypothesis is a specific,
    testable prediction for a limited set of
    conditions, while a theory is a general
    explanation for a broad range of data.

23
Test Prep
Which of the following is an example of
scientific skepticism?
.A A scientist investigates how a universal law
affects many different fields of study. B. A
scientist falsely claims to have discovered a
cure for diabetes. C. A scientist conducts an
experiment that supports the conclusions of
another scientist. D. A scientist questions
another scientists conclusions and develops an
experiment to test an alternate hypothesis.
24
Concept Check
  • 1. How do scientific investigations begin?
  • 2. What are two methods scientists can use to
    test hypotheses?
  • 3. What is the difference between a theory and a
    hypothesis?

25
Section 3 Tools and Techniques
  • Preview
  • Measurement Systems
  • Lab Techniques
  • Safety
  • Summary

26
Measurement Systems
  • Measurements taken by scientists are expressed in
    the International System of Units (SI), the
    official name of the metric system.
  • The International System of Units is used by all
    scientists because scientists need to share a
    common measurement system.
  • SI is also preferred by scientists because it is
    scaled in multiples of 10, which makes the system
    easy to use.

27
Measurement Systems, continued
  • SI is a decimal system, so all relationships
    between SI units are based on powers of 10.
  • Most SI units have a prefix that indicates the
    relationship of that unit to a base unit.
  • For example, the prefix kilo- means 1,000. So, a
    kilogram is equal to 1,000 grams.

28
Some SI Prefixes
29
Bellringer
  • Examine the SI units below.
  • How many meters are there in a kilometer? How
    many centigrams are in a gram?
  • How many milliliters are in 20 liters?

30
Metric Units of Lengths and Equivalents
31
Lab Techniques
  • In the lab, scientists always keep detailed and
    accurate notes and perform precise measurements.
  • Many scientists also use specialized tools, such
    as microscopes, and specialized procedures, such
    as sterile technique.

32
Lab Techniques, continued
  • Scientists use microscopes to view objects and
    organisms that are too small to see with the
    unaided eye.
  • Sterile technique is a method of keeping unwanted
    microorganisms out of a lab in order to minimize
    the risk of contamination.
  • Scientists also collect data remotely using
    devices such as satellites. These devices help
    scientists conduct research that would not have
    been possible in the past.

33
Visual Concept Types of Microscopes
34
Visual Concept Parts of a Light Microscope
35
Safety
  • Scientists must use caution when working in the
    lab or doing field research to avoid things like
    chemical burns, exposure to radiation, exposure
    to infectious disease, animal bites, or poisonous
    plants.
  • Carefully follow all guidelines and procedures
    for working safely in the lab. Know the location
    and proper operation of all lab safety equipment.
  • If an accident occurs while in the lab, remain
    calm. Make sure you are safe and that no one else
    is in danger. Then inform your teacher.

36
Summary
  • The International System of Units is used by
    scientists because scientists must share a common
    measurement system. SI is scaled in multiples of
    10, which makes the system easy to use.
  • In the lab, scientists keep detailed and accurate
    notes and perform precise measurements.
    Scientists also use specialized tools and
    procedures.
  • Scientists use caution to avoid hazards such as
    chemical burns, exposure to radiation, exposure
    to infectious disease, animal bites, or poisonous
    plants.

37
Test Prep
The strength of a light microscope is determined
by multiplying the strength of the eye piece by
the strength of the objective lens. Light
microscopes often have several objective lenses.
Suppose a microscope has an eye piece that
magnifies by 10, and two objective lenses, one
that magnifies by 10 and one that magnifies by
40. Calculate the total magnification using both
objective lenses with the eye piece.
38
Concept Check
  1. Why do scientists use SI units for measurement?
  2. What are some tools and techniques that
    scientists use in the laboratory?
  3. What can you do to stay safe during an
    investigation?

39
Section 4 What Is Biology?
  • Preview
  • The Study of Life
  • Properties of Life

40
The Study of Life
  • Biology is the scientific study of living
    organisms and their interactions with the
    environment.
  • It would be impossible for one person to become
    an expert in all aspects of biology, so
    scientists specialize.
  • Some of the branches of biology are biochemistry,
    ecology, cell biology, genetics, evolutionary
    theory, microbiology, botany, zoology, and
    physiology.
  • Throughout this course you will learn about each
    of these branches and have the opportunity to
    practice techniques used in careers in each of
    these fields.

41
Properties of Life
  • All living organisms share certain properties.
  • The seven properties of life are cellular
    organization, homeostasis, metabolism,
    responsiveness, reproduction, heredity, and
    growth.
  • Cellular Organization
  • All living things are made of one or more cells.
  • A cell is the smallest unit capable of all life
    processes.

42
Properties of Life, continued
  • Homeostasis
  • All living organisms must maintain a stable
    internal environment in order to function
    properly.
  • The maintenance of a stable internal environment
    in spite of changes in the external environment
    is called homeostasis.

43
Properties of Life, continued
  • Metabolism
  • Living organisms carry out different chemical
    reactions in order to obtain energy.
  • The sum of all the chemical reactions carried out
    in an organism is called metabolism.
  • Almost all of the energy used by living things
    originally comes from the sun.

44
Properties of Life, continued
  • Responsiveness
  • In addition to maintaining a stable internal
    environment, living organisms respond to their
    external environment.
  • Can you think of a way that you have responded to
    your environment today?

45
Properties of Life, continued
  • Reproduction
  • Most living things can reproduce. Reproduction is
    the process by which organisms make more of their
    own kind from one generation to the next.
  • Heredity
  • When an organism reproduces, it passes on its own
    traits to its offspring in a process called
    heredity.
  • Inherited characteristics change over
    generations. This process is called evolution

46
Visual Concept Heredity
Click above to play the video.
47
Properties of Life, continued
  • Growth
  • All living organisms grow.
  • As organisms grow, many change. This process is
    called development.
  • Development differs from evolution because
    development refers to change in a single
    individual during that individuals life.

48
The Seven Properties of Life
  1. Cellular Organization
  2. Reproduction
  3. Metabolism
  4. Homeostasis
  5. Heredity
  6. Responsiveness
  7. Growth Development

49
Summary
  • Branches of biology include biochemistry,
    ecology, cell biology, genetics, evolutionary
    theory, microbiology, botany, zoology, and
    physiology.
  • The seven properties of life are cellular
    organization, homeostasis, metabolism,
    responsiveness, reproduction, heredity, and
    growth.

50
Concept Check
  • What are three of the branches of biology?
  • List the seven characteristics that all living
    things share

51
Write a short paragraph that expresses your
opinion on the following statement The lengthy
drug-approval process costs hundreds of lives
every year. Doctors have a moral obligation to
provide potentially life-saving drugs to patients
with terminal diseases even if the drugs have not
been scientifically tested.
About PowerShow.com