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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 19 Fire Department Communications
Firefighter I II
2
Chapter 19 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to communicate effectively by radio and
    telephone following the policies and procedures
    set forth by the authority having jurisdiction
    (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe communication responsibilities of
    the firefighter.
  • 2. Summarize necessary skills for fire
    department communication.
  • 3. Describe basic communications equipment used
    in telecommunications centers.

4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Describe basic business telephone courtesies.
  • 5. Explain how a firefighter should proceed when
    receiving emergency calls from the public.
  • 6. Describe types of public alerting systems.

5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Describe procedures that the public should
    use to report a fire or other emergency.
  • 8. Discuss ways of alerting fire department
    personnel to emergencies.
  • 9. Summarize guidelines for radio
    communications.

6
Specific Objectives
  • 10. Describe information given in arrival and
    progress reports.
  • 11. Explain the purpose of tactical channels.
  • 12. Discuss calls for additional resources and
    emergency radio traffic.

7
Specific Objectives
  • 13. Discuss evacuation signals and personnel
    accountability reports.
  • 14. Handle business calls and reports of
    emergencies. (Skill Sheet 19-I-1)
  • 15. Use a portable radio for routine and
    emergency traffic. (Skill Sheet 19-I-2)
  • Create an incident report. (Skill Sheet 19-II-1)

8
Communication Responsibilities Telecommunicator
  • Has a role which is different from but just as
    important as other personnel
  • Usually full-time professional communications
    specialists

9
Communication Responsibilities Telecommunicator
  • Must process calls from unknown and unseen
    individuals who are under stressful situations

10
Communication Responsibilities Telecommunicator
  • Must be able to obtain complete, reliable
    information
  • Must gather information from the caller, then
    dispatch emergency responders

11
Communication Responsibilities Telecommunicator
  • Must know where emergency resources are in
    relation to the reported incident
  • Need to know not only which units to assign but
    also how to alert

12
Communication Responsibilities Telecommunicator
  • Must stay in contact with the Incident Commander
    (IC)
  • Must keep records of each request for assistance

13
Customer Service
  • Consumer of emergency services is the general
    public
  • Telecommunicator has first contact with the
    public during an emergency
  • Often receive calls from people in the community
    seeking assistance or information

14
Necessary Traits or Personal Characteristics
  • Adjust to various levels of activity
  • Handle multitasking
  • Make decisions and judgments based on common
    sense and values
  • Maintain composure
  • Form conclusions from disassociated facts.

15
Necessary Traits or Personal Characteristics
  • Handle criticism
  • Remember and recall information
  • Deal with verbal abuse
  • Function under stress
  • Maintain confidentiality

16
Communication Skills
  • Basic reading skills
  • Basic writing skills
  • Ability to speak clearly
  • Ability to follow written and verbal instructions

17
Map Reading
  • Critical to be able to look at a map and locate
    specific points

18
Map Reading
  • Wildland responsibilities
  • Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) systems
  • Automatic Vehicle Locating (AVL) system
  • Cellular phones

19
Common Communications Equipment
  • Two-way base radio
  • Tone-generating equipment
  • Telephones
  • Direct-line phones

20
Common Communications Equipment
  • Computers
  • Recording systems or devices
  • Alarm-receiving equipment

21
Alarm-Receiving Equipment
  • Telephones
  • Commercial phone systems
  • Direct lines
  • TDD/TTY/text phone
  • Wireless (cellular)

22
Alarm-Receiving Equipment
  • Fax machines
  • Radios
  • Base radios, mobile radios, portable radios

23
Radio Guidelines
  • Realize that all radio transmissions can be
    monitored
  • Use self-discipline and good judgment

24
Radio Guidelines
  • Plan exactly what is intended to be said.
  • Do not use slang or jargon.
  • It is inappropriate to use anyones name in a
    radio message.

25
Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) Systems
  • Assist or aid the performance of the
    telecommunicator
  • Can shorten response times or enable a greater
    volume of calls
  • Can reduce the amount of radio traffic

26
Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) Systems
  • Available in various designs
  • May not be needed by smaller organizations

27
Recording Information
  • Voice recorders
  • Document information
  • Accurate account of operations
  • Protect in case of litigation
  • Document evidence
  • Continuously running
  • Intermittently running

28
Recording Information
  • Radio logs
  • Record the incident and location of each activity
  • A manual system written on paper
  • Usually a chronological recording
  • Include incident information

29
Objectives
  • Role play listening exercise
  • Discuss the importance of using clear plain text
    in radio communications.
  • Discuss Guidelines for radio communications,
    on-scene report and progress reports.
  • Demonstrate receiving an emergency call
  • Discuss evacuation signals and personnel
    accountability reports.

30
Scenario
  • A southbound truck was turning right while a
    northbound sports car was attempting to turn
    left. When the two drivers figured out they were
    trying to turn into the same lane, they both
    honked but continued to turn without slowing
    down. In fact, the sports car seemed to speed up
    just before the crash.

31
  • Once upon a time there was an office worker who
    hated her job.
  • And every day she drove the 10 miles to work,
    usually speeding because she couldn't bring
    herself to leave home on time.
  • Until one day while she was speeding along, she
    ran into a trash can someone had left too far
    from the edge of the road.
  • And because of that her rearview mirror smacked
    against her passenger side window, cracking the
    glass in the mirror.
  • And because of that she took the car to the
    dealer who said it would cost 400 to replace the
    mirror.

32
The Badge of a Fire Fighter is the Maltese Cross.
The Maltese Cross is a symbol of protection and a
badge of honor. When a courageous band of
crusaders known as The Knights of St. John fought
the Saracens for possession of the holy land,
they encountered a new weapon unknown to European
warriors. As the crusaders advanced on the walls
of the city, they were struck by glass bombs
containing naphtha. When they became saturated
with the highly flammable liquid, the Saracens
would hurl a flaming torch into their midst.
Hundreds of the knights were burned alive others
risked their lives to save their brothers-in-arms
from dying painful, fiery deaths. Thus, these men
became our first Fire Fighters
33
North Carolina was the first colony to declare
its independence from England. According to
legend, in May of 1775, more than 25 of
Mecklenburg County's most prominent citizens
signed a document entitled the Mecklenburg
Declaration of Independence. The predominantly
Scotch Presbyterian leaders of the community now
known as Charlotte set up a government that
granted them more freedom than they had known
under British rule. Some historians have even
suggested that Thomas Jefferson may have borrowed
some of the ideas and language of this document
when he wrote the Declaration of Independence of
1776. The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence
was destroyed by fire, and only a recreation of
the original document exists.
34
10 codes/Clear Plain text
  • 10-1 Receiving Poor
  • 10-2 Receiving OK
  • 10-4 OK
  • 10-7 Out of Service
  • 10-8 In Service

    10-9 Repeat
  • 10-10 Negative
  • 10-17 Enroute
  • 10-20 Location
  • 10-23 Arrived on scene
  • 10-24 Finished with last assignment
  • 10-50 Vehicle Collision

35
Basic Telephone Courtesies
  • Answer calls promptly
  • Be pleasant and identify the department or
    company and self
  • Be prepared to record messages accurately

36
Basic Telephone Courtesies
  • Never leave the line open or a caller on hold for
    an extended period of time
  • Post the message or deliver the message promptly
  • Terminate calls courteously always allow the
    caller to hang up first

37
Receiving a Business/Personal Call (Practical)
  • Identify department, your name and rank
  • Example Jacksonville Fire Department, Chief
    Koonce speaking, how may I help you?
  • Have paper and a pen or pencil ready so you can
    record caller information
  • Document caller name
  • Document date and time call received

3 of 4
38
Receiving a Business/Personal Call (Practical)
  • Document callers call back number
  • Document the message
  • Sign the message with your name
  • Post or hand deliver message
  • Hang up phone last

3 of 4
39
Receiving Emergency Calls from the Public
  • Identify the agency
  • Control the conversation
  • Ask questions to get the information needed
  • Assertive voice
  • Follow SOPs

40
Receiving Emergency Calls from the Public
  • Gather information
  • Incident location
  • Type of incident/situation
  • Number of people injured or trapped
  • Get the exact location of the victims

41
Receiving Emergency Calls from the Public
  • If it is safe to do so, keep the caller on the
    line and get
  • Name
  • Location if different from the incident location
  • Callback telephone number
  • Address

42
Receiving Emergency Calls from the Public
  • Ask the caller if it is safe to remain on the
    phone
  • Record the answers to all questions
  • Maintain communications with all units until the
    call has been terminated

43
Public Alerting Systems
  • Telephone
  • Fire department emergency number may be 9-1-1, a
    7-digit number, or 0 for the operator

44
Public Alerting Systems Basic 9-1-1
  • Customer dials 9-1-1 and the phone rings at the
    communications center
  • Additional features
  • Called party hold
  • Forced disconnect
  • Ringback
  • Automatic number identification

45
Public Alerting Systems Enhanced 9-1-1 (E-9-1-1)
  • Combine telephone and computer equipment (such as
    CAD) to provide information such as
  • Callers location and phone number
  • Directions to the location
  • Other information about the address

46
Public Alerting Systems Enhanced 9-1-1 (E-9-1-1)
  • Displays the location from which the call is
    being made
  • Allows help to be sent even if the caller is
    incapable of identifying location
  • Does not work with wireless telephones

47
Public Alerting Systems Radio
  • Likely to come from fire department personnel or
    other government workers who happen upon an
    emergency
  • Gather the same kind of information that would be
    taken from a telephone caller

48
Public Alerting Systems Radio
  • Some fire departments monitor citizens band (CB)
    radio frequencies for reports of emergencies

49
Public Alerting Systems Walk-ins
  • Citizens may walk into a fire station and report
    an emergency
  • Whoever greets the citizen should ascertain the
    location and type of incident

50
Public Alerting Systems Walk-ins
  • Get the reporting partys name, address, and
    telephone number
  • Local policy dictates what steps should be taken
    once information has been obtained

51
Public Alerting Systems Wired Telegraph Circuit
Boxes
  • Historically installed on street corners
  • Connected to a wired telegraph circuit that was
    connected to all fire stations in the
    jurisdiction

52
Public Alerting Systems Wired Telegraph Circuit
Boxes
  • Still maintained by some cities
  • Operation uses a lever
  • Extremely reliable, but also limited
  • Only transmit location of box
  • Notorious for malicious false alarms
  • Have diminished in need

53
Public Alerting Systems Telephone Fire Alarm
Box
  • A fire alarm box equipped with a telephone for
    direct voice contact with a telecommunicator
  • May be used in combination with telegraph circuits

54
Public Alerting Systems Radio Fire Alarm Box
  • Contains an independent radio transmitter with a
    battery power supply
  • Some include a small solar panel for recharging
    the units battery

55
Public Alerting Systems Radio Fire Alarm Box
  • Some feature a spring-wound alternator to provide
    power when the operating handle is pulled
  • Types
  • Activating the alarm in radio boxes alerts by an
    audible signal, visual light indicator, and a
    printed record indicating the location
  • Some systems also have a different-colored light
    that indicates a test or temper signal

56
Public Alerting Systems Radio Fire Alarm Box
  • The printing devices in some systems print
  • Date
  • Time of day in 24-hour time
  • Message sent by the box
  • Box number
  • Coded signal that indicates the strength of the
    battery within the box

57
Public Alerting Systems Radio Fire Alarm Box
  • Some are designed to allow a person to select
    fire, police, or ambulance service
  • May be located along roads, highways, and in
    rural areas and have two-way communications
    capabilities

58
Citizen Reporting a Fire or Other Emergency by
Telephone (Practical)
  • Dial the appropriate number
  • 9-1-1
  • Fire department 7-digit number
  • 0 for the operator
  • State the address where the emergency is located.
  • If no address, give the nearest cross streets or
    describe nearby landmarks.

59
Citizen Reporting a Fire or Other Emergency by
Telephone (Practical)
  • Give the telephone number from which the call was
    made.
  • State the nature of the emergency.
  • State name and location.
  • Stay on the line if requested to do so by the
    telecommunicator.

1 of 4
60
Reporting a Fire or Other Emergency From a Fire
Alarm Telegraph Box (Practical)
  • Send signal as directed on the box
  • If safe to do so, stay at the box until
    firefighters arrive

1 of 4
61
Reporting a Fire or Other Emergency From a Local
Alarm Box (Practical)
  • Send signal as directed on the box
  • Notify the fire department by telephone using the
    guidelines given earlier

1 of 4
62
Alerting Fire Department Personnel Staffed
Stations
  • Computerized line printer or terminal screen with
    alarm
  • Voice alarm
  • Teletype
  • House bell or gong
  • House light

63
Alerting Fire Department Personnel Staffed
Stations
  • Telephone from telecommunicator on secure phone
    line
  • Telegraph register
  • Radio with tone alert
  • Radio/pagers

64
Alerting Fire Department Personnel Unstaffed
Stations
  • Pagers
  • Cellular telephones and other devices with
    text-messaging capabilities
  • Home electronic monitors
  • Telephones
  • Sirens
  • Whistles or air horns

65
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • The Fire/EMS Department will use the radio system
    in compliance with the Federal Communications
    Commission (FCC) rules and regulations.
  • The FCC authorizes Fire Department radios to
    transmit communications essential to official
    public safety activities.

66
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Under the rules and regulations of the FCC, it is
    unlawful to
  • Transmit messages of a personal nature over Fire
    Department frequencies.
  • Use profane, indecent, or obscene language over
    Fire Department frequencies.
  • Cause unlawful or malicious interference with any
    other radio communications.

67
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Under the rules and regulations of the FCC, it is
    unlawful to
  • To transmit a call signal, letter, or numeral
    that has not been assigned by proper authorities.
  • Messages not essential to official Fire
    Department activities must be conveyed through
    another medium.
  • Messages of a personal nature will not be allowed
    under any circumstances.

68
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Use plain English or clear text without codes of
    any kind
  • Clear text Standardized set of fire-specific
    words and phrases, often used in the wildland
    fire community
  • Use a moderate rate of speaking

69
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Use a moderate amount of expression in speech
  • Use a vocal quality that is not too strong or
    weak
  • Keep things such as gum and candy out of the
    mouth

70
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Be concise and to the point
  • Think about what should be said before keying the
    microphone

71
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Everyone on the fireground should follow two
    basic rules
  • Units must identify themselves in every
    transmission
  • The receiver must acknowledge every message

72
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • Do not transmit until the frequency is clear
  • Any unit working at an emergency scene has
    priority over routine transmissions
  • Do not use profane or obscene language on the air

73
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • All radio frequencies are monitored
  • Hold the radio/microphone 1 to 2 inches (25 mm
    to 50 mm) from the mouth

74
Guidelines for Radio Communications
  • On the emergency scene
  • Avoid laying the microphone on the seat of the
    vehicle
  • Do npt put radio in back pocket
  • Do not touch the antenna when transmitting

75
Mobile and Portable Radio Routine traffic
  • Transmissions should be brief, accurate, and to
    the point
  • The air must be clear before transmitting.
  • Only official business should be transmitted.
  • Radio frequency burns may occur if antenna is
    touched during transmission.

1 of 4
76
Mobile and Portable Radio Routine traffic
  • Determines the air is clear before transmitting.
  • Holds the microphone within 1 to 2 inches of the
    mouth when transmitting
  • Speaks calmly, clearly, and distinctly.

1 of 4
77
Arrival Reports
  • Also called a report on conditions or situation
    report
  • Establish a time of arrival and inform other
    responding units of what actions might be needed

78
Arrival Reports
  • Format
  • Situation found
  • Action(s) taken/actions to be taken
  • Command status

79
Arrival Reports
  • Some situations require more detail
  • Address, if other than the one initially reported
  • Building and occupancy description
  • Nature and extent of fire or other emergency
  • Attack mode selected

80
Arrival Reports
  • Some situations require more detail (cont.)
  • Rescue and exposure problems
  • Instructions to other responding units
  • Location of Incident Command position
  • Establishing Command
  • Water supply situation

81
Arrival Reports
  • Verbal Size-up
  • Unit Identification
  • Assume Command
  • Obvious Conditions (Nothing showing)
  • Building Height (1, 2 story)
  • Construction Type
  • Occupancy Type
  • Location of fire
  • Actions Taken

82
Progress Reports
  • Are used to keep the communications center
    continually advised
  • Transfer of Command
  • Change in command post location
  • Progress (or lack of) toward incident
    stabilization
  • Direction of fire spread

83
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84
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85
Progress Report Items
  • Exposures by direction, height, occupancy, and
    distance
  • Any problems or needs
  • Anticipated actions

86
Tactical Channels
  • Most often used for large incidents
  • Small routine incidents usually do not require a
    tactical channel
  • In many departments, units are initially
    dispatched on the primary dispatch channel
  • Upon arrival on the scene, units may switch to an
    assigned tactical channel

87
Tactical Channels Telecommunicator Roles
  • Assign a tactical frequency
  • Ensure additional responding units are aware of
    the assigned tactical channel
  • Notify other agencies and services of the
    incident and the need for them to respond
  • Provide updated information

88
Calls for Additional Resources
  • Normally, only the Incident Commander may strike
    multiple alarms or order additional resources
  • Know local procedure for requesting additional
    resources
  • Be familiar with alarm signals

89
Calls for Additional Resources
  • When multiple alarms are struck, a radio-equipped
    mobile communications vehicle can be used to
    reduce the load on the communications center
  • Firefighters must be able to communicate the need
    for team assistance

90
Emergency Radio Traffic
  • Person transmitting the message should make the
    urgency clear
  • Telecommunicator should give an attention tone,
    advise all other units to stand by, and then
    advise the caller to proceed

91
Emergency Radio Traffic
  • After the emergency communication is complete,
    telecommunicator notifies all units to resume
    normal or routine radio traffic

92
Evacuation Signals
  • Are used when the IC decides that all
    firefighters should immediately withdraw
  • All firefighters should be familiar with their
    departments method of sounding an evacuation
    signal

93
Evacuation Signals
  • Radio broadcast
  • Similar to emergency traffic broadcast
  • Message is broadcast several times

94
Evacuation Signals
  • Audible warning devices
  • Will work outside small structures
  • May not be heard by everyone
  • Can be confused with those being used by units
    arriving at the scene

95
Personnel Accountability Report (PAR)
  • A systematic way of confirming the status of any
    unit operating at an incident
  • When requested, every supervisor must verify the
    status of those under his or her command

96
Personnel Accountability Report (PAR)
  • May have to rely on touch or hearing to verify
    each members status
  • Others in the chain of command must rely on radio
    reports from their subordinates

97
Personnel Accountability Report (PAR)
  • Command can request a PAR at any time, but one is
    usually requested when
  • The incident is declared under control
  • There is a change in strategy
  • There is a sudden catastrophic event
  • There is an emergency evacuation
  • A firefighter is reported missing or in distress

98
Incident Reports
99
Summary
  • Fire alarms or calls for help must be handled
    expediently and accurately. If they are not,
    incidents can increase in size and severity.

100
Summary
  • Fire department communications are a critical
    factor in the successful outcome of any incident.
    The better the communications, the safer the
    incident.

101
Summary
  • Firefighters must know how to handle both
    emergency and routine communications, including
    nonemergency calls for business purposes or
    public inquiries made directly to the station.

102
Review Questions
  • 1. What communication skills are necessary for
    fire department communications?
  • 2. What is computer-aided dispatch (CAD)?
  • 3. List three basic business telephone
    courtesies.

103
Review Questions
  • 4. What actions should be taken when receiving
    an emergency call from a citizen?
  • 5. How should the public report a fire or other
    emergency using a telephone?

104
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 19 Fire Alarm Initiating
Devices Firefighter I II
105
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe types of heat detectors.
  • 2. Describe types of smoke detectors/alarms.
  • 3. Explain how flame detectors and fire-gas
    detectors operate.

106
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Discuss combination detectors and indicating
    devices.
  • 5. Describe types of automatic alarm systems.
  • 6. Discuss supervising fire alarm systems and
    auxiliary services.

107
Fixed-Temperature Heat Detectors
  • Relatively inexpensive compared to other types of
    systems
  • Can be slowest to activate when installed in
    extreme cold environments.
  • Activate when heated to a set temperature.

108
Fixed-Temperature Heat Detectors
  • Because heat rises, they are installed in highest
    portions of room.
  • Should have activation temperature rating
    slightly above highest ceiling temperatures
    normally expected in space.
  • Normally rated at 135F 174F
  • Attics and other areas of elevated temperatures
    are rated at 200F or more.

109
Fixed-Temperature Heat Detectors
  • Activate by one or more of three mechanisms
  • Fusible device
  • Frangible bulb
  • Continuous line detector
  • Bimetallic

110
Fixed-Temperature Fusible
Heat Detectors
  • Spring-operated device held in place by solder.
  • When the melting point of the solder is reached,
    the spring is released and makes a circuit
    contact initiating an alarm.

111
Fixed-Temperature Frangible
Bulb Heat Detectors
  • A frangible bulb in a detection device holds
    electrical contacts apart, much in the way that a
    fusible device does.
  • The little glass vial (frangible bulb) contains a
    liquid with a small air bubble.
  • The bulb is designed to break when the liquid is
    heated to a predetermined temperature.

112
Fixed-Temperature Frangible
Bulb Heat Detectors
  • When the rated temperature is reached, the liquid
    expands and absorbs the air bubble, the bulb
    fractures and falls out, and the contacts
    complete the circuit to initiate an alarm.

113
Fixed-Temperature Continuous
Line Heat Detectors
  • Works when a heat sensitive polymer breaks down
    at set temperature and allows the two inner wire
    conductors to touch activating the alarm.

114
Fixed-Temperature Bimetallic
Heat Detectors
  • The bimetallic strip in a fire alarm is made of
    two metals with different expansion rates bonded
    together to form one piece of metal.
  • When the strip is heated by fire, the
    high-expansion side bends the strip toward an
    electrical contact. When the strip touches that
    contact, it completes a circuit that triggers the
    alarm to sound

115
Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors
  • Operate on assumption that temperature in room
    will increase faster from fire than from normal
    atmospheric heating.
  • Designed to initiate signal when rise in
    temperature exceeds 12 to 15F (-11C to -9C)
    in one minute.

116
Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors
  • Can be initiated at room temperature far below
    that required for initiating fixed-temperature
    device
  • Reliable, not subject to false activations
  • Pneumatic rate-of-rise spot detector

117
Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors
  • Pneumatic rate-of-rise line detector
  • Rate-compensated detector
  • Thermoelectric detector

118
Smoke Detectors
  • Detect presence of smoke must transmit signal to
    another device that sounds alarm
  • Respond to smoke or other products of combustion
  • Preferred over heat detectors

119
Smoke Alarms
  • Capable of
  • Detecting presence of smoke
  • Sounding an alarm

120
Photoelectric Smoke Detectors
  • Use photoelectric cell coupled with tiny light
    source
  • Function in two ways to detect smoke

121
Ionization Smoke Detectors
  • Detect minute particles, aerosols produced during
    combustion
  • Use a tiny amount of radioactive material to
    ionize air molecules as they enter chamber within
    detector

122
Ionization Smoke Detectors
  • Respond satisfactorily to most fires
  • Respond faster to flaming fires than smoldering
    ones

123
Power Sources of Smoke Alarms
  • Battery-operated
  • Household current
  • Combination

124
Flame Detectors
  • Types
  • Among most sensitive detectors used to detect
    fires
  • Prone to being activated by nonfire conditions

125
Flame Detectors
  • Usually positioned in areas where other light
    sources unlikely
  • Positioned to have unobstructed view of protected
    area

126
Flame Detectors
  • Some single-band IR detectors sensitive to
    sunlight, should be installed in fully enclosed
    areas
  • UV detectors virtually insensitive to sunlight,
    can be used in areas not suitable for IR detectors

127
Fire-Gas Detectors
  • Monitor levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide
    because these are only chemicals released from
    all fires
  • Initiate alarm signal faster than heat detector
    but not as quickly as smoke detector

128
Fire-Gas Detectors
  • Can be more discriminating than other types
  • Can be designed to be sensitive only to specific
    gases

129
Fire-Gas Detectors
  • Use semiconductors/catalytic elements to sense
    gas, transmit signal to initiate alarm
  • Not used as frequently as other types

130
Combination Detectors
  • Various combinations of previously described
    means of detection may be used in single device

131
Alarm-Indicating Devices
  • Some produce loud signal to attract attention in
    high-noise areas
  • Some generate electronic tone audible in almost
    any type of environment
  • Some employ bells, horns, chimes

132
Alarm-Indicating Devices
  • Others use speakers that broadcast prerecorded
    evacuation instructions
  • May include visual alarm indicators to
    accommodate special circumstances/populations

133
Alarm-Indicating Devices
  • May include strobe indicators Must meet
    requirements of Americans with Disabilities Act
    in areas where there may be people with hearing
    impairments

134
Automatic Alarm Systems
  • Transmit signal to off-site location to summon
    organized assistance
  • Produce automatic response upon activation of
    local alarm
  • May be installed to complement wet-pipe or
    dry-pipe sprinkler systems to detect the movement
    of water in the system.

135
Automatic Alarm Systems
  • Alarm can be set off by heat, gas, smoke,
    flame-sensing or sprinkler waterflow devices.
  • Can also be an alarm box that sends a signal to
    the fire station to give the location of the fire.

136
Auxiliary Systems
  • 2 Basic types of auxilliary systems
  • Local energy systems
  • Shunt systems
  • Parallel telephone systems

137
Auxiliary Local Energy Systems
  • An occupancy is attached to a municipal fire
    alarm box.
  • When an alarm activates in a protected property
    it trips the alarm box and transmits an alarm to
    fire alarm center
  • Alarms can be transmitted by manual pull
    stations, automatic fire detection sevices, or
    waterflow devices

138
Auxiliary Local Energy Systems
139
Auxiliary Shunt Systems
  • The municipal alarm circuit extends (is shunted)
    into the protected property.
  • When an alarm is transmitted from the protected
    property it is instantly transmitted to the alarm
    center.

140
Auxiliary Parallel Telephone
  • Do not interconnect with a municipal alarm
    circuit.
  • Transmits an alarm from the protected property
    directly to the alarm center over a telephone
    circuit that serves no other purpose

141
Remote Station Systems
  • Similar to auxiliary systems but connected to
    fire department telecommunication center
    directly/through answering service by some means
    other than municipal fire alarm box system

142
Remote Station Systems
  • Can be connected by leased telephone line or
    radio signal on dedicated frequency
  • Common in localities not served by central
    station systems

143
Remote Station Systems
  • May transmit coded or noncoded signal
  • Must have ability to transmit trouble signal to
    fire alarm center when system impaired

144
Remote Station Systems
  • May not have local alarm capabilities if
    evacuation is not desired action in fire
  • May be monitored by entity besides fire department

145
Proprietary Systems
  • Used to protect large commercial, industrial
    buildings, high-rise buildings, groups of
    commonly owned buildings in single location

146
Proprietary Systems
  • Each building/area has own system wired into a
    common receiving point somewhere on facility
  • The receiving station
  • Capabilities

147
Central Station Systems
  • Very similar to proprietary systems instead of
    having alarm-receiving point monitored by
    occupants representative on protected premises,
    receiving point is at off-site, contracted
    service point called a central station

148
Central Station Systems
  • Central station is alarm company that contracts
    with individual customers

149
Central Station Systems
  • When alarm initiated at contracting occupancy,
    central station employees take information,
    initiate appropriate emergency response
  • Response usually includes calling fire
    department, representatives of protected occupancy

150
Central Station Systems
  • Alarm systems at protected property and central
    station most commonly connected by supervised
    telephone lines

151
Supervising Fire Alarm Systems
  • Designed to be self-supervising
  • Older systems
  • Newer systems

152
Supervising Fire Alarm Systems
  • Sounds of alarm, trouble signals may differ with
    each brand
  • Many fixed fire suppression systems depend on
    signal from manual pull station/from automatic
    fire detection device to trigger suppression
    system

153
Auxiliary Services Available on Newer Systems
  • Shutting down, altering airflow in heating,
    ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems
    for smoke control
  • Closing smoke/fire-rated doors, dampers

154
Auxiliary Services Available on Newer Systems
  • Facilitating evacuation by increasing air
    pressure in stairwells to exclude smoke
  • Overriding elevator controls
  • Monitoring operation of commercial incinerator
    management systems

155
Auxiliary Services Available on Newer Systems
  • Monitoring refrigeration systems, cold-storage
    areas
  • Controlling personnel access to hazardous
    process/storage areas
  • Detecting combustible/toxic gases

156
Fire Reports
  • NFPA 901
  • NIFRS
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