Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s?


What types of leaders emerged? Congo / Zaire. Patrice Lumumba 1960: 1st Prime Minister of independent (DRC). Leader of the . Mouvement. National – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s?

Topic 2 Independent AfricaHow was
independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and
  • Comparative Case Studies as examples to
    illustrate the political, economic, social and
    cultural successes and challenges in independent
    Africa 1960-1980s.
  • (Comparative Essay Question)

Where in the world is Congo and Tanzania?
Where are Congo and Tanzania located in Africa?
The leadership
Julius Nyerere
Mobutu Sese Seko
Ideas that influenced the independent states
  • African Socialism Nyerere argued that there were
    no class structures in traditional African
    society. African socialism emphasised community
    and communal development rather than the European
    idea of working class revolution.
  • Capitalism It is an economic system that is
    based on private ownership of the means of
    production and the use of labour and resources to
    make a profit.
  • Democracy A system of government by the whole
    population or all the eligible members of a
    state, typically through elected representatives.
  • One-Party State A political system where in only
    one party is allowed in a country. No opposition
    is allowed and all opposition parties are banned

What aspects of a country should be compared in a
comparative study?
  • Political relating to the government or the
    public affairs of a country
  • Economic the choices made about who can create,
    benefit from, have access to a countrys
    resources and wealth
  • Social is the different ways that people
    organise themselves and live together in groups
    and the relationship which emerge (eg a class
  • Cultural is the characteristics of a particular
    group of people, defined by everything from
    language, religion, food, to social habits,
    clothes or music

What kind of State emerged?
  • Congo supported by USA
  • Tanzania non-aligned
  • 1960 Gained independence from Belgium (Kasavubu
    - President, Lumumba - Prime Minister)
    multi-party democracy.
  • Mineral rich region, Katanga, seceded (Moise
  • 1961 and 1965 military Coup (supported by USA /
    CIA) Mobutu established a military dictatorship.
  • 1967 Abolished opposition parties.
  • Authenticité or Zairisation
  • Mobutus Zaire characterised by corruption,
    kleptocracy, elitism.
  • 1961 Gained independence from Britain
    muti-party democracy
  • 1962 Nyerere became President
  • 1963 Nyerere abolished all other political
    parties. TANU became the only legal party.
  • 1964 Tanzania and Zanzibar merged to form the
    United Republic of Tanzania
  • 1967 Arusha Declaration - stated commitment to
    African Socialism introduced Leadership Code
    and Ujaama.
  • Attempted to remain non-aligned politically and
    avoid economic neo-colonialism.

What types of leaders emerged?
  • Congo / Zaire
  • Tanzania
  • Patrice Lumumba 1960 1st Prime Minister of
    independent (DRC). Leader of the Mouvement
    National Congolais (MNC) A pan/multi-ethnic
    political party to unify all Congolese into a
    single nation
  • Believed in positive neutralism wanted DRC free
    from foreign interference, initially non-aligned
    but turned to USSR for support when Katanga
  • Arrested and executed with USA / Belgium support
    in 1961
  • Joseph Mobutu 1961 and 1965 seized power by
    military coup (supported by the west)
  • Ruled as a ruthless dictator until his death in
  • Julius Nyerere 1961 1st Prime Minister of
    independenet Tanganyika President in 1962.
  • Leader of Tanganyikan African National Union
  • Called Mwalimu (teacher) Remembered for his
    personal integrity.
  • Believed in pan-Africanism and equity. He
    rejected tribalism and opposed neo-colonialism.
  • He attempted to keep Tanzania non-aligned during
    Cold War.
  • Voluntarily retired in 1985

Economic Legacy of Colonialism
  • Both countries were colonised by European powers,
    Congo by Belgium and Tanzania by Germany and then
    Britain, who exploited their natural resources.
  • At independence both countries had underdeveloped
    economies - their wealth came from agriculture
    and the sale of unprocessed minerals. Neither
    country had industrialised or had developed a
    manufacturing industry.
  • The colonial powers only built infrastucture to
    service the export of raw materials not to
    promote internal trade.

Similarities between the economies of Congo and
  • In both countries the majority of people were
    peasants (small scale farmers)
  • Both countries struggled to develop a
    manufacturing industry after independence
  • In both countries land and industry were
    nationalised. Mobutu nationalised most mines
    (Zairinisation proved to be a total failure and
    he had to re-privatise most mines) Tanzania also
    nationalised its industry and land but was forced
    to privatise these in return for debt relief from
    the World Bank and IMF in the 1980s
  • In both countries during the period 1960-1980s
    the majority of the people lived in poverty and
    the countries faced economic crisis
  • Both countries relied on the export of primary
    products. Congo is very rich in valuable
    minerals copper, industrial diamonds, cobalt,
    gold and zinc Tanzanias economy is based on the
    production of cash crops such as coffee and tea.
    It also mines a rare gemstone called tanzanite
  • Both countries were badly affected by the drop in
    price for raw materials in 1970s
  • Neither country had oil reserves so were
    negatively impacted by steep increases in cost of
    oil (necessary for industrialisation and
    transport) in 1970s
  • Both countries experienced extreme economic
    problems in the years after independence and by
    the 1980s relied from loans from foreign
    countries (Congo USA) and institutions
    (Tanzania - IMF and World Bank) to avoid

Differences between the economies of Congo and
  • Adopted a capitalist economic model (after
    initial attempts at nationalisation/
  • Relied heavily of foreign investment and received
    support from USA and West.
  • Mobutu aimed to industrialise, process its own
    raw materials and develop an industrial base.
  • Under Mobutu a very wealthy elite emerged.
    Corruption and cronyism led to greater class
  • Adopted a socialist economic model (although
    Nyerere had to abandon this in the 1980s)
  • Attempted to remain economically independent and
    avoid neo-colonialism
  • Nyerere believed that attempting to industrialse
    was a mistake. He introduced Ujaama, a
    villagisation policy aimed to make the country
    self-sufficient in terms of food
  • Nyerere attempted to prevent a new elite emerging
    with his Leadership Code

Social cultural successes and challenges
  • Congo
  • Tanzania
  • Clothing inspired by Maoist dress
  • Imposed Abacos from (A bas le costumes that
    literally meant down with the suit!)
  • All Africans encouraged to discard their
    European names.
  • State run schools were established after
    independence but Mobutu did not divert sufficient
    money to education and Congo lacked qualified
  • Clothing inspired by Maoist dress
  • Language African-language departments and
    research centers were created in newly founded
  • Promotion of Kiswahili as a unifying language
  • Used education to promote a national ethos,
    ideology and philosophy, and principles of a new
    society embracing a concept of social justice
  • Villagisation collective villages (managed by
    locals - inexperienced)