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Garden to Table

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Garden to Table Five Steps to Food Safe Fruit and Vegetable Home Gardening Project Funded by CSREES/USDA. Project 2003-5111001713 Dry produce thoroughly with a clean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Garden to Table


1
Garden to Table
Five Steps to Food Safe Fruit and Vegetable Home
Gardening
Project Funded by CSREES/USDA. Project
2003-5111001713
2
Objective of Program
  • Help gardeners apply Good Agricultural
    Practices or GAP to minimize microbial food
    safety hazards of home grown fruits and
    vegetables from Garden To Table.

3
3
How did we get here?
  • Survey of home gardeners across New England
  • On-site, follow-up interviews with home
    gardeners in New England

4
4
What did we find?
  • Gardeners need more information to minimize
    risk of foodborne illness in home grown fruits
    and vegetables from Garden to Table.

5
5
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Food Safety
Program
  • Original target Commercial growers/harvesters
  • Sanitation and food safety program for producers
    of fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Based on the Guide to Minimize Microbial Food
    Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits And Vegetables
    produced by the FDA and USDA in 1998.
  • Rapid changes since.

6
Produce Safety Concerns Why now?
  • Centers for Disease Control estimates, 1990s,
    12 foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce.
  • 2006 Food commodities associated with largest
    illness numbers
  • Poultry (21), Leafy vegetables (17), fruits or
    nuts (16)
  • 1998-2008 Leafy Greens 1 Outbreaks per CDC
  • What does this have to do with your home garden?

7
FDA/CFSAN. 2004. Produce safety from
production to consumption2004 action plan to
minimize foodborne illness associated with fresh
produce consumption. http//www,cfsan.fda.gov/dm
s/prodpla2.html Painter and others.
Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses in the US,
1998-2008. Emerging Infectious Disease
(Internet). 2013, Mar. http//ww.cdc.gov/foodborn
eburden/attribution-1998-2008.html
7
Good Agricultural Practices and the Home Gardener
  • Home Gardens - many issues the same
  • Water safety
  • Domestic/Wild animals
  • Use of compost
  • Use of manure
  • Personal hygiene/sanitation
  • Post-harvest handling and temperature control

8
8
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Goal reduce microbial risks in home grown fruits
    and vegetables to make produce safer.
  • Reduce risk of foodborne illness
  • Integrate food safety into home gardening
    practices

9
9
Food Safety Review
10
10
You wont spot unsafe food by using your senses
11
From http//lancaster.unl.edu/food/pizza.shtml
11
Foodborne Illness Symptoms
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Fever

A tiny taste will not protect you
as few as 10-100 bacteria could make you sick!
12
12
Foodborne IllnessPeople at Greatest Risk
Infants Children Pregnant women Elderly Peop
le with weakened immune systems
13
13
Foodborne Illness Dangers
  • Cases 48 million per year
  • Hospital 128,000 per year
  • Deaths 3,000 per year
  • Cost Billions

14
14
Why is this so hard to find? Why dont you know?
  • The Food that Made You Ill Is Probably Not the
    Last Food that You Ate
  • Incubation Period
  • Norovirus 12-48 hours
  • Salmonella 6 to 72 hours
  • E. coli O157H7 1 to 10 days
  • Listeria 3 to 70 days
  • You might not get ill or enough to notice

14
From E. Julian talk, 2012, Food Safety conference
15
Foodborne IllnessMost likely sources
  • Potentially Hazardous Foods
  • Ready to Eat Foods

15
16
Food Safety Hazards3 Types of Contamination
Physical Chemical Biological
Plastic Glass Metal Wood Bandages Jewelry and
other personal items
Allergens Pesticides Sanitizers Lubricants
Parasites Viruses Bacteria
16
17
Chemical Food Safety Hazards
  • Use pesticides according to manufacturers
    directions
  • Keep chemicals in original labeled containers
  • Check well water for chemical hazards
  • Toxins from mold
  • - e.g. patulin in apples



17
18
Biological Food Safety Hazards What are the
differences?
  • Parasites
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria

Cryptosporidium parvum
Norwalk virus
Salmonella spp.
18
19
Sources of Biological Contamination
  • Animals (wild and domestic, and manure)
  • People
  • Environment

19
20
Source of harmful bacteria/viruses in
fruits/vegetables
  • Animal/human intestinal tract
  • Salmonella
  • E.coli O157H7
  • Human
  • Shigella
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Norovirus
  • Staphylococcus
  • Environment
  • Listeria
  • Clostridium
  • E.coli O157H7
  • Water
  • Most of the above

20
21
To Grow, Bacteria Need
  • Food source
  • Moisture
  • Low in acidity (high pH)
  • Oxygen
  • Correct temperature
  • Time to grow

21
22
To Grow, Bacteria Need The Right Temperature
140 º F
Danger Zone
40 ºF
22
23
Potential Sources of Contamination for Home-grown
Produce
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Manure/Compost
  • Wild and Domestic Animals
  • Personal Hygiene/Sanitation
  • Containers
  • Wash and Rinse Water/Inadequate drying
  • Post-harvest handling and temperature control

23
24
Five Steps to Food Safe Home Gardening
  • Step 1 - Preparing the garden for planting
  • Step 2 - Maintaining the garden
    (planting/growing)
  • Step 3 - Harvesting garden produce
  • Step 4 - Storing garden produce
  • Step 5 Preparing and serving
    garden produce

24
25
Personal hygiene
Important at all steps
  • Proper handwashing - after working in the garden,
    using the bathroom, and before preparing fruits
    and vegetables
  • Be aware if illness symptoms. If ill, especially
    diarrhea, have someone else do the gardening.
  • Cover open cuts and sores

25
26
Preparing garden for planting Use of Manure
While animal manure can provide nutrients, it
can also be a source human pathogens. Fresh
manure not recommended for use, however
26
27
Preparing Garden for Planting Manure
If used, be aware
  • Best if manure thoroughly composted
  • Apply fresh manure in the late fall, after
    harvest
  • If using fresh manure just prior to growing
    season
  • Spread two weeks before planting
  • NO harvesting until 120 days after application
  • Incorporate into soil NO sidedressing
  • Avoid root or leafy crops year of manure
    application
  • Do not touch edible crop portion

27
28
Is 120 days even enough?
  • 2013 Study Concludes Need to be aware of hazards
    associated with using raw manure to fertilize
    home gardens.
  • Salmonella isolated from manure horses, wild
    turkeys.
  • Salmonella isolated from garden soil horse
    manure source?
  • Viable Salmonella species persisted for 210 days
    beyond 120 day standard of NOP.
  • Education of public of potential safety hazards
    using raw manure
  • Other studies have shown the same!

Jay-Russell and others. 2013. Salmonella
oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeysand
an edible home garden fertilzied with horse
manure. Zoonoses and Public Health. Doi
10.111/zph.12043
29
Preparing Garden for Planting Compost
  • Properly managed compost can produce a safe
    product

28
30
Preparing Garden for Planting Compost
Pathogens can be present in compost materials
with more in animal waste and meat/dairy scraps.
What should you do?
  • Animal waste or meat/dairy scraps should not be
    added - higher pathogens and odor
  • Certain animal waste (poultry, horse, goat) used
    with caution
  • No manure from carnivorous animals (dog, cat)

31
Preparing Garden for Planting Compost
What should you do?
  • Temperature should be at least 131oF for 15 days
    to destroy pathogens
  • Unsure? Apply in fall after harvest for next
    planting season.
  • Size at least 27 cubic feet - smaller needs
    more attention to get heat.
  • Turn turn pile regularly to aerate
  • Turning regularly aerates
  • Selects breakdown microorganisms
  • Generates heat to destroy pathogens
  • Produces fertile soil amendment.

32
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety
  • Water can be a source of a variety of pathogens.
  • Know the source of
    water used for your
    garden.

30
33
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety
  • Municipal or public water systems - best source
    and lowest risk of water for any use.
  • Surface water (lakes, ponds or streams) more
    likely to have microbial contaminants
  • Private wells from ground water - safe if tested
    annually
  • Use only clean, potable/drinkable water to water
    or wash produce close to or at harvest and during
    post-harvest handling.

31
34
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety -
Protecting well water
  • Keep away from pollution sources
  • Check well casing, cap, age, type, depth
  • Test 1-2 times/year

32
35
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety by Testing
  • Where can you go to get water tested?
  • RIDOH water testing
  • Private, certified testing labs
  • uri.edu/wq/has/PDFs/standards.pdf
  • www.health.ri.gov/labs - certified labs
  • private well testing
  • analytical

36
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety -
Protecting Water
  • Backflow What is it?
  • Occurs when contaminated water (non-potable)
    gets drawn into or flows back into clean water
    (potable) supply
  • Example Back Siphoning

33
37
Maintaining the Garden Water Safety -
Protecting Water
  • Backflow Prevention
  • Disconnect sprayers or chemical containers
    from a hose attached to an outside faucet after
    use
  • Purchase backflow prevention devices
  • Hardware store, plumbing supply
  • Hose bib for end of hose
  • Consult plumber, check building codes.

34
38
Examples of Hose Bibs
35
39
Maintaining the Garden Wild and Domestic Animals
  • Animals are a source of pathogens
  • Keep pets out of garden
  • Deter wild animals
  • Minimize vegetation around gardens
  • Deterrents - fencing, noise
  • New ideas garden shops
  • Call Cooperative Extension for help

36
40
Maintaining the Garden Organic Gardening
  • Microbial food safety issues are a problem
    whether a gardener uses organic or conventional
    gardening methods.
  • Microorganisms are in the environment - air, soil
    or water.
  • Five Steps to a food safe home
    garden must still be followed


37
41
Harvesting Garden Produce
Humans are major source of disease transmission
in food.
  • Personal hygiene washing, covering wounds
  • Change, wash dirty clothes/shoes after working in
    the garden
  • Harvest using clean,
    food-grade containers

38
42
Harvesting Garden Produce
  • Dispose of damaged fruit
  • Dont eat directly from the garden! Properly wash
    all fruits and vegetables
  • prior to eating

39
43
Post-harvest Handling Storage/Washing
Keys to storage and safety/quality
  • Ripen some produce before refrigeration e.g.
    apples, tomatoes, melons.
  • Store certain produce in cool, dry, well
    ventilated, clean places e.g. onions, potatoes.
  • Store produce above meat, poultry, fish - avoid
    cross-contamination by separation.
  • Look for signs of spoilage - throw out
  • Refrigerate raw pre-cut or cooked produce in
    covered containers
  • See chart for different storage conditions

40
44
Post-harvest Handling Storage/Washing
Should you wash produce after harvest and
before storage ?
  • To Wash or Not to Wash
  • That is the Question?

41
45
Post-harvest Handling Storage/Washing
  • Washing before storage requires thorough drying
    to prevent spoilage and mold growth
  • Not washing before storage - shake, rub, brush
    dirt off. Refrigerate in clean, plastic bags.
  • Some produce should not be washed
    before refrigerated storage (e.g. berries)
  • See chart for recommendations
  • Always wash just prior to eating

42
46
Post-harvest Handling Washing
  • Very cold water may cause pathogens to be
    absorbed into the produce through stem or blossom
    end
  • Wash water should not be more then 10 degrees
    colder then the produce.

43
47
Post-harvest Handling Preparing
  • Practice good personal hygiene.
  • Wash hands before preparation
  • Wash produce in cool, clean running water just
    before eating or preparing to help remove
    filth and bacteria

44
48
Post-harvest Handling Preparing
  • Do not use soap or detergent
  • Bleach not recommended for home use
  • Wash/scrub the skin/rind with brush to help
    minimize filth or bacteria transfer to eatable
    portion

45
49
Post-harvest Handling Preparing/Serving/Preservin
g
  • Cut away bruised or damaged areas
  • Avoid cross-contamination
  • Keep work area and utensils clean.
  • Refrigerate cooked
  • leftovers in covered
  • container

46
50
USDA Endorsed Preservation Resources
National Center for Home Preservation http//www.
uga.edu/nchfp/index.html
Home Food Preservation Resources for Safe Food
Preservation http//foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/preserv
e.html
Home Canning.com (Ball/Kerr) http//www.homecannin
g.com/usa/ URI Food Safety Website http//web.uri
.edu/foodsafety/foodPreservation/
47
51
Key Food Safety Principles for Home-grown Fruits
and Vegetables
  • Practice safe soil preparation prior to planting
  • Apply manure safely no side dressing
  • Compost thoroughly consider in place of raw
    manure
  • Practice safe garden maintenance during planting
    and growing of fruits/vegetables
  • Keep animals out
  • Clear perimeter garden lessen rodent nests
  • Keep decaying produce out of garden lessen
    animal attraction
  • Use clean water for irrigation

48
52
Key Food Safety Principles for Home-grown Fruits
and Vegetables
  • Practice safe harvest and post-harvest handling
    including
  • Good personal hygiene
  • Time and temperature control
  • Cross-contamination prevention

48
53
Questions ???
49
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