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STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS

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M.S.Verma Vice President Technical Textiles M/s Reliance Industries Limited GEOSYNTHETICS GLOBAL OVERVIEW Worldwide demand for geosynthetics is projected to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS


1
STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS
  • M.S.Verma
  • Vice President Technical Textiles
  • M/s Reliance Industries Limited

2
GEOSYNTHETICS GLOBAL OVERVIEW
  • Worldwide demand for geosynthetics is projected
    to rise 5.3 percent annually to 4.7 billion
    square meters in 2013.
  • China, India, Russia and other countries with
    large-scale infrastructure developments planned,
    and evolving environmental protection regulations
    and building construction codes are expected to
    register the strongest advances.
  • Geo-synthetics are especially useful in an
    environment of increasing land scarcity,
    increased awareness of seismic hazards, and need
    more stringent environmental regulations
    especially in the context of India.
  • Strong growth in China is demonstrated by use of
    geosynthetics in almost all government
    sponsored/controlled projects in various areas
    while such is not the case in India.

3
GEOSYNTHETICS GLOBAL OVERVIEW
  • Global Scenario
  • USA dominates the consumption
  • China Fast Catching up
  • India consumes less than 1.5 Geosynthetics,
    produced globally
  • Tremendous Potential Exists in India
  • Global Manufacturers like Terram, Du-pont, Naue
    focussing on Indian Market

India consumption 1.5 at 9 KTA
Awareness Creation First Step Towards Enhanced
Consumption
4
INDIAN ROAD NETWORK
But condition of the road?
5
INDIAN ROAD NETWORK
Quality road ..means huge potential for Geo
textile
6
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
  • Infrastructure Scenario
  • Total Investment to double in 2011-12 vis-à-vis
    2007-08, Projected to cross 500,000Cr
  • 2009-10 Govt. to spend Rs. 60000Cr only for
    up-gradation of Roads
  • Private Sector Investment in Roads to cross 35
    by 2011-12
  • The Eleventh Five Year Plan has a special focus
    on Rural Infrastructure Development

Opportunities for Geosynthetics
7
GEOSYNTHETICS REGULATION NEED IN INDIA
  • In view of large potential for cost savings,
    environmental protection, safety, economic and
    social importance of geo-synthetics in the
    infrastructural development in India and the
    environmental protection by their use, it is
    essential that their use is made mandatory in
    India just like mandatory regulation of fly ash
    or iodized salt, specially in the following
    areas
  • All highways, expressways and coastal roads,
    reinforcement with geosynthetics must be
    mandatory when the CBR ratio is 3.5.
  • In rural road construction as these are repaired
    / reconstructed after a prolonged period.
  • All coastal roads embankments which are on soft
    soil foundation, use of geosynthetics must be
    mandatory.
  • The BOT system, needs be modified to DBOT to give
    emphasis on the initial design of the project and
    the latest technology like geosynthetics.

8
What are Geo-synthetics ?
  • Geo-synthetics are synthetic products, where at
    least one of the components is made from a
    synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a
    sheet, a strip or a three dimensional structure,
    non-woven, knitted, or woven which is used in
    contact with soil/rock and/or other materials in
    geotechnical and civil engineering applications .
  • These include
  • Planar structures (geomembranes, geotextiles,
    geosynthetic barriers, geonets, geogrids,
    geostrips, geospacers and geomats, etc.) and
  • Three-dimensional structures (geocells,
    geofoams, gabions and concrete filled
    mattresses).

9
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11
POLYMERS USED IN GEOSYNTHETICS
  • Chemically linked large molecules of carbon atoms
    with hydrogen or other atoms attached
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyethylene
  • Polyester
  • Polyamide
  • Polystyrene
  • Poly Vinyl Chloride
  • PP/Polyester /PE Geosynthetics Most widely
    used across the Globe (more than 95 percent)

12
GEOSYNTHETICS AREAS OF Application
  • In Roads and Pavements
  • Subgrade separation and Stabilization,
  • Base Reinforcement,
  • Overlay Stress Absorption and Reinforcement.
  • In Subsurface Drainage
  • Subgrade dewatering,
  • Road base drainage,
  • Structure drainage.
  • In Erosion and Sediment Control
  • Hard Armor Systems, Silt Fence.
  • In Reinforced Soil Systems
  • Embankments over soft foundations,
  • Reinforced Steepened slopes,
  • Reinforced soil walls.
  • In Seepage control systems
  • Structure water proofing,
  • Environmental Protection.
  • In Support Systems
  • Prefabricated Systems and On-site Fabrication

13
Advantages of Geo-synthetics
  • Cheaper in poduct cost, transport and
    installation.
  • Can be designed (predictability)
  • Can be installed quickly with flexibility to
    construct during short period.
  • Consistent over a wide range of soils
  • Space Savings
  • Material Quality Control - More homogeneous than
    soil and aggregates.
  • Better Construction Quality Control at site
  • Easy Material Deployment
  • Less Environmentally Sensitive
  • Improved performance and extended life
  • Increased safety factor
  • Compatible with field conditions
  • Increased service life of flexible pavement
    section by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0 for weak
    subgrades (CBR 2) and by 2.0 to 3.3 for moderate
    subgrades (CBR 4.2 to 4.5)
  • Increase in allowable load bearing capacity by 40
    to 50 for subgrade CBRgt3 and well over 50 for
    subgrade CBRlt3
  • Increase in Traffic Benefit Ratio (TBR) from 1.5
    to 70.

14
Economic Importance of Geosynthetics
  • Commonly accepted as durable, long lasting and
    environmentally safe solutions to geotechnical
    engineering projects.
  • The cost of geo-synthetics applied usually
    between 3 to 5 per cent of the total cost of
    projects.
  • For a number of projects, savings of 30 per cent
    in total project costs have been reported.
  • Minimizes the regular repair and maintenance
    costs directly.
  • Prevent accidents, increase efficiency of
    structures, minimize pollution and leads to
    efficient use of natural resources.

15
Environmental Importance of Geosynthetics
  • The civil engineering structures need to have
    long term durability to prevent potential
    ecological disasters (floods, draughts,
    earthquakes, global warming) . Geosynthetics
    provide such long lasting solutions with minimum
    cost.
  • Geo-techs are difficult or impossible to degrade.
    However, in view of their inert nature they can
    be disposed off without the danger of
    contamination.
  • Geosynthetics assist the environment by acting as
    a containing barrier for toxic materials.
  • The envisaged functional lifetime of
    geosynthetics is extremely long, in many cases
    over 100 years.
  • Geosynthetics provide sealing and capping of
    pollution due to chemicals released after road
    and rail accidents into groundwater areas.

16
Geosynthetics -National / International
Regulation
  • Worldwide, approx. 40 countries have
    legislation/regulations (GRI Report).
  • In Europe, the Construction Products Directive
    (89/106/EEC M/107) has to be followed and the
    use of geo-textiles is mandatory.
  •  In Japan, the Government Directive applies to
    landfill construction sites.
  • In the US, many Govt agencies (fedral and state)
    have mandated the use of geo-synthetics in many
    applications. e.g. the use of silt fence fabrics
    for erosion and sediment control. US
    Environmental Protection Agency has mandated use
    of geo-synthetics in landfills (under Resource
    Conservation and Recovery Act). Also, in many
    applications geo-textiles are specified by govt
    agencies as the best product.
  • Similarly California State has mandated the use
    of asphalt overlay over existing roadway.
  • It is essential that their use is made mandatory
    in India in order to have increased efficiency
    with potential large cost saving, safety of
    structures and minimum environmental pollution
    including large saving of natural resources .

17
MAIN ROADBLOCKS FOR INCREASING USAGES OF
GEOSYNTHETICS IN INDIA
  • Lack of desired legislation
  • Lack of required standards on geosynthetic
    products as well as on design, construction and
    installation guidelines
  • Lack of policy / regulatory initiatives by the
    central and state governments
  • Lack of awareness of standards and guidelines by
    the site engineers / field staff
  • Lack of national certifying and accreditation
    agencies for geosynthetics in the country
  • Lack of RD facilities
  • Incompleteness of existing standards and
    guidelines

18
Geo-synthetics Standards
  • ASTM Standards
  • ISO standards (ISO/TC221)
  • Indian standards (BIS)
  • AASHTO standards
  • FHWA standards
  • NORDIC guidelines
  • British Standards
  • International Geosynthetic Society standards
    (IGS)
  • Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI)
  • Geosynthetic Materials Association (GMA)
  • US Provinvcial standards
  • Industrial Fabrics Association International
    (IFAI)
  • Geo-synthetica
  • International Erosion Control Association (IECA)
  • European Center For Standardization (CEN)

19
AIMS OF STANDARDS
  • Interchangeability
  • Variety Control
  • Fitness for Purpose
  • Compatibility
  • Safety
  • MAXIMUM OVERALL ECONOMY IN TERMS OF
  • COST
  • HUMAN EFFORT
  • CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES
  • RESULT
  • POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO RECURRING PROBLEMS
  • DEFINITION OF THE QUALITY LEVEL OF PRODUCTS

20
BASIC APPROACH Consensus Principle
Balanced Committee Structure
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE STRUCTURE (Members From)
Manufacturers
Manufacturers
Consumers, Government Departments
Consumers, Government Departments
Technologists , Regulating Authorities, Testing
Laboratories, Consultants, Universities, Other
Experts
Technologists , Regulating Authorities, Testing
Laboratories, Consultants, Universities, Other
Experts
21
BIS/IRC/RDSO STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS
  • BIS standards mainly on test methods, jute coir
    geotextiles, PVC / HDPE geomembrane for
    waterproof lining (IS 147152000 IS 149862001
    IS 158692008 IS 158712009IS 159092010 and
    IS 159102010 Geosynthetics for highways)
  • IRC standards mainly on recommended
    practices/guidelines and are being revised to
    include geosynthetics
  • IRC/RDSO standards generally do not refer BIS
    standards and requirements of geosyntheics in
    both are at large variation.
  • Geosynthetic specifications mentioned in
    IRC/RDSO standards are generally incomplete.
  • BIS standards are also incomplete w.r.t.
    guidelines for design, construction, installation
    and storage which are essential to get the best
    results of geosynthetic applications.
  • There appears no proper coordination between IRC
    and BIS
  • Standards activity in IRC/RDSO is not universally
    acceptable and needs drastic changes to include
    all stakeholders

22
EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL GEOTEXTILE STANDARDS -
FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATION
23
EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL GEOTEXTILE STANDARDS
24
REQUIREMENTS OF GEOSYNTHETICS
  • General Properties Index Properties
  • Material Type Construction Strip tensile
    strength (2 5 strain and ultimate
    tensile strength)
  • Polymer(s) Grab strength
  • Mass Creep resistance
  • Thickness Flexural strength
  • Roll dimensions Cutting - Trapezoidal tear
    strength
  • Specific Gravity Shear modulus
  • Absorption Poissons ratio

  • Burst Strength
  • Puncture Resistance
  • Penetration
  • Flexibility (Flexural Strength)

25
REQUIREMENTS OF GEOSYNTHETICS
  • Endurance Properties Hydraulic Properties
  • Abrasion Resistance Apparent Opening Size
    (AOS),
  • UV Stability Percent Open Area, Porosity
  • Biological Resistance Permeability /
    Permittivity
  • Chemical Resistance Soil Retention Ability
  • Wet/Dry Stability Clogging Resistance
  • Temperature Stability In-Plane Flow Capacity
  • Long term durability
  • Performance Soil / Fabric Properties
  • Stress - Strain
  • Creep
  • Friction/Adhesion
  • Dynamic and Cycling Loading
  • Soil Retention
  • Filtration

26
Parameters for Geo-synthetic Selection
  • Geosynthetic Specification should also cover
  • Material Selection
  • Designing of Geosynthetic
  • Functional Requirements
  • Application and Performance Requirements
  • Durability Requirements
  • Survivability Requirements
  • Required Geosynthetic Structural and Integrity
    Properties
  • Storage, handling and installation requirements

27
THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION
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