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Soil Functional Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, a Transdisciplinary Approach SUSTAIN project (2011-2014)

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Soil Functional Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, a Transdisciplinary Approach SUSTAIN project (2011-2014) Meeting with the Orientation Committee – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil Functional Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, a Transdisciplinary Approach SUSTAIN project (2011-2014)


1
Soil Functional Biodiversity and Ecosystem
Services, a Transdisciplinary ApproachSUSTAIN
project (2011-2014)
Meeting with the Orientation Committee Paris, 26
February 2014
SNOWMAN NETWORK Knowledge for sustainable soils
2
Programme 9h30-11h30 Presentation concerning
SUSTAIN  - presentation of the project  and the
sites - presentation of some french results -
presentation of some dutch results Coffee
Break - presentation of transversal actions -
Life Cycle Analyis - dissemination actions
- actions addressed to several public       
- brochures, technical guide - opened day for
farmers11h30-12h00 general discussion
12h00-13h30 lunch 13h30-14H00 European
view about agroecology ? (Ciro Gardi)14h00-14h50
PEPITE and TILLMAN projects (Josephine
Péigné)            - presentation             -
discussion what are  complementary/common
results and transfer to users ?14h50 - 15h40
Ranking of indicators and Ecosystem services
(Michiel Rutgers)            - presentation    
        - discussion how can we apply this to 
SUSTAIN resultsBreak16h00-16H30 general
discussion and synthesis what about a common
future ?
3
What about SUSTAIN project ? from october 2011
to december 2014
4
Regional French Context Brittany
Brittany a livestock region
(Year 2008)
Farm land in use 1 711 200 ha (6 of national
land in use) Grassland 703 600 ha Cereals 439
400 ha Corn silage 332 000 ha Grain-maize 126
000 ha Rape 31 500 ha Vegetables 83 200 ha
  • Brittanys part in total french production
  • 26 of veal calves
  • 20 of collected milk
  • 34 of chicken production
  • 58 of pig production

5
No-tillage in Brittany (2010)
Brittany Context
  • Ploughed area 748 439 ha
  • Reduced tillage 232 542 ha
  • Annual crops 987 014 ha
  • ? Reduced tillage/annual crops 24 vs 30 at
    national scale
  • ? Ploughed area 76
  • Motivations of the farmers
  • Working time saving
  • Energy saving
  • Amelioration of soil bearing capacity
  • Questions from the farmers
  • ? The impact of these technics on the soil , on
    the crops, on the water quality ?
  • ? Is the use of organic fertilizers compatible
    with the not ploughing practice ?

6
Dutch Context
Netherlands
Total area of arable land 950,000 ha (/- 25 of
land area) 50 of arable land on clay (loam)
soils, 50 on sandy soils Top 5 crops 1. Corn
(sandy soils, also in rotation with grassland) 2.
Potatoes 3. Cereals (mainly for crop rotation
reasons 4. Sugar beets 5. Onions
7
Reduced-tillage in the Netherlands
Dutch Context
  • Mostly  non-inversion  tillage
  • lt 1 of arable land except for south east of the
    country
  • -gt erosion legislation
  • But interest among farmers is clearly growing

8
SUSTAIN consortium partners
9
SUSTAIN Objectives
  • Understand how reduced tillage systems, as
    compared to conventional tillage systems, impact
    soil functional biodiversity and soil functions
  • Quantify the consequences of reduced tillage
    systems on soil ecosystem services
  • Investigate the socio-economic sustainability
    of reduced tillage systems
  • Develop tools such as
  • - Soil disturbance-indicators
  • - Life Cycling Analysis to evaluate the
    environmental impact of tillage systems
  • Dissemination

10
SUSTAIN collaborative approach
  • SUSTAIN is conducted in France and the
    Netherlands
  • at experimental field sites and through regional
    farm networks

Lelystad
Kerguéhennec
Hoeksche Waard
  • SUSTAIN analyses new data existing datasets
  • è Combination allows for a boarder perspective,
    reflecting different time scales.
  • SUSTAIN collaborates with - German colleagues M.
    Potthoff (univ. Göettingen) S. Schrader (vTI)
  • SUSTAIN collaborates with ECOSOM-Project (S.
    Houot, J. Faber)

11
SUSTAIN Work plan (7 WP)
Agricultural practices (tillage, reduced tillage,
no tillage)
12
SUSTAIN - France 3 field sites
  • Experimental station of Kerguéhennec (Morbihan
    dept.) of CRAB since 2000
  • 2 experimental designs under conventional
    system FKT and FKA
  • 1 experimental design under organic farming (FKO)

"Transfer" experiment FKT -gt impact on
run-off Since 2000
FKT
F K A
"Agronomic" experiment FKA -gt impact combined
with OM inputs Since 2000
FKO
"Organic" experiment FKO Since 2003 (destroyed
2013)
Soil derived from micaschist, Dystric Cambisol
(FAO) with a loamy texture and high organic
matter (4.3)
13
 Transfer  trial FKT site
"Transfer" experiment FKT -gt impact of reduced
tillage on run-off
FKT
3 Treatments are compared since 2000 with the
same fertilisation
Crop in January 2012
Crop rotation (every 2 years) Grain maize
wheat rye grass
14
FKT site Treatments and Trial plane
3 plots (6 m X 50 m) X 3 blocs -gt 9 plots in total
Conventional tillage, Moulboard ploughing 25 cm
and circular spike
Bloc 1
Bloc 2
Bloc 3
Superficial tillage
Superficial tillage
Superficial tillage 8 Harrowing at 8 cm then
chisel since 2006
No till, Direct drilling Disc seeder (wheat,
rape, phacelia) et cultivation on the row (maize)
15
 Agronomic  trial FKA site
F K A
"Agronomic" experiment FKA -gt impact of reduced
tillage combined with OM inputs
Treatments are compared since 2000
Crop in January 2012
Crop rotation (4 years) grain
maize-wheat-rape-wheat-phacelia
16
FKA site treatments reduced tillage X
organic fertilisation
3 Tillage treatments
4 fertilisation treatments
X
With Equivalent N input
Conventional tillage L Moulboard ploughing 25 cm
and circular spike
Superficial tillage 8 TS (S2) harrowing at 8 cm
then chisel since 2006
Mineral fertilization M
M Fertilisation Cattle manure M-FB 40 t of
manure every 4 years
No till (Direct drilling) SD (S1) disc seeder
(wheat, rape, phacelia) et cultivation on the row
(maize)
Pig slurry 25 m3/year LP
Poultry manure 6 t/year FV
17
 Organic  trial - FKO site
4 treatments are compared since 2003 but will be
distroyed in November 2013 !!!! Common
fertilisation (guano or pig slurry or cow manure)
FKO
"Organic" experiment FKO -gt impact of reduced
tillage
Crop succession Grain-maize triticale
buckwheat Protein pea triticale alfalfa
alfalfa triticale grain-maize - wheat
Crop in January 2012
18
FKO site Treatments and trial plan
4 plots (12 m X 25 m) X 3 blocs -gt 12 plots in
total
Conventional tillage, ploughing Moulboard
ploughing 25 cm and circular spike
S
E
Bande enherbée
W
N
Chisel 8 cm
Conventional ploughing
Agronomic ploughing
Bloc I
Chisel 15 cm
Agronomic ploughing Moulboard ploughing 15 cm
and circular spike
Bande enherbée
Conventional ploughing
Agronomic ploughing
Bloc II
105 m
Chisel 15 cm
Chisel 8 cm
15 m
Bande enherbée
Superficial tillage 8 Harrowing at 8 cm then
chisel since 2006
Superficial tillage 15 Harrowing at 15 cm then
chisel since 2006
25 m
Agronomic ploughing
Bloc III
Chisel 15 cm
Conventional ploughing
Chisel 8 cm
Bande enherbée
12 m
19
French site Parameters measured (ex FKA)
Many parameters measured every year or ponctually
SOIL 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties
Structural state of surface X X X X X X X X
Hydraulic conduticity X X X X X
porosity X X X X X X X X X X
Structural stability X X X X X
Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties Morphological properties
Agricultural profil X X X X X X
Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties
analysis X X X
C and N stock X X X X X ? X ? X
Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties
Earthworm X X X
Microorgan X X X
20
French site Parameters measured (ex FKA)
Many parameters measured every year or ponctually
CROPS 2000 2001 2002 2003 2044 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Disease X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Pests X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Weeds X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Root profile X X X X X X
Crop yield and component X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Crop analysis X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
In the case of FKT run-off, pesticides
transferts
21
SUSTAIN - Netherlands - 2 Field sites
In the 2 field sites, conventional and organic
managements
Lelystad (experimental farm of PPO since 2008)
Hoeksche Waard (farmer fields, since 2009)
Two areas reclaimed from the sea. Calcareous
marine-loam soils with clay-loam texture.
22
Lelystad Soil parameters measured (not
exhaustive)
Not all data are available for all trials all
years
SOIL 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties Physical properties
Aggregate stability X X
Penetrometer resistance X X X
Saturated conductivity X
pF curves X X
Bulk density porosity X X X
Infiltration X X X
Soil moisture profiles X X X
Soil temperature X X X

23
Lelystad Soil parameters measured (not
exhaustive)
SOIL 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties Chemical properties
Mineral N X X X X X
Soil C and N, total X X X X X
Greenhouse gas emissions X X X
Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties Biological properties
Earthworms X X X X
Nematodes X - - X
Microbial parameters X - X
Mycohrriza spore and root colonization (organic only) - - X - -
Natural enemies of pest (arthropods) X
CROPS 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Crop yield and component X X X X X X
Crop analysis (some crops only) X X X X X X

24
SUSTAIN - France the Netherlands Farm
networks
France - former analysis were been done in 2003
on previous network of reduced-tillage farms (11
pairs of farms reduced vs conventional)
  • a new network will be analysed in 20114 (16
    farms 4 per each department, 4 treatments
    direct-seeding, superficial tillage,
    non-inversed tillage and conventional ploughing)
  • ? integration of more geological and climatic
    contexts

Netherlands - the network already exits (4
farms) due to collaborations between - PPO and
farmers - University of Wageningen and farmers
25
Results On french experimental sites ? FKO
26
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site
Site description Organic trial
Conventional tillage, ploughing Moulboard
ploughing 25 cm and circular spike
Agronomic ploughing Moulboard ploughing 15 cm
and circular spike
Superficial tillage 8 Harrowing at 8 cm, chisel
since 2006
Superficial tillage 15 Harrowing at 15 cm,
chisel since 2006
27
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Abundance, Biomass of earthworm (2013, after 7
years)
87,7
66,1
  • Abundance
  • no significant effect of reduced tillage (last
    ploughing 1 year ½ ? earthworm abundance can
    recover )
  • low depth of ploughing is favourable to
    abundance, but superficial tillage is depressive
  • Biomass
  • no significant effect of reduced tillage
  • bad effect of conventional ploughing (tendance)

28
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site -
Earthworm ecological group (in 2013)
  • Epigeic absent (Cluzeau et al., 2012)
  • Endogeic dominant (Cluzeau et al., 2012)
  • positive impact of ploughing (LA, 15cm,
    plt0.01)

29
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Earthworm community
Reduced tillage systmes
No impact
earthworm abundance endogeic abundance
30
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Earthworm community
Reduced tillage systmes
Positive impact
No impact
earthworm biomass anecic abundance
earthworm abundance endogeic abundance
31
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Chemical analysis (2013, after 7 years)
  • negative impact of conventional tillage on C
    (plt0.05), N and P (tendance) (0-15 cm)
  • strongly related to OM
  • positive impact of reduced tillage, but limited
    to 0-5 cm

32
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Chemical analysis (2013, after 7 years)
  • negative impact of conventional tillage on C
    (plt0.05), N and P (tendance) (0-15 cm)
  • strongly related to OM
  • positive impact of reduced tillage, but limited
    to 0-5 cm
  • high stratification of OM depending on practices
  • decrease from top to sub-soil for reduced
    tillage system (reduced tillage systems)
  • homogeneity under ploughing system, folllowing
    the ploughing depth

33
Biodiversity soil functions (WP2 WP3 )
french site - organic
Linking diversity to function (hydraulic
conductivity)
Conductivity (15 cm depth)
Conductivity (5 cm depth)
Conductivity (soil surface)
L. rubellus positively correlated with hydraulic
conductivity at soil surface and 5 cm depth ?
epi-anecic species creates vertical and opend
burrows at soil surface
  • Endogeic species negatively correlated with
    hydraulic conductivity ? endogeic (Francis et
    al, 2001)

34
Relation with Ecosystem service (WP4 ) french
site - organic
Weeds and Yield
Weeds
Yield
v
v
  • Weeds increase of weed pressure under reduced
    tillage system ? ploughing limits the risk of
    weeds (Mamarot, 2004)
  • Yield decrease under reduced tillage systems ?
    presence of weeds increase the comptetion for
    wtaer and nutrients resource (Armal, 2010)

Biological
Synthesis
Superficial tillage (8cm)
Superficial tillage (15 cm)
chemical
Agronomical
Agronomical ploughing (15 cm)
Conventional ploughing (25 cm)
Physical
35
Results On dutch experimental sites
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