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Diseases in Anatomy and Physiology

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Title: Diseases in Anatomy and Physiology


1
Diseases in Anatomy and Physiology
  • Unit C

2
Essential Standard 5.00
  • Discuss the role of major systems of small
    animals.

3
Objective 5.02
  • Discuss the ways that disease processes affect
    major body systems.

4
Infectious Diseases of Dogs
  • Group of diseases caused by pathogenic
    microorganisms
  • Canine distemper
  • Canine parvovirus infection
  • Kennel cough
  • Rabies
  • Canine brucellosis
  • Salmonellosis

5
Canine Distemper
  • Caused by the inhalation of the airborne virus.
  • Symptoms
  • Early-vomiting and diarrhea
  • Later-tremor and epileptic fits

6
Canine Parvovirus Infection
  • Caused by viral contact of materials contaminated
    with feces from infected dogs
  • Affects mostly young pups
  • Symptoms
  • Vomiting
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Refusal to eat

7
Kennel Cough (Tracheobronchitis)
  • Respiratory disease contracted in confinement
    (pet shops, dog shows, kennels, etc.)
  • Symptom
  • Cough

8
Rabies
  • Viral disease that attacks the central nervous
    system.
  • All warm blooded animals can transmit rabies.

9
Rabies Symptoms
  • Occur 2 weeks to 3 months after bite. Severe can
    be within 10 days.
  • Furious rabies-animal may act strange then wander
    off, attack and bite anything in its path, often
    frothing at the mouth
  • Dumb rabies-no wandering, but paralysis of lower
    jaw followed by body paralysis and death

10
Canine Brucellosis
  • Bacterial disease spread through breeding
  • Females
  • Abortion
  • Failure to whelp
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Males
  • Swelling of scrotum and testicles

11
Salmonellosis
  • Bacterial disease spread by ingestion of food
    contaminated by feces.

12
Basic Noninfectious Diseases of Dogs
13
Heart Disease
  • 2 types
  • Congenital (birth)
  • Contracted
  • Symptoms
  • Coughing at night during sleep
  • Coughing during exercise
  • Inability to exercise
  • Open mouth breathing at rest

14
Cataracts
  • Cause cloudy, white opacity of the lens.
  • Can be hereditary or not
  • Can cause blindness
  • More often affects older dogs

15
Arthritis
  • Degenerative joint disease that causes pain,
    lameness, and stiffness in the joints.
  • Large, old and obese dogs are more prone to the
    disease.

16
Basic Fungus Diseases of Dogs
17
Ringworm
  • Most common fungal disease.
  • Symptoms
  • Broken hairs around the face, ears or feet.
  • Reddened skin and scaly skin develop.
  • Crusting and scaling in severe cases.

18
Blastomycosis
  • Inhaling infected spores of soil enriched with
    bird or bat droppings.
  • Symptoms
  • Coughing
  • Rapid breathing
  • Pneumonia
  • Fever

19
Internal Parasites of Dogs
20
Ascarids or Roundworms
  • May grow to 8 inches in length when mature
  • Affect mainly puppies and deprive them of
    nutrients
  • Transmitted by female dogs to puppies
  • Severe infestation causes pot-bellied appearance
  • Danger to children

21
Hookworms
  • Blood-sucking parasites that attach to the small
    intestine, causing small spots of bleeding
  • Adult worms attach to the small intestine where
    they digest a plug of tissue.
  • Heavy infestations cause the animal to appear
    weak, listless, and anemic
  • Affects older dogs and puppies

22
Whipworms
  • Broad at one end and narrow at the other.
  • Use the narrow end to attach to the cecum and
    lower digestive tract.
  • Adults produce shell protected eggs that may
    live for years in the soil.
  • Produce watery feces and may result in
    dehydration and death.

23
Tapeworms
  • Flat and segmented worms that live in the small
    intestine.
  • Shed terminal segments in feces.

24
Tapeworms
  • Usually the largest worms affecting dogs reaching
    1 foot or more in length
  • Most depend on a host such as a flea or wild
    rabbit to develop.
  • Not harmful for dogs, but may cause serious
    injury to humans.

25
Heartworms
  • Thin worms that live in the major artery carrying
    blood from the heart to the lungs.
  • Serious threat to dogs causing major injury to
    vital organs.
  • Transmitted by mosquitoes.
  • Prevention is preferred to treatment which is
    only effective in early infestation.

26
Heartworms
  • Symptoms
  • Frequent coughing
  • Labored breathing
  • Fainting in severe cases

27
Infectious Diseases of Cats
28
Feline Panleukopenia
  • Cat distemper caused by parvovirus or DNA virus.
  • Affects cats younger than 16 weeks and has a 75
    death rate.
  • Spread by direct contact, infected food and water
    dishes, bedding, and litter boxes.

29
Feline Panleukopenia
  • Symptoms
  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite
  • High fever
  • Lethargy
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration

30
Feline herpesvirus (FHV)
  • Respiratory infection caused by a DNA virus.
  • Shed in discharges from nose, eyes and throat and
    transmitted by direct contact.
  • Cats can become carriers, but vaccines are
    available.

31
Feline Herpesvirus (FHV)
  • Symptoms
  • Depression
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • Severe eye and nasal discharges
  • Increase in temperature
  • Mouth ulcers

32
Feline Enteric Coronavirus
  • Caused by ingestion of contaminated feces in
    kittens between 4 and 12 weeks of age.
  • Spread by ingestion of contaminated feces.
  • Symptoms
  • Low grade fever
  • Vomiting
  • Soft or watery diarrhea
  • Blood in the feces
  • Dehydration

33
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
  • Disease caused by coronavirus that leads to organ
    failure.
  • Coronavirus infections are more common, but few
    show signs.
  • Symptoms
  • Fever
  • Refusal to eat
  • Depression
  • Weight loss

34
Noninfectious Diseases of Cats
35
Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS)
  • A.K.A. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease
  • May range from mild inflammation to blockage of
    the urethra, uremic poisoning, and death.

36
Causes of FUS
  • Improper diet (where cats are fed high levels of
    magnesium and phosphorus)
  • Low water intake that causes concentrations of
    various salts in the urine
  • Possibly a virus

37
Wet Eye
  • Excessive tear production or blockage of drainage
    canals that drain tears to the nasal cavity
    causing tears to overflow at the corner of the
    eyes.

38
Internal Parasites of Cats
39
Toxoplasmosis
  • Disease caused by infection with single-celled
    protozoan parasite Toxoplasm gondii.
  • Contracted from eating raw meat or contaminated
    feces.
  • Fever, jaundice, and difficulty moving may
    result.
  • No vaccination and humans can become infected
    through cat litter boxes.

40
Ascarids (Toxocara cati)
  • Ascarids from ingesting eggs passed in the feces
    of an infected animal or in the case of kittens
    from the milk of an infected mother cat.
  • Severe cases may cause pot-bellied appearance
    (distended abdomen) and an unthrifty cat.

41
Hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme)
  • Infection occurs when larvae is ingested from
    contaminated food or water, or when larvae
    penetrates the skin.
  • May cause dark-colored feces and anemia from the
    loss of blood.

42
Tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum)
  • Require a cost other than the cat for
    development.
  • Dipylidium caninum must be hosted by fleas and
    Tania taeniaeformis may be hosted by rats and
    mice.
  • Neither type causes major harm.

43
External Parasites of Small Animals
44
Fleas
  • Brown, blood-sucking insects of small size that
    move rapidly over the skin.
  • May develop from eggs to adult in as little as 16
    days.
  • May first be detected in the groin and rump area
    of the animal.

45
Fleas
  • Cause irritation and extreme itching
  • May be controlled with powders, dips, shampoos,
    collars, oral insecticides, foggers and sprays.

46
Ticks
  • Blood-sucking arthropods of the skin.
  • Two main families of ticks hard and soft
  • Two types of hard ticks are a concern for dogs
    brown dogs tick (can survive indoors) and
    American dog tick (lives on grass and shrubs)

47
Ticks
  • Main soft tick is the Spirose Ear Tick.
  • Larvae and nymph stage live in and cause
    irritation to the outer ear canal.

48
Lice
  • Wingless insects that may bite or suck blood from
    the host.
  • Not common on dogs.
  • If infestation occurs, the dog will experience
    hair loss from scratching and rubbing.
  • Two treatments 12 days apart with dips, dusts, or
    spray can control.

49
Mites
  • Tiny, eight-legged arachnids.
  • Five species cause the most problems
  • Demodectic mites
  • Two types of sarcoptic mites
  • Ear mites
  • Cheyletiella mites

50
Demodectic Mites
  • No not usually cause problems.
  • A severe infestation may result in hair loss,
    reddening of the skin, and encrusting in spots or
    over the entire body of the dog.

51
Sarcoptic Mites
  • Burrow within the outer layer of the skin.
  • Highly contagious.
  • Cause mange or scabies which case intense
    irritation and itching that may result in the dog
    injuring itself as it tries to scratch, chew or
    rub the skin.

52
Ear Mites
  • Highly contagious
  • Found in the outer ear canal and other areas of
    dogs, cats, and rabbits.
  • Common problem
  • Infected animals may shake their heads.
  • Flea products are effective treatment, as well
    as, ear drops.

53
Cheyletiella Mites
  • Contagious
  • Cause a condition known as walking dandruff
  • Severe scaling on the back may occur, but itching
    is not as severe as with other mite infestations.

54
Chiggers
  • Orange-red larvae stages of Trombicula mites that
    cause an itchy, red rash on the belly, face, feet
    and legs.
  • Picked up from underbrush.
  • Remain on the skin for a short time and usually
    do not require treatment other than something to
    stop the itching.

55
Poisons Affecting Small Animals
56
Insecticides
  • May cause poisoning if ingested in sufficient
    amounts.
  • Organophosphates and carbamate compounds are the
    main source of insecticidal poisoning.
  • Boric acid from roach bait and arsenic from ant
    traps can also poison animals.

57
Plants
  • Philodendron, dieffenbachia, pothos, and caladium
    contain insoluble calcium oxadate crystals that
    cause irritation to the mouth and intestinal
    tract.
  • Poinsettia, Japanese yew, azalea, and flower
    bulbs may cause mild intestinal upset.

58
Plants
59
Household Chemicals
  • Ammonia, bleach, borates, hydroxides, pine oil,
    and phenol can cause sickness if pets ingest them.

60
Rodenticides
  • Strychnine and warfarin can cause internal
    bleeding and death if ingested in sufficient
    amounts.

61
Herbicides
  • Glyphosphate herbicides and arsenic-based weed
    killers can poison pets.

62
Antifreeze
  • Common source of poisoning because it has a
    sugary taste that animals like.
  • Animal may appear drunk or depressed.

63
Rabbit Diseases
64
Enteritis
  • Intestinal tract inflammation
  • Probably the most common cause of death in
    rabbits
  • Causes include stress, unsanitary conditions,
    and high energy feeds

65
Enteritis Symptoms
  • Diarrhea stained with blood
  • Animals will stop eating but drink lots of water
  • Animals grind their teeth
  • Almost 100 mortality rate

66
Enteritis Treatment
  • Prevention is best. Accomplished through proper
    environment, sanitary conditions, feeding rations
    that are high in fiber, low in energy, control of
    birds and rodents that carry the disease.
  • Treatment when applicable is through broad
    spectrum antibiotics.

67
Snuffles
  • Disease aggravated by stressful conditions such
    as poor sanitation, poor ventilation, changing
    temperatures, shipping, or show conditions.
  • Symptoms persistent sneezing with a white
    colored nasal discharge.
  • Prevention Reduce stress through proper
    environment.

68
Mastitis
  • Inflammation of mammary tissue
  • Also called caked breast
  • May cause nursing problems
  • Nursing baby rabbits may bite the nipples when
    they are unable to nurse
  • Nursing mothers may refuse to nurse the young.

69
Mastitis Prevention and Treatment
  • Remove concentrates from the diet for 72 hours.
  • Widespread cases, clean and disinfect all nesting
    boxes.

70
Wry Neck
  • Condition caused by inflammation of the inner
    neck.
  • Head tilted to the side is the most common
    symptom.
  • Often found where snuffles are also present.
  • Best prevented by controlling upper respiratory
    diseases.

71
Fur Chewing
  • Pulling of fur from itself or other rabbits
    caused by simple boredom, a nutrient deficiency,
    and a low-fiber diet.
  • Prevention and treatment Best by feeding hay or
    straw to add fiber to the diet. Adding magnesium
    oxide to the ration also helps.

72
Hutch Burn
  • Chapped or burning condition of the external
    genital area of the doe. Caused by sitting in
    dirty, wet, urine soaked bedding.
  • Prevention and treatment keep bedding clean.
    Treatment is with antibiotic creams.

73
Sore Hocks
  • Ulcerated area on the bottom of the foot pads
    most often associated with rough wire cage floors
    and size of the foot pad not supporting the
    weight of the animal.
  • Large breed with long foot pads are most often
    affected.

74
Sore Hocks Prevention and Treatment
  • Get off wire and place on a solid surface
  • Apply astringents to the sore pads
  • Petroleum jelly
  • Bag balm (for cow udders)
  • Human hemorrhoid ointments

75
Hamster Diseases
76
Wet Tail (Enteritis)
  • Most common disease of hamsters
  • Caused by poor sanitation, bacteria, viruses, and
    diet.

77
Wet Tail Symptoms
  • Wetness around the tail and rear of the animal
    caused by runny diarrhea.
  • High death rate occurs within 2 days of symptoms
    appearing.
  • Most often associated with poor sanitation caused
    by general neglect and poor care.

78
Wet Tail Prevention and Treatment
  • Change and disinfect spoiled bedding, cages, and
    equipment and isolate infected animals.
  • Keep temperature around 70 degrees to avoid
    estivation (sleep above 80 degrees) or
    hibernation (below 50 degrees). Avoid drafts.
  • Animals do not respond well to treatment.

79
Common Diarrhea
  • Caused by incorrect diet with overabundance of
    green leafy materials, vegetables, or fruits.
  • Should not be confused with serious infections.
  • Correct by removing green leafy vegetables and
    fruits and feeding dry grains and seeds.

80
Gerbil Diseases
81
Colds
  • Gerbils are hardy and seldom affected by disease,
    but colds are most common.
  • Symptoms
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constant sneezing
  • Runny eyes and nose

82
Cold Prevention and Treatment
  • Reduce stress caused by overcrowding (gerbils
    need more space than hamsters)
  • Avoid drafts, humidity and temperature
    fluctuations.

83
Red Nose
  • Commonly caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria.
  • Animal will recover without any medication.
  • Symptoms
  • Hair loss
  • Red, swollen areas of the skin around the nose
    and muzzle

84
Rat Diseases
85
Respiratory Disease
  • Common disease caused by Microplasma pulmonis
  • Symptoms
  • Nasal discharge
  • Snuffling
  • Rattled breathing
  • Rubbing eyes and nose
  • Tilted head
  • Uncoordinated and circling

86
Mouse Diseases
87
Mouse Diseases
  • Hardy animals with proper diet, housing, and
    exercise.
  • Respiratory disease can be caused by several
    organisms and result from changes in temperature,
    drafts, high humidity.
  • Symptoms squeaking or rattling breath, runny
    nose, watery eyes and fur loss.

88
Mouse Diseases
  • Salmonella and related bacteria are responsible
    for many of the serious infectious diseases.
  • Control with clean cages, clean water, clean
    feed, and parasite control.

89
Guinea Pig Diseases
90
Guinea Pigs
  • Very healthy under favorable conditions.
  • Avoid drafts and keep temperature and humidity
    constant to avoid problems.
  • Common cold and respiratory diseases can be a
    problem if environment is not good.

91
Colds in Guinea Pigs
  • Animals become lethargic, listless, have nasal
    discharge and sneezing
  • Prevention
  • Maintaining a good environment
  • Immediate treatment with broad-spectrum
    antibiotics
  • Increase Vitamin C

92
Toxemia
  • Build-up of toxins in the blood that developed in
    late pregnancy.
  • Symptoms females will be lethargic, go off feed,
    refuse to eat, and have difficulty breathing.
  • Prevention and Treatment Feed a high quality
    diet to the pregnant female and add ½ teaspoon of
    sugar in the water bottle.

93
Chinchilla Illnesses
94
Chinchilla Environment
  • Need proper nutrition and a clean, dry,
    draft-free environment with low stress.
  • Provide adequate ventilation
  • Avoid temperatures above 80 degrees or cold
    drafts and high humidity

95
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Organism that causes infection in wounds,
    inflammation of eyes and ears, pneumonia,
    intestinal inflammation, uterine inflammation,
    and poisoning of the circulatory system.

96
Eye Inflammation (conjunctivitis)
  • Swelling and redness around the eyes, sensitivity
    to light, watering, and pus formation.
  • Treatment Isolate infected animals, wash eyes
    gently with warm boric acid solution, and use
    ophthalmic medications. Clean cages and feed
    containers.

97
Inner Ear Infection (otitis)
  • Symptoms Twisting and lowering of the head,
    hanging head to one side, running in a circle.
  • Prevention and Treatment Avoid drafty, cool
    environmental conditions. Clean the ear with
    warm boric acid solution and treat with ear drops.

98
Pneumonia
  • Symptoms listlessness, failure to eat,
    breathing difficulty, swollen abdomen
  • Prevention and treatment Eliminate cold drafty,
    and high humidity conditions and treat
    immediately with aureomycin, penicillin, or other
    antibiotics.

99
Impaction
  • Lower digestive system becomes tightly packed
    with food material or feces. May then follow
    diarrhea.
  • Caused by poor quality feed, stress, and poor
    nutrition.
  • Animal is often humped with chin resting between
    its front feet.

100
Treatment for Impaction
  • Give a dropper full of mineral oil daily OR
  • Add up to three full droppers of grapefruit juice
    to the animals diet.

101
Ferret Illnesses
102
Canine distemper
  • A disease that also affects dogs and is highly
    contagious. Usually results in death.
  • Symptoms discharge from the eyes and nose,
    breathing problems, diarrhea.

103
Canine Distemper Treatment
  • Vaccination is important.
  • Vaccinate at 12 weeks of age and give boosters
    annually to prevent canine and feline distemper.
  • Treatment is not effective.

104
Hemorrhagic enteritis
  • Bloody diarrhea is commonly seen
  • Symptoms Go off feed, bloody diarrhea, weight
    loss, dehydration, possibly death
  • Prevention and treatment Treat with antibiotics
    and sulfur material.

105
Botulism
  • Caused by toxin produced by bacteria.
  • Symptoms breathing difficulty and paralysis
  • Death can occur without symptoms.
  • Keep food supply fresh.

106
Disease Prevention and Treatment for Pocket Pets
107
Maintain Good Sanitation
  • Remove spoiled urine soaked bedding regularly
  • Remove urine and feces contaminated feed
    regularly
  • Keep fresh water available at all times

108
Provide a Good Environment
  • Keep animals free of drafts and eliminate any
    cool, damp drafts immediately
  • Maintain low humidity. Higher humidity
    contributes to respiratory diseases.
  • Maintain constant temperature that does not
    fluctuate to a great degree.
  • Provide adequate ventilation to remove stale air.
  • Feed an appropriate ration.

109
General Disease Treatment for Pocket Pets
  • First, isolate sick animals to prevent the spread
    of disease.
  • Remove and replace bedding from the cage of a
    sick animal.
  • Chemically disinfect and sanitize cage prior to
    installing new bedding.
  • Use medicated water routinely when disease is a
    constant threat.

110
General Disease Treatment for Pocket Pets
  • Use proper treatments and antibiotics if
    recommended.
  • Dispose of dead animals properly (burn and bury
    in some cases)
  • Cull animals that do not show signs of
    improvement.
  • Improve environmental conditions that may be
    causing disease.

111
General Disease Treatment for Pocket Pets
  • Avoid breeding animals that may have inherited
    diseases.
  • Use recommended pesticides to control pests.

112
Parasites of Birds
113
Internal Parasites
  • Rarely a problem with birds
  • Roundworms
  • Diagnosis is by observing feces for long, thin,
    white worms.
  • Contracted from ingesting worm eggs in
    contaminated feces, soil, or food.
  • Symptoms blockage of intestines, poor plummage,
    weight loss, diarrhea.
  • Treatments are available

114
Internal Parasites
  • Tapeworms
  • Diagnosed by observing small rice-like segments
    in the feces
  • Contracted from eating an intermediate host such
    as house flies, fleas, ticks, or earthworms.
  • Proper cleaning and sanitation are the best
    prevention.
  • Treatment with piprazine, nicotine sulfate and
    Kamal powder

115
External Parasites
  • Red Mites
  • Appear as tiny red specks and feed on blood of
    infected birds at night, causing restlessness,
    scratching, and picking at their feathers.
  • Spread through contact with infected birds.
  • Adults may be dusted with pyrethium powder.
  • Clean and disinfect all cages and nest boxes.

116
External Parasites
  • Feather Mites
  • Cause a bird to chew or pick its feathers.
  • Look for small, gray-colored moving specks
  • Feed on the bird during both day and night
  • Symptoms restlessness, severe scratching,
    feather picking, skin irritation
  • Cages and equipment should be treated with
    nicotine sulfate, Malathion, or coumaphos and
    birds should be sprayed with a mite spray.

117
External Parasites
  • Scaly Leg Mites
  • Tunnel under the scales on the legs of
    budgerigars, lovebirds, and canaries.
  • Live their entire life cycle on the bird.
  • Symptoms white scaly deposits that become
    thickened, enlarged, and encrusted
  • Treatment Use Vaseline or mineral oil to kill
    the mites and loosen deposits. This also
    suffocates the mites.

118
Scaly Leg Mite
119
Bacterial Diseases in Birds
120
Parrot Fever
  • Chlamydiosis or psittacosis
  • Bacterial disease that affects the liver and
    spleen.
  • Contracted mainly through feces and contaminated
    food and water.
  • Symptoms nasal discharges, listlessness,
    appetite loss, weight loss, greenish-colored
    diarrhea and labored breathing.

121
Parrot Fever
  • Psittacosis can be transmitted to humans.
  • Treat birds with chlortetracycline-impregnated
    seed for at least 21 days.

122
Bumblefoot
  • A painful ailment associated with staphylococcal
    infections.
  • Symptoms feet and joints become hot and swollen
    with a thick, grayish white fluid and not walking
    or clasping onto perch.
  • Prevent by using suitable perches and sanitation.
  • Treatment is with antibiotics.

123
Bumblefoot
124
Viral Diseases in Birds
125
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
  • A.K.A. French Molt
  • Viral disease that attacks the immune system.
  • Symptoms become evident at the first molt when
    new feathers do not emerge or are deformed and
    break off.
  • Nails may be soft, overgrown, and lose their
    pigment.

126
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
  • There is no cure for this disease.
  • Treatment is with vitamins, minerals, and control
    of secondary diseases through sanitation.

127
Newcastle Disease
  • Viral disease that has high mortality rates and
    spreads rapidly.
  • Imported birds are the main source of possible
    infection.
  • Symptoms Respiratory difficulty (wheezing)
    followed by tremors, wing droop, and a twisted
    neck.
  • Birds should be vaccinated to prevent the
    disease.

128
Nutritional Problems in Birds
129
Goiter
  • Swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and
    interference with breathing.
  • Major cause is iodine deficiency.
  • Especially a problem for budgerigars

130
Rickets (Osteomalacia)
  • Imbalance or deficient amount of calcium,
    phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 that causes
    deterioration or softening of the bones.
  • Symptoms lameness, stiff-legged gait, constant
    resting in the squatting position, decreased
    growth.
  • Oyster shell or coarse limestone in the diet and
    Vitamin D3 supplementation is the best
    preventative.

131
Obesity
  • Too much food, not enough activity or seeds high
    in fat.
  • Bird owners should avoid feeding too many
    sunflower seeds if obesity is a problem.

132
Other Aviary Problems
133
Overgrown Claws
  • Can result in injury if they become entangled in
    the cage.
  • May be clipped with pet nail clippers.
  • Avoid the pinkish streak in the center of the
    claw. It is a blood vessel.

134
Feather Plucking
  • Boredom, bad diet, needs mate, lack of bathing
  • Birds living indoors need regular bathing or
    spraying to encourage preening.
  • Preening is the process that birds go through in
    cleaning and trimming its feathers with its beak.

135
Symptoms of Problems with Birds
  • Sleeping on two legs may indicate that a bird is
    uncomfortable or ailing. Birds normally sleep on
    only one leg.
  • A bird that fluffs its feathers out is usually
    chilled and trying to retain body heat.
  • If feces are runny, a digestive ailment may be
    the problem.
  • Not flying and lack of activity may indicate the
    bird is sick.

136
Symptoms of Problems with Birds
  • Eye discharges or continually closed eyes are an
    indication of cold, etc.
  • Wheezing, noisy, or irregular breathing may be a
    sign of a respiratory problem.
  • Not eating or very little eating indicates a loss
    of appetite that is often associated with
    sickness.

137
Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
  • Select a healthy bird
  • Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place
  • Subject the bird to little stress
  • No other animals should be around
  • Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4
    weeks before introducing to other birds.
  • Keep perches and cage clean

138
Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
  • Sanitation is extremely importantshould provide
    fresh food and water.

139
Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
  • Bathing and spraying reduces feather dust and
    dirt and cuts down on mites
  • Small birds prefer to bathe in a container which
    may be placed in the cage at regular intervals
    for 30 minute time periods.
  • Large birds need to be sprayed with a fine mist
    from a plant sprayer. Mist should be sprayed
    above the animal and allowed to filter down. Do
    not saturate, but gently spray 2-3 times per
    week.

140
At the First Sign of Illness
  • Cage temperature should be maintained between
    85-90 degrees F.
  • Move the cage to a warmer location
  • Adjust the temperature with a light bulb near the
    cage or a heating pad under the cage.
  • Provide 2 or 3 perches so that the bird can find
    the most comfortable temperature

141
At the First Sign of Illness
  • Partially cover the cage to prevent drafts
  • Provide quick energy fluids such as sugar water,
    honey water, or orange juice.

142
Diseases of the Aquarium
143
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
  • Fish are behaving unusual/strange
  • Fish are floating to the surface, sinking to the
    bottom, or leaning to the side of the aquarium.
  • Fins are unusually lying flat against the body.
  • Rolled or caudal fins
  • A fish is off by itself and not swimming with the
    school.

144
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
  • Fish appears to be in slow motion and not keeping
    up with the other fish.
  • Breathing seems unusually faster and deeper than
    normal.
  • Fish is at the surface gasping for air.
  • Rubbing/scratching against objects in the
    aquarium.
  • Not interested in eating.

145
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
  • Belly appears caved in or unusually thin.
  • Belly appears bloated or swollen.
  • Color of fish has changed or unusual.
  • Fin appears frayed.
  • Back and spinal column appear distorted.
  • Eyes are not clear, appear cloudy.
  • White spots are covering the body.

146
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
  • Scales that stick out from the body instead of
    lying flat.
  • Protruding eyes
  • Anal discharge hanging from the fish.

147
Parasites of Fish
148
White Spot (Ich)
  • Caused by the parasitic organism Ichthyophthirius
    multifiliis and causes numerous white spots on
    the body and fins of a stressed fish. One of the
    most common diseases in aquarium fish.

149
Slime Disease
  • Parasites attack skin of fish causing a large
    amount of mucus. May cause death if it attacks
    the gills.

150
Hole-In-The-Head
  • Organism Hexsamita live under skin in muscle
    tissue and make the tissue break down and skin
    opens up to make the fish appear to have holes.

151
Velvet Disease
  • Organism Oodinium penetrates skin cells and feed
    on fish.

152
White Fungus Growth
  • White growth around mouth, fins, eye, and gills.
    A secondary infection is usually present already.

153
Flukes
  • Worm-like parasite that attaches to the gills and
    body of the fish.

154
Anchor Worms
  • Adhere and burrow under scales to attack the
    muscles

155
Fish Lice
  • Attach to body of fish and pierce skin to
    discharge a poison.

156
Bacterial Diseases Affecting Fish
157
Fin Rot
  • Where the edges of the fishs fins start to
    appear frayed and ragged, lose their color and
    the tissue between the fins breaks down.

158
Mouth Fungus
  • Caused by bacteria with a white tufty material
    appearing around the mouth and white patches on
    the skin.

159
Neon Disease
  • Caused by parasite Pleistophora hyphessobryconis.
    This organism is found in the fishs body tissue
    where it causes the production of spores which
    are released when it dies.

160
Tuberculosis
  • Causes by bacteria that invades the organs and
    tissues of the body.

161
Pseudomonas and Aeromonas
  • Secondary infections in fish that are already
    sick. Fish have swollen bellies, lesions or
    ulcers.

162
Environmental Problems (In the Tank)
163
Environmental Problems
  • Lack of oxygen and overabundance or carbon
    dioxide can be readily observed when almost all
    of the fish are swimming near the surface gulping
    for air.
  • Incorrect water pH-causes respiratory problems
    and excess mucus production.

164
Environmental Problems
  • Chemical filtration ability reduced and ammonia
    builds upobserved by cloudy, murky water
  • Gravel filtration system pollution buildup of
    iron sulphite can be observed by the black color
    on the gravel.

165
Treatment
  • Use of chemicals in the water with the aquarium
    being thoroughly cleaned before the fish are
    returned.
  • Placement of fish in a hospital tank for
    treatment before returning to normal tank.
  • Most treatments can be found at the local pet
    store.

166
Amphibians and Reptiles
167
Salmonella
  • Bacterial disease that can be transmitted to
    humans.
  • Affects the digestive tract and causes watery,
    green foul-smelling diarrhea.

168
Mouth Rot
  • Fungal disease associated with sores or open
    wounds in the mouth.

169
Mites and Ticks
  • External parasites that attack amphibians and
    reptiles.
  • Mites usually go undetected until there is a
    heavy infestation.
  • Symptoms anemia, anorexia, depression, stress,
    listlessness, lack of appetite, possible death.
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