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History of Health Care

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Objectives. Students will: Identify medical/health care milestones that have led to advances in health care. Predict where and how factors such as cost, managed care ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Health Care


1
History of Health Care
2
Objectives
  • Students will
  • Identify medical/health care milestones that have
    led to advances in health care.
  • Predict where and how factors such as cost,
    managed care, technology, and aging population,
    access to care, alternative therapies, and
    lifestyle behavior may affect various health
    delivery system models.

3
4000 BC 3000 BC Primitive Times
  • Illness and diseases were a punishment from the
    Gods
  • Tribal witch doctors treated illness with
    ceremonies
  • Herbs and plants used as medicines (morphine and
    digitalis)
  • Trepanation or trephining (surgically removig a
    piece of bone from the skull)
  • Average life span was 20 years
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v2VDmjtK4hNc

4
3000 BC 300 BC Ancient Egyptians
  • Physicians were priests
  • Bloodletting or leeches used as medical treatment
  • Average life span was 20-30 years
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vcePKpt5nOJ0

5
1700 BC AD 220 Ancient Chinese
  • Believed in the need to treat the whole body by
    curing the spirit and nourishing the body
  • Recorded a pharmacopoeia of medications based
    mainly on the use of herbs
  • Used therapies such as acupuncture
  • Began to search for medical reasons for illness
  • Average life span was 20-30 years
  • http//whotv.com/2014/09/16/acupuncture-helps-rest
    ore-stressed-bodies/

6
1200 BC 200 BC Ancient Greeks
  • First to observe the human body and the effects
    of disease led to modern medical sciences.
  • Believed illness is a result of natural causes
  • Used therapies such as massage, art therapy, and
    herbal treatment
  • Stressed diet and exercise as ways to prevent
    disease
  • Average life span was 25-35 years
  • http//missbradshaw.edu.glogster.com/ancient-greek
    -medicine-rational-medicine/

7
753 BC AD 410 Ancient Romans
  • First to organize medical care by providing care
    for injured soldiers
  • Later hospitals were religious and charitable
    institutions in monasteries and convents
  • First public health and sanitation systems by
    building sewers and aqueducts
  • Galen established belief that the body was
    regulated by four body humors blood, phlegm,
    black bile, and yellow bile
  • Life span was 25-35 years

8
AD 400 AD 800 Dark Ages
  • Emphasis on saving the soul and study of medicine
    was prohibited
  • Prayer and divine intervention were used to treat
    illness disease
  • Monks and priests provided custodial care for
    sick people
  • Medications were mainly herbal mixtures
  • Average life span was 20-30 years
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vih7HJoB_ZO8

9
AD 800 AD 1400 Middle Ages
  • Renewed interest in medical practices of Greek
    and Romans
  • Bubonic Plague killed 75 of population in Europe
    and Asia
  • Major diseases included smallpox, diptheria,
    tuberculosis, typhoid, the plaque, and malaria
  • Arabs began requiring physicians pass
    examinations and obtain licenses
  • Average life span was 20-35 years
  • http//www.history.com/topics/black-death/videos/m
    ankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-the-plague

10
AD 1350 AD 1650 Renaissance
  • Dissection of body led to increased understanding
    of anatomy and physiology
  • Invention of printing press allowed medical
    knowledge to be shared
  • First anatomy book was published by Andreas
    Vesalius (1514-1564)
  • Average life span was 30-40 years

11
16th and 17th Centuries
  • Cause of disease still not known many people
    died from infections
  • Invention of the microscope allowed physicians to
    see disease-causing organisms.
  • Apothecaries (early pharmicists) made,
    prescribed, and sold medications
  • Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), a French surgeon,
    known as the Father of Modern Surgery established
    use of ligatures to stop bleeding
  • Average life span 35-45 years

12
18th Century
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) created the first
    mercury thermometer
  • John Hunter (1728-1793), established scientific
    surgical procedures and introduced tube feeding
  • Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals
  • Average life span 40-50 years

13
19th Century
  • Rapid advancements due to discoveries of
    microorganisms, anesthesia, and vaccinations
  • Infection control developed once microorganisms
    were associated with disease
  • Formal training for nurses began
  • Women became active participants in health care
  • Average life span 40-60 years

14
20th Century
  • Increased knowledge about the role of blood in
    the body
  • ABO blood groups discovered
  • Found out how white blood cells protect against
    disease
  • New medications were developed
  • Insulin discovered and used to treat diabetes
  • Antibiotics developed to fight infections
  • Vaccines were developed
  • New machines developed
  • Kidney Dialysis Machine
  • Heart Lung Machine
  • Surgical and diagnostic techniques developed to
    cure once fatal conditions

15
20th Century (continued)
  • Organ Transplants
  • Test tube babies
  • Implanted first artificial heart
  • Health Care Plans developed to help pay the cost
    of care
  • Medicare and Medicaid marked the entry of the
    federal government into the health care arena
  • HMOs provided an alternative to private insurance
  • Hospice organized

16
21st Century
  • The first totally implantable artificial heart
    was placed in a patient in Louisville, Ky. In
    2001
  • The threat of bioterrorism lead to smallpox
    vaccination of the military and first
    responders in 2002
  • The Netherlands became the first country in the
    world to legalize euthanasia in 2002
  • The Human Genome Project to identify all of the
    approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes in the human

17
21st Century
  • Stem cells were used in the treatments of disease
    early in the 2000s and lead to increased
    research in the treatment of cancer and other
    diseases
  • President George W. Bush approved federal funding
    for research using only existing lines of
    embryonic stem cells in 2001
  • Advanced Cell Technology announced it cloned a
    human embryo in 2001 but the embryo did not
    survive
  • The U.S. FDA approved the use of the abortion
    pill RU-486 IN 200

18
21st Century
  • The standards for Privacy of Individually
    Identifiable Health Information, required under
    the Health Insurance Portability and
    Accountability Act (HIPPA) of 1996, went into
    effect in 2003
  • The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and
    Modernization Act was passed in 2003
  • Vaccinations for cervical cancer and herpes
    zoster (shingles) in 2006

19
Potential for 21st Century
  • Cures for AIDS, cancer, and heart disease
  • Genetic manipulation to prevent inherited disease
  • Nerves in the brain and spinal cord are
    regenerated to prevent paralysis
  • Antibiotics are developed that do not allow
    pathogens to develop resistance
  • Average life span 90-100 years

20
  • Individual Contributions

21
Hippocrates (460 377 BC)
  • Greek physician known as the Father of Medicine
  • Authored code of conduct for doctors known as the
    Hippocratic Oath that is the basis of medical
    practice today
  • Believed illness was not caused
  • by evil spirits and stressed
  • importance of good diet, fresh
  • air, cleanliness, and exercise

22
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  • Invented the microscope lens that allowed
    visualization of organisms
  • Scraped his teeth
  • and observed the
  • bacteria that
  • causes tooth
  • decay

23
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  • Invented bifocals
  • Found that colds could
  • be passed from person
  • to person

24
Ephraim McDowell (1771 -1 1830)
  • Surgeon from Danville, Ky.
  • Performed the first ovariotomy -(surgical removal
    of the ovary) - to remove a 22 pound tumor

25
Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
  • Developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796

26
Rene Laennec (1781-1826)
  • Invented the stethoscope in 1819
  • First stethoscope was made of wood

27
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)
  • First female physician in the United States in
    1849

28
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
  • Known as the Founder of Modern Nursing
  • Established efficient and sanitary nursing units
    during the Crimean War in 1854
  • Invented the call bell system and use of
    dumbwaiters to deliver meals
  • Begin the professional education of nurses

29
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  • Known as the Father of Microbiology
  • His germ theory proved that microorganisms cause
    disease
  • Proved that heat can be used
  • to destroy germs through a
  • process called pasteurization
  • Created a vaccine for rabies in
  • 1885
  • Founded the basic rules for
  • sterilization

30
Joseph Lister (1827-1912)
  • Used carbolic acid on wounds to kill germs
  • First doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery

31
Clara Barton (1821-1912)
  • Volunteer nurse for wounded soldiers during the
    Civil War
  • After Civil War, established a bureau of records
    to search for missing men
  • Campaigned for the USA to sign
  • the Treaty of Geneva, which
  • provided relief for sick and
  • wounded soldiers
  • Formed American Red Cross
  • in 1881 and served as its first
  • president

32
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  • Developed the culture plate method to identify
    pathogens
  • Isolated the bacterium
  • that causes tuberculosis

33
Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923)
  • Discovered roentgenograms (X-rays) in 1895
  • Let doctors see inside the body
  • X-rayed wifes hand

34
Sigmund Freud (1836-1939)
  • Discovered the conscious and unconscious part of
    the mind
  • His studies were the basis for psychology and
    psychiatry

35
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)
  • Discovered penicillin in 1928 which is considered
    one of the most
  • important
  • discoveries of
  • the twentieth
  • century

36
Jonas Salk (1914-1995) Albert Sabin (1906 1993)
  • Discovered polio vaccine
  • Saved many people from
  • this virus that paralyzed
  • thousands of adults and
  • children each year.

37
Francis Crick (1916 2004) James Watson (1928 -
)
  • Described the structure of DNA and how it carries
    genetic information in 1953
  • Built a three-dimensional
  • model of the molecules
  • of DNA
  • Shared the Noble Prize
  • in 1962

38
Christian Barnard (1922 2001)
  • Performed first successful heart transplant in
    1968

39
Robert Jarvik
  • Creator of the first artificial heart
  • On December 2, 1982, it was implanted into Barney
    Clark, who lived for the next 112 days
  • The second patient, William Schroeder, lived for
    620 days

40
Ben Carson (1951 - )
  • Famous for his surgeries to separate Siamese
    twins
  • Currently Director of
  • Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • at John Hopkins
  • He has refined
  • hemispherectomy, a
  • surgery on the brain
  • to stop seizures

41
  • Current Trends in Health Care

42
Cost Containment
  • Cost of health care began rising due to
  • Technological advances
  • Aging population
  • Health-related lawsuits
  • Cost Containment measures include
  • Diagnostic related groups (DRG)
  • Combination of services
  • Outpatient services
  • Mass or bulk purchasing
  • Early intervention and preventive services

43
  • Health care facilities specialized to include
  • Home health care
  • Hospice care
  • Geriatric care
  • Types of facilities
  • Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
  • Telemedicine

44
  • Emphasis on promoting wellness of the whole
    individual
  • Physical wellness
  • Emotional wellness
  • Social wellness
  • Mental and intellectual wellness
  • Spiritual Wellness
  • Holistic Health

45
  • Alternative and Complementary Methods of Health
    Care
  • Chinese medicine practitioners
  • Chiropractors
  • Homeopaths
  • Hypnotists
  • Naturopaths

46
  • National Health Care Plan
  • Has become a leading topic of debate due to the
    increasing number of uninsured Americans
  • Education and preparation for a potential
    pandemic
  • Due to the high rate international travel, the
    possibility for a devastating pandemic has
    increased
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