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Overview of Malaria in the Americas

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Overview of Malaria in the Americas Environments Ecological Social Economic Political Technological Reflections November 6th 1880: Laveran 1898: Ross, Grassi ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview of Malaria in the Americas


1
Overview of Malaria in the Americas
2
  • History followed different courses for
    different peoples because of differences among
    peoples environments, not because of biological
    differences among peoples themselves.
  • Diamond, J.M. (2005) Guns, Germs, and Steel
    the fates of human societies.

3
Environments
  • Ecological
  • Social
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Technological

4
Reflections
  • November 6th 1880 Laveran
  • 1898 Ross, Grassi, Bastianelli, Bignami
  • Cinchona bark Fever Quechua Indians Peru
  • 17th Century Jesuit bark - Rome
  • 19th Century Malaria throughout Americas
  • 1902 Malaria health problem PAHO
  • II World War new antimalarials, DDT
  • Successes Americas including Caribbean
  • 1955 Global Eradication Program

5
Malaria Strategies and Goals
  • Global Malaria Eradication Strategy Mexico 1955
  • Global Malaria Control Strategy Amsterdam 1992
  • Roll Back Malaria Initiative 1998
  • U.N. Millennium Development Goals - 2000

6
Interventions
  • Diagnosis (Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests)
  • Treatment (Distinct parasites, Drug Resistance)
  • Reduction Man Mosquito contact (distinct
    mosquitoes, Insecticide resistance, Housing,
    Management breeding sites, Mosquito nets, etc.)
  • Epidemiologic analysis, Operational research
  • Community, other sector involvement
  • Health systems transfer of responsibility but
    reduced technical capability

7
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10
Source Annual Country Reports to PAHO
11
Challenges
  • Change structure health institutions and systems
  • Accessibility, availability health services
  • Orientation articulation / integration primary
    health care
  • Recruitment, training, continuity technical
    personnel
  • Sustainability - surveillance, epidemiologic
    assessments, operational research
  • Use scientific evidence to adapt interventions
    and policies
  • Multiple sector participation, particularly civil
    society and communities
  • Migration within and between countries
  • Burden reduction call to arms elimination
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