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The Science of Everyday Negotiations


Designing Social Protection Frameworks for Somalia: Findings and Ways Forward in SCS Gabrielle Smith 29th September 2014 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Science of Everyday Negotiations

Designing Social Protection Frameworks for
Somalia Findings and Ways Forward in
SCS Gabrielle Smith 29th September 2014

  • Activities and Methods
  • Macro Level Context
  • Vulnerability Analysis
  • Mapping of Social Protection
  • Enabling Environment

Development Pathways is an international
consultancy company based in Kenya amd UK,
specialising in Social Protection, social
development, gender, social exclusion and
livelihoods. Social protection - the
development, implementation and evaluation of
safety net programmes - across Africa, Asia and
the Pacific. We have substantial experience in
the East Africa region, particularly in Kenya
where were involved in the Hunger Safety Nets
Programme of the GoK/DFID and in the pastoral
Karamoja region of Uganda. On this study design
of the study training analysis validation
INTRODUCING Social-life Agricultural
Development Organisation (SADO)
Somali NGO established in1994 Mission to
release the potential of the Somali people to
change their own lives through sustainable,
integrated people-centred development Branches
across South Central Somalia and members of
countrywide networks and platforms including the
Peace and Human Rights Network (PHRN) and Somalia
South-Central Non-State Actors (SOSCENSA) Experti
se Design and management of quantitative and
qualitative data collection Local partner to
INGOs on cash transfer in SCS. Inputs
logistical support to the research (transport,
accommodation, security) sourcing and
contracting 2x senior researchers, 4x local data
collectors in each Zone
  • 1. Activities and Methods

1. Activities and MethodsDistrict Selection (2-3
per Zone)
  • Rationale
  • Ensure representation of communities from
    different livelihoods zones and urban-rural.
  • Inclusion of views of minority and marginalized
  • Districts for which existing data highlights high
    levels of vulnerability (MICS 2011 and WFP trends
    in nutrition 2007-2012)
  • Districts and study locations that are secure to
    access for research (impact SCS)
  • Overlap with some of the targeted areas for the
    UN Joint Resilience Programme.
  • Districts accessible within one days travelling
    time from urban centres, to make best use of the
    time available.

Study Sites Somaliland
Study Sites
1. Activities and MethodsQualitative Research
  • Literature Review relevant secondary data, to
    inform the study approach. Underpinned by the
    teams extensive knowledge of social protection
    schemes internationally.
  • gt conceptual framework and parameters of the
  • Vulnerability Analysis qualitative data
    collected from community members and key
    informants, triangulated with secondary data
    sources, to identify key drivers of inequality
    and vulnerability in each Zone and the factors
    that affect this.
  • Including participation of vulnerable groups -
    children, women, the elderly, the disabled, IDP
    and pastoral communities and minority clans.
  • Mapping of Social Protection and the Enabling
    Environment mapping existing social protection
    and safety net related initiatives, institutions
    and structures at national, sub-national and
    community level and the current policy,
    institutional and regulatory framework.

1. Activities and MethodsParameters of the Study
1. Activities and MethodsFocus on Social
Transfers (CTs)
  • cash based social transfers are at the core of
    any social protection policy framework and are
    one of the foundation building blocks in LICs
  • Given issues of capacity, important to limit
    scope in the short to medium term
  • Cash transfers proven to be feasible and
    appropriate in this context
  • Huge amount of evidence that well designed CTs
    can contribute to all the functions of social
    protection (protect consumption prevent fall
    further into poverty promote investments in
    human development, assets and the labour market
    for more productive livelihoods and transform
    relations in society tool for poverty,
    reduction, resilience building and
    multi-dimensional wellbeing.

Qualitative Research
Quantitative research
Qualitative research
  • Reliable measures
  • Robust indicators
  • Statistical rigour and representativity - breadth
  • Quantifiable changes/impacts/rates/levels
  • Correlations among factors
  • Readily understood by policy makers/planner
  • Nuanced explanations
  • In-depth understandings
  • Insights, illumination
  • Open-ended, revealing the unexpected
  • Broader causal analyses
  • Human perspectives viewpoints voice
  • Participatory processes

The essence of qualitative work
  • People (project managers policy makers
    beneficiaries non/beneficiaries women/men
    adults/children) are worth listening to
  • Peoples perspectives/understandings expressed
    in their own words are data
  • Hypotheses and programme logic needs continual
    challenging/confrontation with reality
  • Reality is complex we need all of our senses
  • Gaining trust and achieving understanding
  • Open-ended receptivity is valuable

1. Activities and MethodsResearch Instruments
  • Qualitative research
  • group and one-on-one discussions with communities
    and particular demographic groups
  • Community Mapping
  • Focus group discussions
  • Life History interviews
  • Key Informant Interviews
  • Visual aids (timelines of community events and
    lifecycle events, seasonal calendars)
  • Participants FGD/LHI
  • Older people 50 (m/f)
  • Adults of working age 25-50 (m/f)
  • Young people 18-25 (m/f)
  • People with disabilities
  • School age children 10-14
  • Minority groups (Gabooye) (m/f)
  • Key Informants
  • District level government
  • Community/religious leaders
  • Local service providers and CBOs
  • Development Partners
  • Central Government
  • Financial service providers
  • INGOs

Activities Completed
1. Activities and MethodsSummary of KIIs
Location Location Number
Somaliland Community study locations 17
National stakeholders 18
Puntland Community study locations 11
National stakeholders 12
SCS Community study locations 12
National stakeholders 1
Nairobi National stakeholders 17
  • 2. Macro level context

2. The Macro Level ContextSummary Findings
Demographics (MICS)
  • Estimated population Somalia 10.5m
  • Birthrate high 6.4 (Somaliland)
  • Average HH size of 6
  • Large young population - 50 under 15
  • 60 of households have at least one child under
  • 91 have a child under 18
  • 33 of households considered FHH
  • High rate urbanisation - 3.4/annum
  • Somaliland 2050 projection - 50 urban

Age and sex distribution Somaliland (MICS survey
2. The Macro Level ContextSocio-economic Summary
  • GDP per capita 347 (2012), 4th lowest in the
  • Chronic unemployment - way above SSA average.
  • Strong markets are a critical support
    facilitating movement of people, money and goods.
  • 1.3bn in remittances is transferred annually
    however not equitably received
  • HH survey for Somaliland (2013) estimated poverty
    in urban areas at 29 (v Ethiopia 26) and rural
    poverty is 38 (v Ethiopia 30). Excludes urban
    IDPs and nomadic communities. Therefore these are
    likely to be underestimates.
  • Income inequality much higher than Ethiopia
  • HDIs for women and children much lower than
    neighbouring countries (education, health, access
    to services). Many correlate with poverty
    generally worse in rural areas
  • Child and maternal under-nutrition in acute and
    chronic forms are an enduring problem.
  • The majority of HH food is purchased, even in
    rural areas access a major challenge.
  • Prone to droughts and floods - frequency and
    severity of climatic shocks is increasing.
  • Insecurity on-going challenge in SCS

2. The Macro Level Context2.1 Political Context
  • Somalia is commonly identified as a fragile state
    context. The North has seen relative security in
    recent years, though security continues to be a
    fundamental concern.
  • Each of the three semi-autonomous zones has its
    own administration. The authorities in Somaliland
    have judiciary, legislative and executive systems
    and are able to deal directly with donors and set
    development priorities.
  • Administrations are in the early stages of
    development and there are inevitable capacity
    shortfalls which hampers the rollout of state
    services, but good progress being made in

2. The Macro Level Context2.2 Demographic Context
  • Estimated population Somalia 10.5m
  • Birthrate 6.4 A
  • Average HH size of 6 (MICS 2011)
  • Large young population
  • 60 of households have at least one child under
  • 91 have a child under 18
  • 33 of households considered FHH Rate of
    urbanisation estimated at 3.4 per annum

Age and sex distribution Somaliland (MICS survey
2. The Macro Level Context2.3 Socio - Economic
  • Available data for Somaliland shows GDP per
    capita estimated at 347 in 2012, which is the
    4th lowest in the world.
  • Very low levels of investment (ranked 180th in
    World for Gross Fixed Capital Formation)
  • Chronic unemployment - employment to population
    ratios way below SSA average.
  • Economy continues to be based primarily on the
    livestock industry, wholesale and retail trade
    (particularly informal sector). Poor households
    in urban environments including IDPs often depend
    on daily wage labour.
  • Strong markets are a critical support
    facilitating movement of people, money and goods.
  •  Around 1.3bn in remittances is transferred
    annually to Somalia however transfers are not
    equitably received
  • A recent HH survey for Somaliland estimated
    poverty in urban areas of Somaliland is 29 (v
    Ethiopia 26) and rural poverty is 38 (v
    Ethiopia 30). This excludes urban IDP
    populations or nomadic communities. Therefore
    these are likely to be underestimates.
  • Income inequality is much higher than Ethiopia

(No Transcript)
2. The Macro Level Context2.4 Food and Nutrition
  • Child and maternal under-nutrition in acute and
    chronic forms are an enduring problem.
  • 2001 to 2009 median rates of global acute
    malnutrition (GAM) have remained at serious (10
    to 15) or critical (15 to 20).
  • 2008-2012 estimated 32 of children were
    moderately or severely underweight, 42 were
    moderately or severely stunted and 13 suffered
    from moderate or severe wasting.
  • The majority of HH food is purchased, even in
    rural areas - inflation a major challenge. Prices
    volatile over the last five years, with sharp
    peaks in 2008 and 2012.
  • Somaliland HH survey 2013 estimates 57 of rural
    (not including nomads) and 42 of urban (not
    including IDP) households did not consume the
    minimum food requirements.
  • UNICEF 2011 Access to food is a major
    contributory factor to poor nutrition,
    exacerbated by factors contributing to poor care
    practices, and poor hygiene and sanitation

2. The Macro Level Context2.5 Environmental
  • Prone to droughts and floods - commonly agreed
    that frequency and severity of climatic shocks is
  • Reducing ability of rural households to rebuild
    livelihoods between crisis years and contributing
    to a steady erosion of assets
  • Effects are compounded by the civil strife in
    parts of the country - contributed to the famine
    experienced in large parts of SCS in 2011.
  • Whilst there is considerable uncertainty about
    how climate change will affect rainfall trends in
    the future, many areas of the Horn are
    experiencing long-term declines in rainfall and
    this has been linked to anthropogenic warming,
    suggesting increasingly arid conditions and more
    frequent droughts.

2. The Macro Level ContextLocal Governance
  • In the absence of a central government,
    communities reverted to local forms of conflict
    resolution, consisting of civil law, customary
    law and religious law, through clan lineage. The
    Somali population is divided into major clans and
    a number of minority groups. Clans include the
    Hawiye, Isaaq, Darod, Rahanweyn, Dir, Digil, and
    other ethnic minorities. Major clans dominate
    political structures and confer major benefits of
    social solidarity and support within the
    sub-clans and extended family networks. In
    contrast, minority groups (including the
    non-ethnic Somali groups such as the Jareer
    Bantu, the Banadir groups and also low status
    groups such as the Gabooye, Yibir and Tumal) lack
    the extended social network that forms a safety
    net for the majority tribes. This makes them more
    vulnerable to economic crises as they lack the
    informal safety net of the other clans. Members
    of minority clans also have limited political

2. The Macro Level ContextKey Conclusions for
the Framework
  • Poverty is multidimensional and has both social
    and economic characteristics.
  • Women and children are particularly vulnerable
    however others - elderly, disabled and youth -
    are also likely to be vulnerable but data for
    these groups does not exist.
  • Data is lacking but the situation is likely to be
    worse in South Central Somalia given the
    overlying shocks and access constraints.
  • There exist both chronic long-term and transient
    poverty and food insecurity.
  • There are multiple challenges to be addressed, a
    number of which correlate with income insecurity
    and which it will be important to consider in the
    design of social protection programmes however
    it is unlikely that a single programme or even
    programmes can address all needs simultaneously.

  • 3. Vulnerability Analysis

3. Vulnerability Analysis
  1. Defining vulnerability
  2. Trends in livelihoods and factors affecting
  3. Shocks and stresses
  4. Coping strategies
  5. Community analysis of vulnerability

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.1 Defining
Exposure to risk
Capacity to deal with it
Social and Economic
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in
Vulnerability of Livelihoods
  • Main drivers contributing to vulnerability of
    livelihoods Environmental shocks, conflict, poor
    governance, marginalization and chronic poverty
  • Extensive economic hardship - vast majority of
    households in the study are low income.
    Collective purchasing power is low.
  • Number of major trends in livelihoods were
  • Increasing poverty and vulnerability affecting
    livelihoods in rural areas, on account of
    recurring climatic shocks and other constraints
    to livelihoods such as lack of economic
  • Increasing economic migration and rapid
  • In South Central Somalia a major additional
    constraint is recent conflict and insecurity - a
    driver behind the growth of the population in the
    camps visited.
  • Some improvements to services however these
    remain grossly inadequate and inaccessible to the
    majority in rural areas and to IDP and poor
    communities in urban areas.
  • Vicious cycle these trends are a consequence of
    the underlying drivers and also further
    contribute to these drivers to increase
    vulnerability of livelihoods
  • Affecting different groups in different ways

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in Rural
  • Constraints to the founding principles of
    pastoralism that enable HH to deal with shock.
  • Reduction in herd sizes (livestock disease,
    recurrent droughts and general water scarcity,
    overgrazing and land use change)
  • Changes in herd composition cattle all but
    vanished some camels and more often - small
  • Access to rangeland is becoming constrained (land
    acquisition and fencing off of traditional
    communal grazing land for private use) gt
  • Chronic lack of alternative opportunities for
    productive livelihoods or employment.
  • Untapped potential of agriculture little
    investment in agriculture - production low, with
    some considering that production over time has
    been declining.
  • Farming still water-dependent and exposed to the
    climatic trends mentioned above. Potentially more
    vulnerable since it is sedentary
  • Strong desire and attempts to diversify but
    limited options
  • Mainly peri-urban (teashops, trading, fodder
    production, Khat sale)

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in migration
and urbanisation
  • Increasing sedentarisation leading to more
    urban characteristics even in rural areas
  • Increasing sedentarisation of pastoralists as a
    result of constraints to nomadic livelihoods and
    changes in herd size and composition.
  • Agro-pastoralists increasingly relying on a
    semi-sedentary household for agriculture with
    pastoral satellites.
  • Creation/expansion of overcrowded and
    impoverished informal IDP settlements
  • Increasing migration to urban areas, particularly
    for pastoral HH in the north
  • Growth of IDP settlements in Mogadishu due to
    insecurity and seasonal shocks elsewhere in SCS
    (many from riverine areas)
  • Trend for HH to settle for long periods (lack of
    hope pastoralists v farmers SCS hope to return
    and attempting to do so splitting of HH)
  • Out-migration of able bodied and (esp male) youth
    gt high proportion of FHHH and dependent people
    remain in rural settlements
  • Includes overseas - Yemen, Ethiopia, Libya and on
    to Europe and the Middle East

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in Urban
  • Primarily daily labourers (construction and
    hauling, domestic servants) and petty trades (tea
    shops, hawking/street vendors, buying and selling
    milk, shoe shining, car washing and selling
  • Jobs are insecure and poorly paid and there is
    increasing competition as the influx to the
    cities continues.
  • IDPs face discrimination in the job market in
    competition with local people.
  • Markets and opportunities in the city can be far
    from IDP settlements and expensive to reach.
  • Households find it difficult to invest or
    diversify livelihoods as they lack the capital
    and skills (more acute for pastoral than farming
  • Begging increase (esp. Mogadishu organised
    begging in groups)
  • Heterogeneity of IDP settlements depending on
    location and length of establishment

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in HH labour
  • Womens engagement in productive activities is
  • Women supporting the household to cope with
  • In urban centres there are more economic
    opportunities available to and culturally
    appropriate for women.
  • In pastoral areas the increase in small stock is
    an asset in the care of women.
  • Effects
  • Increasing burden of labour of women, since also
    caring for the household. Engaging in economic
    activity has not changed entrenched gender roles.
  • Girls expected to take on homemaker duties since
    mothers are working.
  • Rural switch to small stock is disenfranchising
    young men.
  • Urban men more dependent on their wives for
    economic support - tension in the household and
    divorce rates rising in IDP areas
  • Child labour also increasing water scarcity
    IDP areas (normalised in Mogadishu)

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Environmental Trends
  • Rural
  • Increasing desertification caused by recurring
    poor rains and increasing charcoal burning.
  • Invasive tree species.
  • Population pressures, poverty and lack of access
    to critical inputs gt unsustainable livelihoods
    practices gt environmental degradation
  • Introduction of genetically modified seeds
    preventing seed saving
  • Urban
  • The encroachment of urban settlements on what was
    previously grazing area
  •  Poor planning and rapid sprawl of informal
    settlements gt huge increase in plastic waste and
    sanitation problems

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Increasing Khat
  • In both rural and urban areas the increasing,
    almost daily, consumption of Khat by men is
    acknowledged to be approaching epidemic
  • Almost every single young man interviewed chewed
    Khat. Some women.
  • Number of vendors on the street is growing.
  • Linked to the lack of economic opportunities
    available for young men
  • All discussions with women highlighted this as a
    growing issue and is contributing to women
    shouldering further burdens of labour

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in Access to
Services Best case of NW shown here
Health Education Watsan
Poor health a major challenge (women and older people). Most services are private economic barrier. Some NGO-provided MCH services, but major barriers to access Supply side low coverage and capacity of government services, not within IDP areas, queues and a lack of trained personnel and supplies. Demand side costs of access and widespread suspicion about quality of service Challenges of obtaining was highlighted by all ages. Barriers to access Demand high costs of schooling which are generally not free in SCS, Less importance placed on education by IDPs in Mogadishu (total focus on survival needs, children mostly working) Supply extremely poor coverage of public schools, lack of qualified staff / supplies Opportunity for secondary education is limited (fees and distance) Access to clean water is a growing challenge. Rural water catchments generally open are shared with livestock. In urban centres all HH must pay for water, facilities are overcrowded. Sanitation of camps is very poor
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in FNS
  • In comparison to years of drought, the level of
    hunger of the population has decreased.
  • However there is a generalised and chronic
    difficulty with accessing sufficient food
  • Urban areas
  • Inflation was mentioned as an increasing problem
  • Malnutrition was reportedly widespread in IDP
    camps as a result of lack of economic access to
  • Rural areas
  • seasonal variations in access to food were
    highlighted as contributing to spikes in
    malnutrition during dry seasons.
  • Besides access to food, womens workload and care
    practices were mentioned as contributing to
    malnutrition and care practices and sanitation
    were mentioned in riverine.
  • Impacts considered to be most acutely felt among
    young children, the elderly and expectant

3. Vulnerability Analysis3.2 Trends in Technology
  • The spread of the mobile network, access to
    phones and exponential rise in the use of mobile
    money in recent years across Somalia is quite
  • Mobile penetration in Somaliland is estimated at
    approaching 45. In Somaliland the
    telecommunications is one of the most dynamic and
  • 4 MNOs operating in Somaliland alone and 7 more
    in the rest of Somalia. Fierce competition has
    led operators to offer some of the worlds
    cheapest mobile rates. The telecommunications
    industry is investing heavily in this region to
    improve connectivity
  • Providing a communication device for families
    separated by migration
  • Removing the need for carrying cash - Mobile
    money is expanding in Somalia at one of the
    quickest rates internationally according to GSMA
    (although there is significant variation across
    the country). In the areas visited for this
    study, mobile money transfer is being used for
    e-money transactions in the smallest stores and
    even for things such as public transport fares.
  • A number of those included in FGDs cited access
    to mobile phones.

  • 3.3 Shocks and stresses

3.3 Covariate shocks and stresses
Covariate Shock Effect
Political Conflict/insecurity Climatic Water scarcity flooding Economic - Inflation Constraints to economy, livelihoods, personal safety and mobility Loss of assets, urban drift, seasonal inflation Reduced purchsaing power
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.3 Idiosyncratic shocks
Shock Economic Impact Social impact
Disease/poor health Death/injury of a family member GBV Loss of employment Cost of (seeking) treatment Reduced ability to work (debility / time as carer) Loss of labour Loss of livelihood (women) Reduce mobility/ability to work Divorce Loss of income source Burden of labour on others Impact on health/nutrition Psychological impact Psychological impact Tension in the HH
  • Children malnutrition, malaria, measles,
    diarrhoea/waterborne diseases, respiratory
    diseases, TB, whooping cough
  • Women urinary tract infections, malnutrition,
    malaria, pneumonia, anemia, eclampsia
  • Adults/Elderly - high blood pressure, diabetes,
    arthritis and back pain, strokes and eye diseases

3.4 Coping Strategies
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.4 Coping Strategies
3.5 Community Analysis of Vulnerability
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.5 Community
Definitions of Vulnerabilty
  • Who are the poor
  • Those households who cannot eat, or who have
    limited assets
  • Who are most vulnerable to shocks and who should
    be prioritised for assistance 
  • The very poorest/destitute
  • Those people who cannot get help from other means
    such as from relatives
  • Those who cannot help themselves or are suffering
    most in almost all aspects of life, particularly
  • children especially orphans
  • people living with disabilities/illness,
    especially those without family support
  • the elderly especially those without family
  • female headed households, especially widows
    without family support
  • Other vulnerable groups (though not prioritised
    as considered able bodied)
  • unemployed young people
  • minority clans

4.2 Vulnerability Analysis
Children Elderly Disabled Women
Malnutrition chronic and seasonal acute, impact on child development Childhood diseases Barriers to education (esp girls) Pulled out of school to assist with livelihoods or when food is scarce Burden of labour - household chores Psychological stress of losing parents, or living with others Early marriage (girls) No voice or decision making FGC hugely prevalent   Health problems and difficulty accessing health services Frailty/weakness limits work but often forced to continue to struggle to earn a living Poor nutrition Lack of mobility and difficulty with transport (esp rural) Dependence on others resort to begging Lack decision making power in community (women) Reduced decision making power in the household (men) Widespread discrimination almost invisible Marginalisation in access to jobs and education Mobility challenges (esp rural) Lack of relevant services Barrier to marriage and thus children, a safety net in old age Lack of social rights Those who can start a business, others depend on others and begging No say whatsoever in HH decision making   Burden of labour weakness, poor health and injuries. Widows and FHHH in rural areas are dependent on family and social networks - dumal very common - a survival strategy Divorce common in urban areas Reproductive health problems and difficulty in accessing health services High maternal mortality anaemia malnutrition Marginalised from household expenditure decision making Lack of literacy and education Early marriage Where polygamy is prevalent - rivalry for resources divorce and abandonment Urban IDP camps GBV
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.5 Challenges facing
vulnerable groups
Youth Gabooye
More likely to take risks of migration Lack of hope poor or no schooling followed by limited employment or livelihood prospects Underemployment in traditional rural livelihoods - families supporting young men as they don't have camels. Contributing to Khat uptake in young men Lack of capital to start businesses Cannot access community social assistance not seen as in need Cases of teen pregnancy in urban areas   Socially marginalized in many ways Discrimination - formal employment marriage social interaction Live in a ghetto area with high crime rates and lack of services or security - risk of abuse of drugs, which are sold there More FHH, who have less options for marriage Discrimination in school leading to high dropout Economically perhaps livelihoods are less vulnerable as they learn particular semi-skilled trades which are ring-fenced for them and not exposed to climatic variance Beginning to get more voice and also political representation
3. Vulnerability Analysis3.5 Challenges facing
vulnerable groups
3. Vulnerability AnalysisKey conclusions for the
  • High levels of chronic poverty, exposure to
    recurrent and cyclical shocks, food and water
    insecurity, erosion of livelihoods, competition
    for jobs, erosion of peoples capacities to cope,
    and vulnerability to particular life cycle risks
  • strong rationale for establishing formal,
    long-term and predictable social protection to
    address chronic poverty/vulnerability, but be
    topped up in the event of crisis
  • Need to address challenges in both urban and
    rural areas
  • Idiosyncratic lifecycle risks are common to all
    locations and livelihood groups - consistency in
    programming across Zones could be feasible.
  • Social protection cannot do everything it is an
    essential component but many other things are
    needed to address the immediate and underlying
    causes of vulnerability.
  • Social protection should seek to address economic
    and social vulnerabilities.
  • Communities understand vulnerability as it
    relates to particular and clearly identifiable
    groups in the population, since such a large
    percentage of the community can be considered
    poor. This is a lesson for targeting.
  • Could be important not to bypass the needs of
    young people who have labour capacity but suffer
    from chronic lack of opportunity particularly
    given the risk to future insecurity.

  • 4. Mapping Social Protection

4.Mapping Social Protection4.1 Social protection
from government
Type Comments
Social insurance Non-existent (even for formal sector) Plan to introduce pension for civil servants in the north
Access to services Policies in place (NW) or under draft (NE) for free primary education and MCH Nothing in SCS Services for children with disabilities are extremely limited
Social transfers (MoLSA) Ad hoc, irregular support, not well defined/coordinated Somaliland support to ex-military who are living with disabilities support to the destitute and urban poor in Hargeisa recently distributed small grants for income generation activity New budget commitment for 2015 (10,000) Puntland small programme for OVC SCS food distributions to people with disabilities in Mogadishu
4. Mapping Social Protection4.2 Initiatives of
development partners
  • Public works
  • Variety of initiatives underway in rural Somalia
  • cash and food for assets activities of FAO and
    WFP operating in UN JRS areas
  • activities operating under the NGO resilience
    consortium, SOMREP
  • Lessons from evaluated FAO LIPW programme in
  • 2. Unconditional cash transfers
  • Variety of NGO initiatives.
  • The SOMREP and BRICS consortiums may have cash
    components though at present early stages and not
    well defined
  • Best lessons from the CVMG in SCS
  • 3. Food-based assistance
  • Examples of WFP and partners
  • Also school feeding
  • Project based
  • Small scale relative to need
  • Not long-term and predictable
  • Some best practices/lessons

4. Mapping Social Protection4.2 Experiences of
development partners FAO
4. Mapping Social Protection4.2 Experiences of
Development Partners - FAO
  • Recommendations going forward
  • A programme based on the condition of work needs
    to provide parallel support for households who
    are vulnerable but cannot work.
  • Programme needs to identify the right
    geographical areas and ensure that targeting is
    based on need rather than clan, this requires an
    agency presence.
  • The works component needs some further thought
    if the objective is to increase future resilience
    to shock rather than just create short-term
  • Assets that would be most useful and most
    sustainable are likely to require investment in
    skills and machinery.
  • More thought needed to what FAO wants to achieve
    from public works and whether all objectives
    (employment, infrastructure and social protection
    for the vulnerable) can be met in one programme.
  • Seems that the instrument (cash for work) had
    been pre-determined and mandate-driven rather
    than need driven. The approach would benefit
    from a more in-depth understanding of livelihoods
    and vulnerability.

4. Mapping Social Protection4.2 Experiences of
Development Partners - CVMG
4. Mapping Social Protection4.2 Experiences with
Food Assistance - WFP
  • School feeding (WFP)
  • Most coverage - over 20 of primary schools
    across the country.
  • School meals and take home ration to girls
  • WFP considered has improved school attendance
    though no data to substantiate impact.
  • Programme expensive to implement
    -transportation of procured food.
  • Some challenges voiced by communities
  • In areas of water scarcity cannot cook it
    teachers pulled out of school to try to manage
  • Children who collect water at lunch hour miss out
    on meals
  • Cultural barriers to girl children eating with
  • Food distribution
  • Continuing in various areas in Somalia through
    NGOs, most often with WFP.
  • Communities and Key Informants in government,
    donors and NGOs cited a good deal of antipathy
    and frustration toward continued provision of
    food aid in this context.
  • Food aid depressing local production.
  • Dissatisfaction with the quality and type of food
  • End up on the open market or given to animals

4. Mapping Social Protection4.3 Informal social
4.3 Mapping Social ProtectionConclusions for the
  • Major gaps in the formal social protection system
    relative to the level of need though some best
    practices to build upon.
  • Cash is feasible. Major concerns about food aid
    raised by communities and government, depressing
    local production and should only be considered
    where markets not functioning.
  • Lack of evidence of impact of school feeding.
  • Difficult to combine social protection,
    employment and infrastructure objectives in a
    single programme and quality of infrastructure on
    LIPW means questionable sustainability
  • Framework must go beyond agency mandates to
    design the best programmes for needs.
  • Programmes should complement community assistance
    which is a vital coping strategy.
  • Programmes that align with the values and
    premises of traditional assistance (in terms of
    classification of vulnerability) are likely to be
    well understood
  • Formal transfers to these vulnerable groups are
    likely to reinforce traditional support systems,
    since those who usually require community
    assistance will instead be able to contribute to
    the system.
  • Community based targeting generated strong bias
    in selection - administration of social
    protection programmes should be cautious about
    the way communities are involved to minimise the
    risk of co-option of assistance by powerful
    interests to the expense of the vulnerable.

  • 5. Enabling Environment

5. Enabling Environment 5.1 Potential for
nationally owned SPF
Feasibility Challenges
North Process of state building, decentralisation and building basic services. JPLG building capacity to deliver social services at national and district level NW - DFID/WB building capacity in PFM Social protection in national development plans under mandate of a line ministry (MoLSA) interest from a number of ministries inc. MoF (gt action plann MoF/MoLSA in Somaliland) Synergies with other government strategies Desire for national ownership of programmes Somaliland - administrative framework Budget Policy Committee National Planning Commission SDF South Economic Recovery Plan 2014-2015 SP highlighted under Pillar 5 Interest from MoLSA Desire for national ownership of programmes No draft policy or strategy on social protection or clear understanding or definition of social protection or interventions to be prioritized. North MoLSA small budget Governance initiatives are in their early stages and technical, administrative and financial management capacity required Somaliland separate funding.? South Government newly established and yet to build confidence with citizens Security continues to be fluid and fundamental concern ERP states a lack of capacity to implement SP
5. Enabling Environment5.2 Administration and
implementing partners
Administrative processes on social transfer
programme communications registration and
enrolment of beneficiaries establishing and
maintaining the database preparing monthly
payment requests monitoring managing a
grievance process
  • While national and local government capacity
    being built, in all Zones some support to
    implementation will be required, and will be
    essential in SCS.
  • Government role In the North it could be
    possible for district authorities to be directly
    involved in elements of the administration cycle.
    In SCS this is considered unlikely in the
    short-term and transitional programming required.
  • CSO role civil society partners with expertise
    in cash transfer operations provide added value
    and support for administrative duties, with a
    plan for progressive transfer of responsibility
    (HSNP Kenya). Resilience consortia. But
    coordination challenges.
  • UN role high level coordination, supporting CSOs
    to set up robust monitoring and accountability
    mechanisms, advocacy around governance and
    fundraising, and capacity development

5. Enabling Environment5.3 Implementing partners
(payment provider)
International best practice to outsource payment
services to a dedicated provider
5. Enabling Environment5.3 Implementing partners
(payment providers)
5. Enabling Environment5.3 Implementing partners
(payment provider)
  • International best practice to outsource payment
    services to a dedicated provider
  • Hawala money transfer system and mobile money
    transfer services have been used to successfully
    to deliver cash transfers
  • Mobile money transfer market in Somalia is one of
    the most rapidly expanding markets globally
  • Mobile money coverage is rapidly expanding and is
    already penetrating rural areas. In the areas
    visited on this study, penetration appeared
    greater than Hawala agents and almost all
    businesses are accepting e-money now
  • Difficult to extrapolate this up to national
    level but different business model and impact
    than seen elsewhere, seems to becoming truly
    financially inclusive (even in Kenya people still
    cash out v here being used as true e-money)
  • It has potential to support households in the
    event of migration or displacement.
  • Globally, e-payments proven to be cheaper and
    more efficient for governments over time and most
    are transitioning.
  • Good practice to assess the relative merits
    through a tender. It may be that more than 1
    provider is needed in at least in the first

5. Enabling Environment5.4 Opportunity for
long-term support
  • Clearly this is essential (15 years minimum
    compare to Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda)
  • Has been one of the challenges in supporting
    developmental initiatives in Somalia
  • Donor appetite for longer-term engagement, and
    financing of SP, is growing
  • DFID/EC provide extensive financial and TA
    support to long-term CT programmes in LICs
  • DFID has earmarked some sort of support for
    social protection (currently undefined) and is
    recruiting a Social Development Advisor
  • EU cited willingness to support a framework based
    on a longer-term engagement strategy with
    continual support provided to the very poor and
    vulnerable and ability to scale up during a
    crisis and to support capacity building for
    programme delivery.
  • ECHO - humanitarian funds can be used as part of
    longer-term strategies, if these improve response
    to and mitigate impact of future humanitarian
  • Could co-finance a mechanis to fund scaling up
    of CT when a shock occurs,
  • Could finance the longer-term systems on which
    such seasonal safety nets would be based.

4.4 Enabling EnvironmentOpportunity for
long-term support
Limitations in humanitarian reform Continued
formulaic responses proposed to crisis, not based
on response analysis but fitting agency mandate
or prior experience. Limited conceptualisation of
SP Different understandings. Little discussion
of what constitutes social protection in this
context or types of interventions. Limitations of
UN JRS commendable to have a joint understanding
and strategy but various implementation
challenges delays to activities, lack of
funding, lack of coordination, continuation of
projects fitting agency mandates and previous
experience, and lack of resources on the ground.
Lack of coordination of resilience activities
no complementarities or cross programme
referrals, or joined up approaches to safety net
  • Opportunity from resilience programming
  • Common features mainstream risk
    reduction/management, complementary
    interventions, move towards longer term
    approaches to development problems.
  • All these agencies have been involved in
    provision of CTs in Somalia
  • INGOs can all mobilise rapidly and engage
    collaboration at the local level.
  • An opportunity for joint monitoring.
  • Opportunities for referrals between programmes
  • UN JRS has 15 year plan, window of opportunity to
    develop the necessary long-term engagement.
  • All strategies have a safety net objective or

5. Enabling Environment5.4 Potential of
financing mechanisms
  • Historically low domestic revenues gt limited
    budget for social services.
  • Donor funding is required - what financing
    mechanisms currently exist?
  • Somaliland - potential of the SDF
  • first example of a multi-donor trust fund (MDTF)
    supporting national development priorities. This
    year the fund is projected to make up 6 of the
    national budget
  • Sectors prioritized at present do not relate to
    social development but this could change
  • Forthcoming World Bank MDTF for infrastructure
    could change the priorities under SDF
  • DFID hope a second phase of the SDF could look at
    basic services in Sool and Sanaag (concept note
    stage, eta 2015-2016). There is the opportunity
    of using this mechanism for funding sp
  • Country wide - Stability fund
  • to be set up by DFID, focus on bottom up
    approaches that act as peace dividend. It hasnt
    focused yet on basic services. There could be
    opportunities for supporting the implementation
    of the framework through the Fund in the future.
  • World Bank MDTF for infrastructure (appetite for
    joint funding of national priorities)

5. Enabling EnvironmentConclusions for the
  • There are feasible entry points to establishing
    social protection as a government-owned service
    in the North and for national engagement in a
    UN/NGO-implemented transition programme in SCS.
  • Extensive and long-term engagement from
    development partners would be needed to build
    technical and financial capacity, and commitment
    sought from the beginning.
  • In the short to medium term implementation
    support will be required. In the first instance
    governments role is likely to be one of
    coordination/certain administrative tasks.
    Capacity to perform functions will need to be
  • NGOs are an appropriate partner providing they
    are trusted by communities and rigorous
    monitoring and accountability mechanisms are
    built in.
  • There is a need for a private sector service
    provider to handle payments based on a tender
  • Capacity issues mean the framework should focus
    on a small number of clear interventions.
  • The UNs optimum role is one of overall
    coordination, capacity building, advocacy and
    fundraising rather than direct implementation.


  1. Targeting approaches and mechanisms
  2. Attaching conditions
  3. Supporting people of working age graduation
    programmes, public works and unconditional
  4. Dealing with Covariate Shocks

4. Design Issues4.1 Targeting Approaches
  • Targeting approaches during programme and policy
    design, establish a rationale and criteria of
    eligibility for those who should receive a
  • Targeting mechanisms how to operationalise these
    approaches - to identify and reach the targeted

Poverty Targeted Approach Inclusive Lifecycle Approach
Rational to target scarce resources at those living in poverty. Focus on household units, usually those that are poor. Seeks to tackle the symptom, which is poverty itself in other words, all those who are suffering from the symptom should receive similar treatment. Rationale programmes accessible to everyone within an eligible category of the population that is considered vulnerable, directing resources to tackling the main lifecycle risks. Focus on the individual (who is still part of a household/family unit) Tries to tackle the causes of poverty, recognising that people face risks and challenges that vary across the lifecycle and that these contribute to making them more vulnerable to falling into poverty. As such it attempts to capture more diffuse notions of vulnerability or social exclusion
4. Design Issues4.1 Targeting Methods
Method Advantage Disadvantage
Proxy means tested (proxy of poverty based on assets score card - cut off for eligibility) Associated with Poverty Targeted Approaches Alternative means to estimate poverty where income data is lacking Can involve communities as does not require technical skills at the lower level score card Costly to implement Proven to generate significant inclusion and exclusion errors in contexts where large percentage of the population are poor Especially poor at including social vulnerability Not well understood tensions Requires highly developed indicators that correlate well to poverty and that change with a families circumstances (unlikely) Needs constant updating to stay relevant and catch those who fall into poverty (impractical)
Categorical targeting (demographic proxy for vulnerability eg Age) Lifecycle Approaches Little capacity required Transparent, easily understood, accepted Cheaper to administer Politically acceptable May not completely address structural vulnerabilities if categories don't correlate well with poverty/vulnerability Possible stigma of targeting particular groups (OVC and individuals affected by HIV/AIDS)
Community based targeting Involves community and generates local ownership Strong risk of bias resulting from uneven local power relations Difficult to apply in urban settings Can increase tensions between selected and un-selected groups Time-consuming to do well and requires considerable oversight and facilitation
Geographical targeting Concentrates resources on spatially-focused needs Relatively cheap May require dedicated survey Can lead to errors of inclusion and exclusion if politically rather than needs driven May not be politically supported
4. Design Issues4.1 Targeting Lessons from LICs
  • There is no single best approach to targeting
    there are trade offs and likely that a
    combination may be needed
  • Important to minimize both inclusion and
    exclusion errors but the latter are more
  • Complex concepts and multiple eligibility
    criteria create challenges including
    opportunities for diverse interpretation and
  • Implementing poverty targeting approaches in
    contexts where the vast majority of the
    population are poor are fraught with difficulty
  • Impossible to select the bottom 10/20 gt
    rationing mechanism, with those selected spread
    across deciles and large exclusion errors
  • People do not understand why some are selected
    and some are not - social tensions.
  • Compared to demographic criteria used on
    Lifecycle Approaches that are not easy to
    falsify, simple to administer and people
    understand them and consider them to be fair.
  • More national budget support goes to universal
    lifecycle programmes (citizen buy in gt political
    commitment gt better way to reach the poor).
  • Support of community leaders is needed in
    programme implementation, but mechanisms are
    necessary to curb their influence and ensure
    objectives are not compromised

4. Design Issues4.2 Attaching Conditions
  • CCT families perform some activity in order to
    continue to receive benefits sending children
    to school or attending health clinics.
  • Lack of conclusive evidence that implementing
    conditions has any impact on human development
    compared to what would have been achieved through
    the CT alone
  • See similar investments made on unconditional
  • High costs of monitoring conditionality
  • Imposing conditions where so many barriers to
    accessing services exist risks penalising
    households, over-stretching services and reducing
  •  Dont impose conditions, incentivise families

4. Design Issues4.3 Meeting the needs of those
with labour capacity
  • Limitations with most LIPW
  • Prerequisites for a successful LIPW with social
    protection objectives often not met (employment
    insufficient duration timing doenst coincide
    with periods of need/labour availability need
    repeated support year on year works condition
    should not impact negatively on the household
    (time away from livelihoods/child labour)
  • Limited quality and sustainability of work
  • Additional costs of the work component
    (especially when benefits not sustained)
  • Not addressing underlying causes of vulnerability
    - abilty to access long-term, productive
    livelihood opportunities
  • Alternatives
  • Graduation Programme
  • Unconditional Transfers
  • Transfers to others in the family

4. Design Issues4.3 Graduation Programme
  • International experience
  • graduation requires combining CTs with
    complementary services (savings training access
    to markets and credit)
  • Gains important but can be modest
  • Assessing graduation
  • clear definition, indicators for determining
  • Realistic expectations (speed, level and
    sustainability some need LT support)
  • Take into account households future earning

4. Design Issues4.4 Dealing with Covariate Shocks
A lifecycle system establishing a minimum income
floor will enable households to deal with the
impacts of covariate shocks such as drought up
to a point
  • Crisis Modifiers
  • Contingency Funds
  • Strong Systems
  • Targeting


  • Principles, vision and approach
  • Programme options

6. Social Protection Framework Somalia6.1
6. Social Protection Framework Somalia6.1 Vision
  • Proposed Vision By 2030, Somalia will have in
    place the foundations of an inclusive social
    protection system providing income transfers for
    families, that protects consumption of the most
    vulnerable citizens, prevents a fall further into
    poverty caused by shocks, promotes human
    development and productive livelihoods and which
    complements and adds value to other
    socio-economic development policy.
  • Phase One - immediate priorities, what can be
    considered feasible in the short to medium term
    (3-5 years) pilots and systems
  • Phase Two - longer-term requirements for building
    a more inclusive framework (10-15 years minimum).
  • Similar issues of poverty and vulnerability in
    each Zone, but more acute in SCS
  • Differences in capacity, security and access
    between Zones
  • Develop common programme options across Zones
    that allow for autonomy of financing/implementatio
    n in each but standardisation of design and

6. SPF Somalia6.2 Summary of Options
  • Child Grant (All Zones)
  • Old Age Grant (All Zones)
  • Disability Grant (Phase 2)
  • Flexible Facility for Addressing Covariate Shocks
    (Phase 1 in the North only)
  • Options for the poor and vulnerable of working
    age (Phase 1 in the North only)
  • School Feeding

6. SPF SomaliaOption1 Child Grant
  • Rationale
  • Childhood associated with multiple
    vulnerabilities (health, nutrition, education,
  • Disproportionate impact of poverty/shocks,
    long-lasting impacts on future development
  • Targeting age is likely to be the defining
    criteria for entry and exit
  • Phase One pilot programme, all Zones, through an
    initial phase(s) of mass registration
  • Phase Two Assuming the pilot is successful and
    funds available, progressive roll out over
    several years in a phased implementation from
    district to district through on-demand
    registration or periodic community-based rounds
    of registration

According to Age Additional Rationing
Children 0 2 years or 0 4 years support families to manage the impact of the birth on family income, support improved caregiving practices, early childhood nutrition and cognitive development. Children 6 - 11 years contribute to food security, nutrition and schooling. Could compare impacts to school feeding programme (Option 6) OVC Geographical targeting Affluence testing Benefit capping
6. SPF SomaliaOption 2 Old Age Grant
  • Rationale
  • Old Age is associated with multiple
    vulnerabilities (health shocks, frailty, lack of
    ability to work)
  • Pensions can generate strong citizen support and
    political buy in while being financially
  • Old people as a proportion of the population are
    projected to increase
  • Evidence pensions also benefit the wider
    household - benefits to children and those of
    working age
  • Reduces burden of support on the family and wider
  • Targeting age will be the defining criteria for
    entry and exit
  • Phase One pilot programme, all Zones, through an
    initial phase(s) of mass registration
  • Phase Two Assuming the pilot successful and
    funds available, progressively rolled out over
    several years in a phased implementation from
    district to district.

According to Age Additional Rationing
Over 55 years most realistic for Somalia context and life expectancy Over 60 years more manageable financially but reduced impact as lower coverage and likely to be the better off elderly Geographical targeting Different ages for men and women Income measure
6. SPF SomaliaOption 3 Disability Grant
  • Rationale
  • There is a real need to support this demographic
    group in Somalia and this will be an important
    component of the framework to develop as capacity
  • Providing people living with disabilities with a
    predictable income will relieve the burden on
    families and the wider community and is likely to
    also free up time of working adults, particularly
    women, to pursue other livelihood tasks.
  • Targeting
  • Can be difficult to identify eligible individuals
    without national definitions of what constitutes
    a disability, different levels of disability, and
    how this is verified.
  • Phase One No implementation of Disability Grant
    establishing operating systems under the Child
    Grant and Old Age Grant define national policy
    on disability and research to ascertain the
    magnitude of disability and types of needs.
  • Phase Two Introduce a transfer for people living
    with disabilities, once the operational
    infrastructure for delivering social transfers is
    in place. This would work through
    self-registration, per