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Section 1 India s First Empires The Mauryas and the Guptas establish empires, but neither unifies India permanently. NEXT NEXT The Mauryan Empire Is Established ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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1
The Mauryas and the Guptas establish empires,
but neither unifies India permanently.
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2
Indias First Empires
The Mauryan Empire Is Established
Map
Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power In 321 B.C.,
Chandragupta Maurya seizes power, starts
Mauryan Empire
Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North
India Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I north
India united for first time Chandragupta uses
taxes to support his large army
Running the Empire Chandraguptas chief adviser
is Kautilya, a priest Chandragupta creates
bureaucratic government He divides the
government to make it easier to rule
Continued . . .
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3
continued The Mauryan Empire Is Established
Life in the City and the Country A Greek
ambassador writes glowing praise of the
empire Chandraguptas son rules from 301 to
269 B.C., 32 years AsokaChandraguptas
grandson, brings the empire to its height
Image
Asoka Promotes Buddhism After a bloody war with
Kalinga, Asoka promotes Buddhism and
peace Preaches religious tolerationaccepting
people of different religions Builds roads,
with wells along them
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A Period of Turmoil
The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire Asoka dies in
232 B.C. kingdoms in central India soon break
away The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India
for centuries Northern India receives
immigrants from Greece, other parts of
Asia Tamilsa people living in southern
India remain separate and frequently war with
rival peoples
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5
The Gupta Empire Is Established
Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire Chandra Gupta
marries into kingship in north India in A.D.
320 Starts Gupta EmpireIndias second empire
flowering of Indian civilization, especially
Hindu culture His son Samudra Gupta expands
empire with conquest
Map
Continued . . .
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continued The Gupta Empire Is Established
Daily Life in India Majority of Indians are
farmers entire family raises crops
together Families are patriarchalheaded by the
eldest male Farmers have to contribute work
to government and pay heavy taxes Some Tamil
families are matriarchalled by mother rather
than father
Continued . . .
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continued The Gupta Empire Is Established
Height of the Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta II
rules from A.D. 375415 He defeats the Shakas
and adds western coast to empire Gupta Empire
sees flourishing of arts, religion, and
science After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire
declines
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8
Indian religions, culture, and science evolve and
spread to other regions through trade.
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Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
Buddhism and Hinduism Change
Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs Hinduism
blends Aryan and other beliefs belief in many
gods To Buddhists, desire causes suffering but
suffering can be overcome
Continued . . .
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continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change
A More Popular Form of Buddhism Belief in
bodhisattvas developspotential Buddhas who
save humanity Mahayana sectBuddhists accepting
new doctrines of worship, salvation Theravada
sectBuddhists who follow original teachings of
Buddha Wealthy Buddhist merchants build
stupas stone structures over relics
Image
Image
Continued . . .
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continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change
A Hindu Rebirth Hinduism is remote from people
by time of Mauryan Empire Hinduism moves
toward monotheism gods part of one divine
force Chief gods Brahmacreator of the
world Vishnupreserver of the
world Shivadestroyer of the world
Image
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Achievements of Indian Culture
Literature and the Performing Arts Kalidasapoet
and dramatist, one of Indias greatest writers
His skillful and emotionally stirring plays
still popular Madurai writing academies
create literature 2,000 Tamil poems
survive Drama and dance troupes gain popularity
and travel widely
Continued . . .
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continued Achievements of Indian Culture
Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine Ocean
trade leads to advances in astronomy Indian
astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that world is
round Mathematicians develop idea of zero and
decimal system Doctors write medical guides
and make advances in surgery
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The Spread of Indian Trade
Indias Valuable Resources India has spices,
diamonds, precious stones, and good quality
wood
Image
Overland Trade, East and West Trade routes
called Silk Roads connect Asia and
Europe Indians build trading posts to take
advantage of the Silk Roads
Sea Trade, East and West Indian merchants carry
goods to Rome by sea Merchants trade by sea
with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia
Continued . . .
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continued The Spread of Indian Trade
Effects of Indian Trade Increased trade leads
to rise of banking Bankers lend money to
merchants, careful of degree of
risk Increased trade spreads Indian culture to
other places Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism
to other lands
Interactive
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