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Title: EOC%20Review:%20Wars%20in%20U.S.%20History


1
EOC ReviewWars in U.S. History
  • Mr. Johnson
  • U.S. History

2
French Indian War
  • When? 1754-1763
  • Who? British/Colonists vs. French/Indians
  • Why? Imperial conflict
  • Turning Points Braddock fails William Pitt
    takes charge
  • End of War? Treaty of Paris of 1763
  • Results
  • France lost its N. Am. empire
  • War debt for British taxation!!!
  • Proclamation Line of 1763
  • Colonial militias unity, military experience
    (Albany Plan)

3
Revolutionary War
  • When? 1775-1783
  • Who? British/Loyalists vs. Colonists/Patriots
  • Why? Independence, taxation, salutary
    neglect, land/expansion
  • Turning Points? Saratoga, Franco-American
    alliance
  • End of War? Treaty of Paris of 1783
  • Results
  • Independence
  • Articles of Confederation

4
Proclamation of Neutrality
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7
War of 1812
  • When? 1812-1814
  • President? James Madison
  • Who? U.S. vs. Britain
  • Why? Impressment, Indian attacks
  • Turning Points? Washington, D.C. Ft.
    McHenry
  • End of War? Treaty of Ghent Battle of
    N.O.
  • Results
  • Wave of nationalism
  • Era of Good Feeling
  • 2nd War for Independence
  • Boosted American industry

8
War of 1812
  • Homefront
  • Economy helped industry hurt shipping
  • Women minorities Indians were weakened b/c
    their British allies lost the war
  • Civil liberties - ???
  • Media public opinion SW supported war hawks
    NE opposed b/c they depended on English trade
    Hartford Convention
  • Power of government weak failed invasion of
    Canada strong Battle of N.O. led to nationalism

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10
Mexican War
  • When? 1846-1848
  • President? James K. Polk
  • Who? U.S. vs. Mexico
  • Why? Manifest Destiny, Texas border disputes
  • Turning Points? Bear Flag Revolt
    Vera Cruz
  • End of War? Treaty of Guadalupe
    Hidalgo
  • Results
  • Mexican Cession
  • Manifest Destiny fulfilled
  • Wilmot Proviso/Compromise of 1850

11
Mexican war
  • Homefront
  • Economy lots of new land Homestead Act RR
    construction
  • Women minorities Mexicans lost land
  • Civil liberties Thoreau Civil Disobedience
  • Media public opinion war was controversial
    b/c unfair to Mexico spread slavery
  • Power of government Strong Manifest Destiny

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14
Civil War
  • When? 1861-1865
  • President? Abraham Lincoln
  • Who? Union (North) vs. Confederacy (South)
  • Why? Slavery, states rights,tariffs election
    of Lincoln Ft. Sumter
  • Turning Points? Gettysburg
    Vicksburg Emancipation Proclamation
  • End of War? Lee surrenders to Grant at
    Appomattox
  • Results
  • Slavery abolished 13/14/15th Amendments
  • Reconstruction of the south
  • National supremacy over states
  • Bloodiest war in American history

15
Civil War
  • Homefront
  • Economy helped northern industry hurt southern
    agriculture
  • Women minorities Af Am slavery ended/13/14/15
    amendments women nurses in Red Cross
  • Civil liberties suspension of habeas corpus
    martial law
  • Media public opinion Lincoln was
    controversial b/c of racial issues b/c war was
    long costly
  • Power of government Strong national supremacy
    beat states rights

16
Indian Wars
  • When? Late 1800s
  • President? Johnson through Harrison
  • Who? U.S. vs. Plains Indians
  • Why? Manifest Destiny, land, gold, RRs
  • Turning Points? Sand Creek, Ft. Laramie, Little
    Big Horn
  • End of War? Ghost Dance/Wounded Knee
  • Results
  • See next slide

17
Indian Wars
  • Homefront
  • Economy new land Homestead Act RRs
  • Women minorities Indians lost land Dawes Act
    assimilation Buffalo Bills Wild West Shows
    Buffalo Soldiers
  • Civil liberties -
  • Media public opinion Century of Dishonor
    U.S. had broken treaties with Indians
  • Power of government from sea to shining sea

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20
Spanish-American War
  • When? 1898
  • President? William McKinley
  • Who? U.S. vs. Spain
  • Why? imperialism USS Maine Yellow
    journalism
  • Turning Points? San Juan Hill,
    Manila Bay
  • End of War? Treaty of Paris
  • Results
  • Short, sucessful war (splendid little war)
  • Spain loses its empire
  • U.S. gains an empire (Philippines, Guam, Puerto
    Rico)
  • Platt Amendment (Cuba)

21
Spanish-American War
  • Homefront
  • Economy empire was a boost to trade
  • Women minorities annexed citizens didnt have
    full rights (i.e. Filipinos)
  • Civil liberties - ???
  • Media public opinion splendid little war
    yellow journalism popular war
  • Power of government strong b/c we won war
    quickly

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24
World War I
  • When? 1914-1918
  • President? Woodrow Wilson
  • Who? Allied Powers vs. Central
    Powers
  • Why? Assassination of F.F. submarine
    warfare
  • Why US involvement? Zimmerman Note
  • Turning Points? Trenches stalemate
    Russian Revolution
  • End of War? Armistice Treaty of Versailles
  • Results
  • U.S. returns to isolationism, fails to join
    League of Nations
  • Red Scare in U.S./nativism
  • Wartime regulations/Return to Normalcy
  • Germany war guilt reparations

25
World War I
  • Homefront
  • Economy boosted b/c of war prodn shortages of
    food victory gardens, farmer profits
  • Women minorities women in factories 19th
    amendment segregated armed forces
  • Civil liberties Espionage and Sedition Act
    Schenck v. US
  • Media public opinion pro-war propaganda
    neutrality changed to involvement
  • Power of government strong for war economy
    weak b/c Wilsons League of Nations failed

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28
World War II
  • When? 1939-1945
  • President? F.D.R. Harry S. Truman
  • Who? Axis Powers vs. Allied Powers
  • Why? Military aggression appeasement
    Lend-Lease Pearl Harbor
  • Turning Points? Stalingrad,
    D-Day, Midway
  • End of War? Fall of Berlin (VE Day) Atomic bombs
    (VJ Day)
  • Results
  • Holocaust
  • Creation of United Nations
  • Cold War U.S. vs. Soviet Union

29
World War II
  • Homefront
  • Economy pulled US out of depression rationing
    GI Bill to aid veterans
  • Women minorities Rosie the Riveter Japanese
    American internment
  • Civil liberties Four Freedoms speech
  • Media public opinion Pearl Harbor changed
    public opinion in favor of war
  • Power of government draft war prodn board
    atomic bomb

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32
Korean War
  • When? 1950-1953
  • President? Harry S. Truman, Dwight D.
    Eisenhower
  • Who? U.S. S. Korea vs. China N.
    Korea
  • Why? 38th Parallel, N. Korea invaded S.
    Korea
  • Turning Points? U.N. invasion, Chinese
    invasion
  • End of War? 38th Parallel
  • Results
  • Containment of communism
  • Limited war
  • Civilian control over military (MacArthur fired)

33
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34
Cold War
  • Homefront
  • Economy fallout shelters duck and cover Taft
    Hartley Act
  • Women minorities nativism
  • Civil liberties spies (Hiss Rosenbergs)
    McCarthyism/Red Scare
  • Media public opinion Hollywood blacklist
  • Power of government space race nukes NASA
    National Defense Education Act CIA

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37
Vietnam War
  • When? 1965-1975
  • President? L.B.J., Richard Nixon
  • Who? U.S. S. Vietnam vs. N. Vietnam
    Vietcong
  • Why? Domino Theory Gulf of Tonkin
  • Turning Points? Tet Offensive, Pentagon
    Papers, Vietnamization
  • End of War? U.S. withdraws, South falls
  • Results
  • 26th Amendment
  • War Powers Act
  • Distrust of government/Social unrest

38
Vietnam War
  • Homefront
  • Economy undermined LBJs Great Society
    stagflation
  • Women minorities Civil rights black
    power/New Left
  • Civil liberties Kent State shootings
  • Media public opinion Pentagon Papers
    plumbers Watergate antiwar movement My Lai
    massacre 1968 Dem. Convention
  • Power of government draft 26th Amendment
    blank check War Powers Act

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41
Grenada
  • When? 1983
  • President? Ronald Reagan
  • Who? US vs. Grenadan Communists/Cuba
  • Why? Communist overthrow of Grenadan
    govt
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Communists eliminated
  • Results
  • Vast US military superiority
  • Short, controlled war no more Vietnams

42
Panama
  • When? 1989
  • President? George HW Bush
  • Who? US vs. Panamaian military
  • Why? Noriega unfriendly dictator
    drugs
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Noriega imprisoned
  • Results
  • Short, controlled war no more Vietnams
  • New Panamanian govt friendly to US
  • 1999 canal handed over to Panama

43
Persian Gulf War
  • When? 1991
  • President? George H.W. Bush
  • Who? U.N. vs. Iraq
  • Why? Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Kuwait liberated
  • Results
  • Lopsided war Exorcising the ghosts of Vietnam
  • Saddam left in power
  • Weapons inspections

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46
Bosnian War
  • When? 1995
  • President? Bill Clinton
  • Who? N.A.T.O. vs. Bosnian Serbs
  • Why? Human rights
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Dayton Peace Agreement
  • Results
  • Continuation of human rights policy
  • U.S. involvement limited to air campaign no more
    Vietnams

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49
Somalia
  • When? 1993
  • President? Bill Clinton
  • Who? U.S. vs. Somalian warlords
  • Why? Human rights
  • Turning Points? Black Hawk Down
  • End of War? U.S. withdraws
    troops
  • Results
  • Continuation of human rights policy
  • Reluctance to involve military in protracted
    peacekeeping efforts in Africa
  • U.S. did little to stop Rwandan genocide

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52
Afghanistan
  • When? 2001
  • President? George W. Bush, Barack Obama
  • Who? U.S. vs. Taliban/Al-Qaeda
  • Why? 9/11 attacks
  • Turning Points? ???
  • End of War? Withdrawal planned for
    2014
  • Results
  • Longest American war (13 years) waning public
    support
  • Overthrow of Taliban, disruption of Al-Qaeda
  • bin Laden killed, 2011
  • Reconstruction of Afghanistan

53
War on Terror
  • Homefront
  • Economy 9/11 hurt economy national debt
    increased
  • Women minorities Arab Americans Muslims
    discrimination
  • Civil liberties PATRIOT Act NDAA Homeland
    Security drones/UAVs kill lists airport
    security waterboarding Guantanamo Bay
  • Media public opinion threat level internet
    news waning public support atrocities undermine
    support for war
  • Power of government vastly increased (see civil
    liberties)

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56
Iraq War
  • When? 2003-2011
  • President? Bush, Obama
  • Who? U.S./U.K. vs. Iraq
  • Why? Human rights, terrorism, suspected WMDs
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Capture of Baghdad, arrest of Saddam
  • Results
  • Overthrow of Saddam
  • Failure to find WMDs
  • Iraqi insurgency
  • Increasingly unpopular war

57
Libyan Civil War
  • When?
    2011
  • President? Barack Obama
  • Who? NATO/Libyan Rebels vs. Gaddafi
  • Why? Human rights, dictatorship
  • Turning Points? n/a
  • End of War? Rebel victory, Gaddafi dead
  • Results
  • Multilateral cooperation
  • No US soldiers killed
  • ???

58
Wars in American History
War Dates Pres-ident Combat-ants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
French Indian War 1757-1763 n/a
American Revolution 1775-1783 n/a
Quasi War 1798-1800
59
Wars in American History
War Dates President Combatants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
Barbary Wars 1801-1815
War of 1812 1812-1815
Mexican War 1846-1848
Civil War 1861-1865
60
Wars in American History
War Dates President Combatants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
Western Indian Wars Late 1800s
Spanish-American War 1898
World War I 1914-1918
61
Wars in American History
War Dates President Combatants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
World War II 1939-1945
Korean War 1950-1953
Vietnam War 1965-1975
62
Wars in American History
War Dates President Combatants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
Invasion of Grenada 1983
Invasion of Panama 1989
Persian Gulf War 1991
Bosnian War 1992-1996
Somalian Civil War 1992-1995
63
Wars in American History
War Dates President Combatants Causes Turning Points End Results Homefront
War on Terror Afghan War 2001-????
Iraq War 2003-2011
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