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Body and Behavior

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Body and Behavior Chapter 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Body and Behavior


1
Body and Behavior
  • Chapter 6

2
The Nervous System The Basic Structure
  • Runners High- endorphins (neurotransmitters)
  • Nervous System
  • Never at rest
  • Controls your emotions, movements, thinking , and
    behavior
  • Divided into 2 parts
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System

3
Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System- (CNS )
  • the brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System-(PNS)
  • nerves branching out from the spinal cord

4
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Peripheral Nervous System
  • Nerves conduct information from the bodily organs
    to the spinal chord (CNS) and take info back to
    the organs
  • Thick as a pencil invisibly small

7
Protection
  • Brain- protected by the skull and several layers
    of sheathing
  • Spinal Cord- protected by the vertebrae
  • Injury could prevent the transmittal of messages
    between the brain and muscles- paralysis
  • Peripheral nerves- protected by layers of
    sheathing

8
Neurons
  • Long thin cells of nerve tissue along which
    messages travel to and from the brain
  • Chemical-electrical signals travel down a neuron
    much like a flame along a firecracker fuse
  • Neurons can fire over and over again

9
All or None Principle
  • Once a neuron is stimulated past a minimum point,
    it will send the signal
  • When a neuron fires it does so at full strength
  • If not stimulated past the minimum point, then it
    will not fire at all

10
Parts of a Neuron
  • Cell Body-
  • contains the nucleus
  • produces the energy needed to fuel neuron
    activity
  • Dendrites-
  • short , thin fibers that stick out from the cell
    body
  • Receive impulses from other neurons and send them
    to the cell body

11
Parts of a Neuron
  • Axon-
  • Long fiber that carries the impulses away from
    the cell body toward the dendrites of the next
    neuron
  • Can be very short or several feet in length

12
Parts of a Neuron
  • Myelin Sheath-
  • White fatty substance
  • Insulates and protects the axon
  • Multiple Sclerosis- myelin sheath is destroyed
    accounting for the erratic and uncoordinated
    behavior
  • Speeds the transmission of impulses

13
Parts of a Neuron
  • Axon Terminals-
  • Small fibers branching out at the end of the axon
  • Positioned opposite the dendrite of another neuron

14
The Neuron Connection
  • Synapse-
  • The gap between nerve cells
  • Neurons transmit its message or impulse to
    another neuron by sending neurotransmitters
    across the synapse
  • Neurotransmitters are received by the dendrites
    of the next neuron

Neurotransmitters
15
Neurotransmitters
  • Chemicals released by neurons which determine the
    rate at which other neurons fire
  • Open chemical locks
  • Can excite or inhibit

16
Neurotransmitters
  • Norepinephrine- involved with memory and learning
  • Endorphine- inhibits pain
  • Acetylcholine- involved in movement and memory
  • Undersupply is associated with paralysis and
    Alzheimers disease

17
Neurotransmitters
  • Dopamine- involved in learning, emotional
    arousal, and movement
  • oversupply linked to schizophrenia
  • undersupply linked to Parkinsons disease
  • Undersupply of norepinephrine and serotonin may
    result in depression

18
Neurotransmitters
  • Afferent Neurons-
  • sensory neurons that relay messages from the
    sense organs (eye, ear, nose, skin) to the
    brain
  • Efferent Neurons-
  • motor neurons that send signals from the brain to
    the glands and muscles
  • Interneurons-
  • carry impulses btw neurons in the body

19
Voluntary Involuntary Activities
  • Somatic Nervous System- SNS
  • Part of the peripheral nervous system that
    controls voluntary movement
  • Lifting your hand to turn a page
  • Autonomic Nervous System- ANS
  • The part of the peripheral nervous system that
    controls internal biological functions
  • Heartbeat, blood pressure, pupil size, stomach
    activity

20
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System

21
Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Prepares the body for dealing with emergencies or
    strenuous activity
  • Speeds up the heart to hasten the supply of
    oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues

22
  • Constricts some arteries, relaxes others so blood
    flows to the muscles where it is most needed in
    emergencies and strenuous activity (runners high)
  • Increases the blood pressure suspends some
    activities such as digestion

23
Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • Works to conserve energy and to enhance the
    bodys ability to recover from strenuous activity
  • Reduces the heart rate blood pressure
  • Helps bring the body back to its normal resting
    state

24
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
    systems work automatically
  • Receptors are constantly receiving messages
    (hunger, need to swallow or cough) that alert the
    ANS to carry out routine activities
  • How difficult would it be if you had to think
    about every heart beat

25
Studying the Brain Section 2
  • Origins of Thought- p 160
  • The Three Brains
  • Hindbrain
  • Midbrain
  • Forebrain

26
Hindbrain
  • Located at the rear base of the skull
  • Involved in the most basic processes of life
  • Cerebellum- located behind the spinal cord
  • Helps control posture, balance, voluntary
    movements
  • Medulla- controls breathing, heart rate, a
    variety of reflexes

27
Hindbrain
  • Pons-
  • functions as a bridge btw the spinal cord and the
    brain
  • Involved in producing chemicals the body needs
    for sleep

28
Midbrain
  • Small part of the brain above the pons that
    integrates sensory information and relays it
    upward
  • The medulla the pons extend upward into the
    midbrain
  • The medulla, pons, midbrain compose most of the
    brain stem
  • Reticular Activating System- RAS spans across all
    these structures

29
Reticular Activating System
  • RAS- serves to alert the rest of the brain to
    incoming signals and is involved in the
    sleep/wake cycle

30
Forebrain
  • Covers the brains central core
  • Thalamus- integrates sensory input
  • Relay station for all the information that
    travels to and from the cortex
  • All sensory information except smell enters the
    thalamus and is sent to the appropriate areas of
    the cortex

31
Forebrain
  • Hypothalamus- located just below the thalamus
  • Controls functions such a thirst, hunger,
    sexual behavior
  • Controls bodys reactions to changes in
    temperature
  • Warm- we begin to sweat
  • Cold- we shiver

32
Forebrain
  • Higher thinking processes, those that make us
    unique are found in the Forebrain
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Cerebrum
  • Surround the hindbrain like a peach half
    surrounds the pit

33
Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum
  • Cerebral Cortex- outer layer
  • Gives you the ability to learn and store complex
    and abstract info
  • Ability to project your thinking into the future
  • Allows you to see, read, understand this
    sentence
  • Site of conscious thinking processes
  • Less than 1/4 inch thick
  • Cerebrum- inner layer

34
Limbic System
  • Located in the core of the forebrain
  • Regulates emotion and motivation
  • Consists of the hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus,
    hippocampus
  • Amygdala- controls violent emotions such as rage
    and fear
  • Hippocampus- important for the formation of
    memories
  • Covering all these parts is the cerebrum

35
Lobes of the Brain
  • Cerebrum is really two hemispheres
  • Corpus Callosum- a band of fibers that connect
    the hemispheres

36
Lobes of the Brain
  • Occipital Lobe
  • Parietal Lobe
  • Temporal Lobe
  • Frontal Lobe

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42
F Y I
  • Recent studies have shown that men convicted of
    violent crimes are more likely to have
    abnormalities of their frontal lobe and their
    right hemisphere
  • Studies have long shown that mens brains are
    larger than womens, but size does not make a
    difference in intelligence
  • Women- language skills Men- spatial reasoning

43
Split Brain Operations
  • Separate the two hemispheres by cutting the
    corpus callosum
  • There is no longer communication between the two
    sides of the brain
  • Used for some cases of severe epilepsy

44
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45
How the Brain is Studied
  • Recording
  • Electrodes- wires inserted into the brain to
    record electrical activity (even a single neuron)
  • Electroencephalograph- EEG
  • Wires are attached to the scalp so that millions
    of neurons can be monitored

46
Stimulation
  • Electrodes may be used to set off the firing of
    neurons as well as to record it
  • Applied electrical current to points in the
    temporal lobe can trigger whole memory sequences
    (singing)
  • Has been used to provide sudden temporary relief
    of pain by implanted electrodes (violence)

47
Lesions
  • Cutting or destroying parts of an animals brain
  • Any change in behavior is associated with that
    part of the brain
  • Rhesus Monkeys

48
Accidents
  • Psychologists attempt to draw connections between
    area of the brain that are damaged and any change
    in behavior
  • Phineas Gage- 1848

49
Images
  • Computerized Axial Tomography- CAT Scan
  • Positron Emission Topography- PET Scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging- MRI

50
Section 3 The Endocrine System
  • Main Idea-
  • The endocrine system controls and excites growth
    and affects emotions and behavior in people
  • Objectives-
  • Describe the endocrine system
  • Identify hormones and their function in the
    endocrine system

51
Running with the Bulls
  • Read Exploring Psychology p 170
  • adrenaline rush
  • Rush comes from a hormone secreted by the
    endocrine system called adrenaline or epinephrine
  • The adrenal hormone declares an emergency
    situation to the body requiring the body to
    become active

52
Psychology and You
  • Michael Jordan and his tongue
  • Expert billiard players stick out their tongues
    more often when making hard shots than when
    attempting easy shots
  • Tongue display acts as a nonverbal sign that
    interaction is not desired
  • Indicates that the person does not want to be
    interrupted bcs of the need to concentrate in a
    difficult situation

53
The Endocrine System
  • Communication system that sends information in
    the form of hormones through the bloodstream
  • Hormones- chemical substances that carry messages
    through the body in blood

54
  • Hormones circulate throughout the body, but are
    only received by the particular organ that they
    influence
  • The endocrine glands are called ductless gland
    bcs they release hormones directly into the
    bloodstream
  • Unlike the duct glands such as sweat glands, tear
    gland, and salivary glands

55
Hormone Effects
  • Growth of bodily structures such as muscle and
    bones
  • Metabolic processes- they effect how much energy
    you have to perform actions

56
  • Some hormone effects happen before birth
  • Essentially all the physical differences btw boys
    and girls are caused by the hormone testosterone
  • Other hormones secrete during stressful
    situations to prepare the body for action
  • Hormones also act in the brain to directly
    influence your moods and drives

57
Pituitary Gland
  • Under the direction of the hypothalamus acts as
    the Master Gland
  • Hypothalamus monitors the amount of hormones in
    the blood and sends out messages to correct
    imbalances
  • Located near the midbrain and secretes a large
    number of hormones
  • Many of which control the output of hormones by
    the endocrine system

58
  • Hormone messages are sent to organs involved in
    regulating and storing nutrients so that despite
    changes in conditions outside the body, cell
    metabolism can continue on an even course
  • Also control growth and reproduction including
    ovulation and lactation in females

59
Thyroid Gland
  • Produces the hormone thyroxine
  • Thyroxine- stimulates certain chemical reactions
    that are important for all tissues of the body
  • Hypothyroidism- too little thyroxine
  • Makes people feel lazy and lethargic
  • Hyperthyroidism- too much thyroxine
  • May cause weight loss, loss of sleep, and people
    to be overactive

60
Adrenal Glands
  • Become active when a person is angry or
    frightened
  • Release epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Cause heartbeat breathing to increase
  • Can heighten emotions such as fear anxiety
  • These secretions and others help a person
    generate the extra energy needed to handle a
    difficult situations

61
  • Adrenal glands secrete cortical steroids
  • Cortical Steroids
  • Help muscles develop
  • Cause the liver to release stored sugar when the
    body requires extra energy for emergencies

62
Sex Glands
  • Testes- found in males
  • Produce sperm
  • Produce male sex hormone testosterone
  • Ovaries- found in females
  • Produce eggs
  • Produce the female hormones estrogen and
    progesterone

63
Testosterone
  • Important in the physical development of males
  • Prenatal- helps decide the sex of a fetus
  • Adolescence- important for the growth of muscle
    and bone along with the growth of male sex
    characteristics
  • Low levels also found in females

64
Estrogen Progesterone
  • Important in the development of female sex
    characteristics
  • Also regulate the reproductive cycle
  • Levels of both hormones vary throughout the
    menstrual cycle
  • Can cause PMS- fatigue, irritability, depression

65
Hormones vs. Neurotransmitters
  • Both work to affect the nervous system
  • The same chemical (norepinephrine) can be used as
    both a hormone and neurotransmitter

66
Section 4 Heredity and Environment
  • Exploring psychology
  • cinnamon
  • Nature- refers to the characteristics that a
    person inherits his/her biological makeup
  • Nurture- refers to environmental factors such as
    family, culture, education, and individual
    experiences

67
Genes and Behavior
  • Genes- basic units of heredity
  • Reproduced and passed along from parent to child
  • Only effect on behavior occur through their role
    in building and modifying the physical structure
    of the body
  • If your parents are musicians you may have
    inherited a gene that influences your musical
    ability by contributing to brain development that
    analyzes sounds well

68
Twin Studies
  • Identical Twins- developed from single fertilized
    egg (monozygotic) and share the same genes
  • Fraternal Twins- developed from 2 fertilized eggs
    (dizygotic) and their genes are not more similar
    than those of brothers or sisters
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