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HISTORY OF TIBETAN LITERATURE

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Title: HISTORY OF TIBETAN LITERATURE Author: Hilligoss, Tina Last modified by: Hilligoss, Tina Created Date: 12/3/2015 2:46:17 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HISTORY OF TIBETAN LITERATURE


1
HISTORY OF TIBETAN LITERATURE
?
2
SIKE!HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY
?
3
Early Astronomy
? Astronomy is the science that studies the
universe. It includes the observation and
interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.
? The Greeks used philosophical arguments to
explain natural phenomena.
? The Greeks also used some observational data.
4
Early Astronomy
? Geocentric Model
In the ancient Greeks geocentric model, the
moon, sun, and the known planetsMercury, Venus,
Mars, and Jupiterorbit Earth.
? Heliocentric Model
In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other
planets orbit the sun.
5
Geocentric and Heliocentric Models
6
Stonehenge
  • A group of stones arranged in a circle.
  • Lined up with the summer and winter sunrises.
  • Used for ceremonies and rituals

7
Babylonians
  • Tracked the positions of the planets and moons
  • Created first calendar

8
  • Ptolemy Geocentric model, including epicycles

0
Central guiding principles
1. Imperfect, changeable Earth,
2. Perfect Heavens (described by spheres)
9
Epicycles
0
Introduced to explain retrograde (westward)
motion of planets
The ptolemaic system was considered the standard
model of the Universe until the Copernican
Revolution.
10
Epicycles
11
Early Astronomy- Copernicus
? Nicolaus Copernicus
Copernicus concluded that Earth is a planet.
Earth and all the other planets orbited the sun
in perfect circles. He proposed a model of the
solar system with the sun at the center.
12
Early Astronomy- Brahe
? Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe designed and built instruments to
measure the locations of the heavenly bodies.
Brahes observations, especially of Mars, were
far more precise than any made previously.
13
Early Astronomy- Kepler
? Johannes Kepler
Kepler discovered three laws of planetary
motion
1. Orbits of the planets are elliptical.
2. Planets revolve around the sun at varying
speed.
3. There is a proportional relationship between a
planets orbital period and its distance to the
sun.
14
Early Astronomy
? Johannes Kepler
An ellipse is an oval-shaped path.
An astronomical unit (AU) is the average
distance between Earth and the sun it is about
150 million kilometers.
15
Planet Revolution
16
Early Astronomy
? Galileo Galilei
Galileos most important contributions were
his descriptions of the behavior of moving
objects.
He developed his own telescope and made
important discoveries
1. Four satellites, or moons, orbit Jupiter.
2. Planets are circular disks, not just points of
light.
3. Venus has phases just like the moon.
4. The moons surface is not smooth.
5. The sun has sunspots, or dark regions.
17
The Solar System Model Evolves
18
Early Astronomy
? Sir Isaac Newton
Although others had theorized the existence of
gravitational force, Newton was the first to
formulate and test the law of universal
gravitation.
? Universal Gravitation
Gravitational force decreases with distance.
The greater the mass of an object, the greater
is its gravitational force.
19
Gravitys Influence on Orbits
20
Early Astronomy- Herschel
? Herschel
  • Developed the first powerful telescope
  • Saw fuzzy spots beyond our galaxy
  • Didnt know what they were

21
World War II
? 1st solid -fuel rockets where developed for
airplanes to provide a boost

22
Visualization
? Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky imagined how to
use rocket to voyage into space

23
Edwin Hubble
  • Used improved telescope devices and found the
    fuzzy things Herschel did not understand
  • Fuzzy things were other galaxies
  • Expanded our idea of space


24
1st Satellite Launched
  • Soviets launched Sputnik 1 in 1957


25
1st Space Traveler
  • A dog named Laika, survived several days on
    Sputnik 2 - 1957
  • Died of heat exhaustion after temperatures rose


26
1st US Satellite
  • Noticed radiation bands across the earth
  • 1958


27
1st Photo of Earth
  • 1959
  • Most famous picture of all time


28
1st Weather Satellite
  • 1960


29
1st Spy Satellite
  • US sent Corona to spy on the Soviet missile base-
    1960


30
1st Human Astronaut
  • 1961


31
MAN ON THE MOON
  • Crew of Neil A. Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and
    Michael Collins
  • Armstrong and Aldrin collected rocks and set up a
    lab on the moon


32
Man on the Moon footage
  • https//youtu.be/G6A72ufn3l4

33
Off to Jupiter
  • Left to inspect Jupiter but got pulled in by its
    gravity and was sent off toward Saturn.
  • It left the Solar System and in 1995, the power
    supply finally ran out and we lost contact


34
1st Woman Astronaut
  • Rode on the Challenger from the US in 1983


35
Space Disasters
  • Top Five Worst Space Disasters
  • https//youtu.be/dmlM9zBadX8

36
Cassini
  • Left to pass Jupiter and to land a probe on
    Saturns moon Titan


37
End of an Era


38
The EarthMoonSun System
? The two main motions of Earth are rotation and
revolution. Precession is a third and very slow
motion of Earths axis.
39
The EarthMoonSun System
? Rotation
Rotation is the turning, or spinning, of a
body on its axis.
Two measurements for rotation
1. Mean solar day is the time interval from one
noon to the next, about 24 hours.
2. Sidereal day is the time it takes for Earth to
make one complete rotation (360º) with respect to
a star other than the sun23 hours, 56 minutes, 4
seconds.
40
Sidereal Day
41
The EarthMoonSun System
? Revolution
Revolution is the motion of a body, such as a
planet or moon, along a path around some point in
space.
Perihelion is the time in January when Earth
is closest to the sun.
Aphelion is the time in July when Earth is
farthest from the sun.
42
The EarthMoonSun System
? Earths Axis and Seasons
The plane of the ecliptic is an imaginary
plane that connects Earths orbit with the
celestial sphere.
Because of the inclination of Earths axis to
the plane of the ecliptic, Earth has its yearly
cycle of seasons.
43
The Ecliptic
44
The EarthMoonSun System
? Precession
Precession traces out a cone over a period of
26,000 years.
? EarthSun Motion
The solar system speeds in the direction of
the star Vega.
The sun revolves around the galaxy.
Earth is presently approaching one of its
nearest galactic neighbors, the Great Galaxy in
Andromeda.
45
Precession
46
The EarthMoonSun System
? Perigee is the point at which the moon is
closest to Earth.
? Apogee is the point at which the moon is
farthest from Earth.
47
The EarthMoonSun System
? Phases of the Moon
The phases of the moon are the progression of
changes in the moons appearance during the month.
Lunar phases are a result of the motion of the
moon and the sunlight that is reflected from its
surface.
48
Phases of the Moon
49
The EarthMoonSun System
? Lunar Motions
The synodic month is based on the cycle of the
moons phases. It lasts 29 1/2 days.
The sidereal month is the true period of the
moons revolution around Earth. It lasts 27 1/3
days.
50
The EarthMoonSun System
? Lunar Motions
The difference of two days between the synodic
and sidereal cycles is due to the Earthmoon
system also moving in an orbit around the sun.
The moons period of rotation about its axis
and its revolution around Earth are the same, 27
1/3 days. It causes the same lunar hemisphere to
always face Earth.
51
The EarthMoonSun System
? Solar eclipses occur when the moon moves in a
line directly between Earth and the sun, casting
a shadow on Earth.
? Lunar eclipses occur when the moon passes
through Earths shadow.
? During a new-moon or full-moon phase, the
moons orbit must cross the plane of the ecliptic
for an eclipse to take place.
52
Solar Eclipse
53
Lunar Eclipse
54
Earths Moon
? Craters
A crater is the depression at the summit of a
volcano or a depression produced by a meteorite
impact.
Most craters were produced by the impact of
rapidly moving debris.
Rays are any of a system of bright, elongated
streaks, sometimes associated with a crater on
the moon.
55
The Moons Surface
56
Formation of a Crater
57
Earths Moon
? Highlands
Most of the lunar surface is made up of
densely pitted, light-colored areas known as
highlands.
? Maria
Maria, ancient beds of basaltic lava,
originated when asteroids punctured the lunar
surface, letting magma bleed out.
A rille is a long channel associated with
lunar maria. A rille looks similar to a valley or
a trench.
58
Earths Moon
? Regolith
The lunar regolith is a thin, gray layer on
the surface of the moon, consisting of loosely
compacted, fragmented material believed to have
been formed by repeated impacts of meteorites.
59
Major Topographic Features of the Moon
60
Earths Moon
? The most widely accepted model for the origin
of the moon is that when the solar system was
forming, a body the size of Mars impacted Earth.
The resulting debris was ejected into space,
began orbiting around Earth, and eventually
united to form the moon.
61
Formation of Earths Moon
62
What were the epicycles in Ptolemys model
supposed to explain?
  1. The fact that planets are moving against the
    background of the stars.
  2. The fact that the sun is moving against the
    background of the stars.
  3. The fact that planets are moving eastward for a
    short amount of time, while they are usually
    moving westward.
  4. The fact that planets are moving westward for a
    short amount of time, while they are usually
    moving eastward.
  5. The fact that planets seem to remain stationary
    for substantial amounts of time.

63
In the Copernican Universe, the orbits of
planets and moons were
  1. Perfect Circles
  2. Ellipses
  3. Spirals
  4. Epicycles
  5. None of the above.

64
How did William Herschel contribute to the
astronomy community?
  • Created the most powerful telescope to date

65
What was the first satellite launched into space?
  • Sputnik I

66
How Long is a Sidereal Day?
  • 24 Hours
  • 23 Hours 56 Minutes
  • 24 Hours 50 Minutes

67
Why is the summer longer than winter?
  1. Because of the precession of the Earths axis of
    rotation.
  2. Because of the moons 5o inclination with respect
    to the Ecliptic.
  3. Because the Earth is rotating around its axis
    more slowly in the summer (? longer days!).
  4. Because the Earth is closest to the sun in
    January and most distant from the sun in July.
  5. Because the Earth is closest to the sun in July
    and most distant from the sun in January.

68
What is the difference between a solar and lunar
eclipse?
69
Do you agree with the Impact Theory as the theory
for the creation of the Moon?
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