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Education against Dehumanization: Radical Change in Approach to Peace Education

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Title: Education against Dehumanization: Radical Change in Approach to Peace Education


1
Education against Dehumanization Radical Change
in Approach to Peace
Education
  • Olek Netzer, Ph.D.
  • Independent Researcher, Activist and Dissident
  • Tel Aviv, Israel

2
Hello, I'm Olek Netzer. I truly regret not being
able to be with you in person.In the field
of Peace and War studies I discovered Blind Areas
in social cognition, without which
self-justification of dehumanized attitudes would
be impossible. This discovery could Change the
World of conflict I was able to make it taking
the Direct Causation Approach in
contrast to the predominant Multiple Causation
Approach
3
Direct Causation Approach The Direct Causation
Approach won't ask "What were the causes for the
9/11 terrorist attack?" The causes were
evident The perpetrators believed in doing it,
were perfectly conscious of consequences and
convinced they were doing the Right Moral Godly
Heroic thing.
4
RESEARCH QUESTIONHOW COULD THEY?How can normal
people commit even the most horrifying acts of
idiocy, atrocity, injustice, terror, without
running into an intolerable conflict, Cognitive
Dissonance with their own highest values of
Sanity, Truth, Morality, Justice?!
5
Research Process Monitoring Israeli Media
1979-1999 for patterns of thinking about the
country's War and Conflicts
6
DISCOVERY BLIND AREAS The Cognitive Maps of
Fanatics contain Blind Areas that cover their own
human limitations like the possibility of being
as susceptible to sin, error, misjudgment and
Evil as any human. Blind Areas also obscure the
vision of human reality in the enemies their
individuality, individual differences, change,
good qualities, and more.
Blind Areas make self-justification possible by
DEHUMANIZATION of both Self and others who are
by that excluded from ones moral consideration
7
See the Blind Areas covering Oneself and ones
In-group WE
  • The fact that WE (the Nation, the People, the
    Country, the State) is an abstract term and that
    in reality only individual human beings exist
  • The dangers of herd-mentality, of too much
    collective identification and too little
    individual self-identity.
  • The possibility of having too much national pride
    and of feeling, unjustifiably, superior to others
  • The possibility WE might not be right, or not
    entirely right, in our conflict with THEM
  • Fear of sinning with regard to THEM the
    possibility that we were in some instances as
    guilty as THEM or as some other nations, or that
    we could sin against THEM now or in the future
  • The possibility that WE lose the war
  • -------------------------- ponder
    .------------------------------
  • Fanatics of war-conflict-hatred would not
    spontaneously express evidence of AWARENESS of
    any of the Blind Areas listed above
  • SIMPLY
  • If they WERE AWARE of their human limitations,
    dangers of not being right, the natural
    possibility that they might be wrong aware of
    their moral obligation to avoid sin and error -
    they could not be FANATICAL DEHUMANIZE OTHERS.
  • THE TASK OF PEACE EDUCATION WOULD BE TO MAKE THEM
    AWARE!

8
See the Blind Areas covering THEM the
Out-group
  • Their humanity the fact that each one of them is
    as human a being as each one of us
  • Their individuality, the differences between each
    one of THEM and others
  • The possibility that THEY could change and become
    less belligerent.
  • Their good qualities and achievements as a group
  • The possibility that there is, or could be, some
    justice on their side of the conflict with us.
  • Fanatics of war-conflict-hatred would not
    spontaneously express evidence of AWARENESS of
    any of the Blind Areas listed above
  • SIMPLY
  • If they WERE AWARE of the fact that the others
    are not THEM but human beings as themselves,
    individuals, each unique and different and all
    equal to us in their human rights to be treated
    justly each according to her or his behaviour -
    they could not be FANATICAL DEHUMANIZE OTHERS.
  • THE TASK OF PEACE EDUCATION WOULD BE TO MAKE THEM
    AWARE!

9
Blind Areas make fanatics of conflict unaware of
human reality.How DO they see the world of
conflict? How do they reason?THUSWE ALWAYS
GOOD-RIGHT THEM ALWAYS BAD-GUILTYEvidence that
is not in harmony with this fantastic view falls
into a Blind Area. Whatever does reach awareness
rolls along fixed channels of reasoning called
Patterned Beliefs to the conclusion that YES, in
this case too WE were right and THEY were
guilty!
10
How do they see themselves? WE - Patterned
Beliefs 1. We are better\ superior to others 2.
We are brave fighters, patriots 3. The common
good is the supreme value, individual good is
less valued war, blood, death, victims, are not
just means to secure human life values but values
in themselves 4. We are right (always), in
victory or in defeat we are never the aggressors
but act in self-defense, take preventive
measures, obey Gods command, retaliate, etc. 5.
We shall be victorious if we stay faithful to our
collective values.
11
How do they see THEM?
  • THEY -- Patterned Beliefs
  • THEY are bad by nature savages, animals,
    idolaters, sub-human, inferior race, inferior
    culture (snake-eaters, frog-eaters, dog-eaters,
    pig-eaters, etc.).
  • Negative stereotypes THEM are stupid, dirty,
    lazy, thieves, cheaters, kidnappers of children,
    seducers of women, blood-suckers, etc.
  • THEY hate us They are fanatics, nationalistic,
    fundamentalist, etc.
  • THEY are the villains threaten us, do acts of
    cruelty and horror, want to conquer us, subjugate
    us, destroy\annihilate us take our lands, jobs,
    women contaminate us with disease and crime,
    etc.
  • THEY understand nothing but force. THEY take
    advantage of our conciliatory moves that THEY
    interpret as weakness.

12
More Examples of Fanatical-Dehumanized Blind
Areas
  • How do fanatics of War reason Strategy?
  • Their Blind Areas Cover
  • The possibility that the best tactics in certain
    situations is not using force but making a
    reconciliatory gesture.
  • The expected results of using force violence
    breeds violence and motivation to retaliate the
    victims, dangers, suffering, and terrible price
    of making war.
  • Therefore theyd be Blind to see what these
    leaders saw

13
More Examples of Fanatical-Dehumanized Patterned
Beliefs
  • How do they reason Strategy?
  • Their Patterned Beliefs
  • Only force (popular cliché 'Until theyve
    learned their lesson'.
  • Not using force is weakness (THEY interpret it as
    weakness).
  • If force does not help more force should be used.
  • If force had not helped somebody else is to be
    blamed, not 'WE'.

14
More Examples of Fanatical-Dehumanized Blind
Areas
  • How do they reason their MORALITY?
  • Their Blind Areas Cover
  • The moral obligation itself measuring whatever
    WE do to THEM and whatever THEY do to us with the
    same yardstick
  • The danger of sinning against THEM the
    possibility that what WE do unto THEM would be as
    bad as what THEY do unto us
  • The personal duty of moral conduct in relation to
    THEM, and the fact that there is no moral
    judgment other than that of individuals like
    oneself
  • The fact that Means and Goals exist only as
    abstract concepts in our mind and that in reality
    only individuals like ourselves can justify or
    not justify anything
  • The possibility that morality is power that
    behaving morally WE are strengthened and
    behaving immorally WE are weakened
  • Therefore theyd be blind to see what these
    leaders saw

15
More Examples of Fanatical-Dehumanized
Patterned BeliefsHow do they reason MORALITY
  1. All that WE do to THEM in the conflict is moral
    (Everything is moral which is necessary for the
    annihilation of the old exploiting social order
    and for uniting the proletariat - Lenin.)
  2. An eye for eye the same immoral deed of THEM
    against us becomes moral as retaliation or
    revenge.
  3. Morality in matters of state is the business of
    the state, not of the individual.
  4. There is no morality--should be no morality--in
    the war with THEM, only interests of power and
    survival of the fittest.
  5. Might is Right.
  6. The Aim justifies the Means.

16
APLICATION IN EDUCATION
17
(No Transcript)
18
THE DEHUMANIZATION SYNDROMEIS THE TOOL TO
WORK WITHIt is the list of Symptoms of
Dehumanization which are theBLIND AREAS and
PATTERNED BELIEFS
  • Educators and their students need to know it
  • in order to clearly identify the symptoms of
    Dehumanization
  • in texts and expression people
  • including their people, relatives and friends
  • including themselves
  • Blind Areas and Patterned Beliefs
  • of the Dehumanization Syndrome
  • are organized under 10 headings
  • WE THEM BLEEDING HEARTS DEVIANTS CAPTIVES
  • LEADER STRATEGY OTHER NATIONS MORALITY
    TIME
  • (The Dehumanization Syndrome tool is available
    free from the author)

19
TEACHING PROCESSESLearning to identify Patterned
Beliefs in narrativesEXAMPLETeaching History, a
contemporary source on the Sack of Constantinople
by the Crusaders (April 11,1204)
  • ... Then the bishops preached to the army and
    they showed to the pilgrims that the war was a
    righteous one for the Greeks were traitors and
    murderers, and also disloyal, since they had
    murdered their rightful lord, and were worse than
    Jews. Then the bishops said that they ought not
    to hesitate to attack the Greeks, for the latter
    were enemies of God.
  • Which ideas of the bishops in the text fit the
    Patterned Beliefs of Dehumanization?
  • the war was a righteous one (WE are Right)
  • the Greeks were traitors and murderers,
    disloyal, worse than Jews (THEY are Bad/Guilty(
  • ,,,they ought not to hesitate to attack.. (WE are
    Brave Warriors)
  • ...the latter were enemies of God (THEY are
    Bad/Guilty(

20
TEACHING PROCESSESLearning to identify awareness
to Blind Areas in textsEXAMPLE Teaching
History, a contemporary source on the Capture of
the city of Acre by the Crusaders (1191)
  • When these arrangements for the city's surrender
    were made known () the ignorant mob was inflamed
    with anger. The wiser men, however, were filled
    with a not unmerited joy, because they had
    obtained expeditiously and without danger the aim
    which they had previously been unable to obtain
    for such a long time.
  • On this critical day the probity of these Turks
    was admirable, as was their great bravery, for
    they were most vigorous in military enterprises,
    distinguished in their magnificence.
  • Although extreme necessity had just vanquished
    them, reducing them almost to beggary, the
    defeated men who emerged were not broken up by
    gnawing worry nor dejected by the loss of their
    possessions Their lying, superstitious cult,
    however, had perverted their powers as men.
  • Can you identify any evidence of AWARENESS on
    part of the Narrator of any of the Blind Areas?
  • (marked in the text BLUE(

21
INTERACTIVE PROCESSES IN A CLASSROOMREFERING
TO A KNOWN PATTERNED BELIEF
  • What you just said fits the They All Hate Us
    Patterned Belief, doesnt it? Would you like to
    comment on this?
  • AVOID ARGUMENT
  • Arguing with a fanatically prejudiced person is
    like arguing with a Computer. It was so
    programmed that the relevant Data Base of
    Humanness is not included, but buried in an
    inaccessible file of BLIND AREAS

22
INTERACTIVE PROCESSES IN A CLASSROOMASKING
OPEN QUESTIONS ABOUT REALITIES HIDDEN IN BLIND
AREAS
  • PROMPT We should kill them until theyve
    learned their lesson
  • SOME POSSIBLE RESPONSES
  • They are human beings like you and me Who it is
    exactly that you want to kill?
  • You know, among them must be good and intelligent
    boys exactly like you. Do you believe we should
    kill one such boy like you?
  • Do you think, is it possible that they are
    killing us to teach us a lesson? What lesson did
    you learn from that?...
  • Can killing teach anyone a lesson other than
    hating you even more and striking back?
  • Have you lately met with a person or an idea that
    you felt was not fair to Them, not just or too
    extreme? Please tell me about it...
  • Have you ever considered the danger that we might
    became wrong and guilty in fighting them as they
    are in fighting us?
  • What would YOU do to prevent it?

23
  • PROGNOSIS
  • If, beginning at the age of identity-forming,
    Dehumanization (Social Evil) were integrated
    into the basic coordinates of people's identity
    and social orientation - to what extent the
    society would be freed from PREJUDICE and
    racial-ethnic DISCRIMINATION?
  • To what extent would WAR be regarded as an option
    for resolving conflicts in a society well
    informed and used to detect the characteristic
    Blind Areas and Patterned Beliefs of dehumanized
    irrationality?
  • 2.Would application of the Dehumanization Theory
    in education affect politics and society?
  • IT WILL, but that claim needs to be validated by
    teachers and educators like YOU who would have
    the resolve to put it to test in Your practice
  • Thank You for listening Contact
    olek.netzer134_at_gmail.com
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