Case Studies we need to revise / know - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Case Studies we need to revise / know


1
Case Studies we need to revise / know
1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS CLIMATE UK MARITIME CLIMATE MEDITERAINIAN CLIMATE RAINFOREST AN ECOSYSTEM BRAZIL RAINFORESTS 2. NATURAL HAZARDS PEOPLE MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH
3. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT LOCATION OF HEAVY HIGH TECH TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA) TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND) TNC FORD AID PRACTICAL ACTION 4. POPULATION SETTLEMENT MIGRATION MEXICO - USA POPULATION CHANGE CHINA REGIONAL DIFFERENCES UK REDEVELOPMENT DOCKLANDS URBANISATION RIO ROCINIA FAVELLA
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  • 1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTS
  • GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS
  • CLIMATE UK MARITIME
  • CLIMATE MEDITERAINIAN
  • CLIMATE RAINFOREST
  • AN ECOSYSTEM BRAZIL RAINFORESTS

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Maritime Climate British Isles
Name of place United Kingdom
Name of Climate Maritime climate
Location North West Europe
Main Features Cool summers warm winters. West and North Wetter / South Warmer A prevailing wind from the southwest which is warm and moist meaning we have on average rain on 1 in 3 days. Average temp 9 degrees Total Rainfall 600mm
Reasons for our climate Latitude We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south. Gulf stream The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winter Prevailing wind most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain. Depressions Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rain Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter Hot in summer) Reasons for our climate Latitude We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south. Gulf stream The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winter Prevailing wind most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain. Depressions Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rain Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter Hot in summer)
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Mediterranean EU Climate
Name of place Mediterranean (southern Europe / Northern Africa)
Name of Climate Mediterranean climate
Location (southern Europe / Northern Africa)
Main Features Hot summers (40 degrees) warm winters (5 degrees). Summer months June-Sep in some areas have 0mm rainfall. Average temp 20 degrees Total Rainfall 450 mm
Reasons for our climate Latitude The area sits around 40 degrees north south of the equator so is warm near the sun. Warm oceans keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly. Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies. Reasons for our climate Latitude The area sits around 40 degrees north south of the equator so is warm near the sun. Warm oceans keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly. Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies.
5
Equatorial Climate Amazon- Brazil
Name of place Brazil (Manaus)
Name of Climate Equatorial
Location South America
Main Features Hot Wet Temperatures vary only 2 degrees throughout the year. The weather pattern is the same all day every day Average temp 23 degrees Total Rainfall 2104 mm
Reasons for our climate Reasons for our climate
  • Latitude On the equator so is closest to the
    sun and therefore very hot.
  • Prevailing wind Comes from the desert regions
    north and south of the equator (hot air)
  • Convectional rainfall

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Rainforest ecosystems Amazon
Pg 85 Revision guide
Name of place Amazon rainforest Equatorial
Location South America Northern Brazil (on equator)
Facts There are 4 layers of plants in the rainforest. Nutrient water cycle are a big part of rainforest systems Plants have adapted in many ways buttress roots - SUPPORT carnivorous plants (MORE NUTRIENTS).
Human positive impacts Improved transportation infrastructure for local people. Profits from selling resources can be used to improve infrastructure (70 of the Amazon has been rented to companies by the government). Raw materials, such as hardwood (4 of the GDP) and medicines from plants can be exported for profit.
Human negative impacts Deforestation means more CO2 in the air. (20 Amazon is gone) An area the size of a football pitch is lost each second Loss of Habitat Extinction of plant and animal species (1 a day!) Destruction of tribal settlements / way of life. (less than 70 left)
Sustainable management Replanting after cutting down (Afforestation) MEDC countries only to buy government approved wood. Create reserves for local tribes and plant animal species. Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) is the worlds largest protected area.
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Geomorphic Landscape
LOCATION Old Harry Rocks, Dorset (Swanage) UK
GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS INITIAL CREATION Chalk made up of fossilised remains of single-celled organisms that lived in the sea. Fossils became compressed under the sea to form the rock As sea levels fell, the chalk became exposed as a cliff.
GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS CURRENT STATE Cave Arch Stack Stump
HUMAN ACTIVITY 68 of Old Harry is being weathered more by acid rain. It is now an AOANB (Area of outstanding natural beauty) and is protected from footpath erosion
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Holderness Coastal management
LOCATION North East England (near Hull)
CREATION Headlands and bays have been formed along this coast line due to erosion rates and caused a spit to the south due to long shore drift.
PROBLEMS Erosion Softer boulder clay is being eroded quickly at 2m a year Long Shore Drift moving the material southwards (spit at Spurnhead)
EFFECTS 29 villages have been claimed by the sea in 1000 years Farmers are losing valuable farmland In June 1993 the Holbeck Hall Hotel slumped into the sea. Sea defences at Mappleton are causing problems further along the coast as there is less sediment to travel down (spurn head is in danger)
SOLUTIONS 2 million was spent on putting in a rip rap large granite blocks to absorb the waves energy at Mappleton 2 rock groynes were erected to build up the beach at Mappletopn BUT this led to increased erosion of farmland south of the groynes. A sea wall has been erected at Eastington to protect the gas station Offshore reefs of old tyres have been placed in the sea along the coastline
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  • 2. NATURAL HAZARDS PEOPLE
  • MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO
  • LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES
  • MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI
  • LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH

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MEDC Tectonic Hazard San Francisco
Location Date San Francisco 17th October 1989
Plates and Boundary Type San Andreas fault CONSERVATIVE 6.9 on the Richter scale
Cause of Earthquake The movement of the North American and the Pacific plates at different speeds leads to build up in tension, which eventually is released as an earthquake.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Predictions Preventions 808 seismometers along the boundary Nasa satellites monitor the plate movements. Earthquake proof buildings Evacuation plans.
Responses 186 ambulance dispatched within an hour. Within 48 hours, environmental health staff conducted a complete survey Provided food and shelter to persons displaced by earthquake damage Church groups who were opening up new shelters for homeless
  • PRIMARY
  • 67 deaths
  • SECONDARY
  • 2000 made homeless
  • PRIMARY
  • 6000 homes destroyed
  • 9 bridges collapsed
  • SECONDARY
  • Numerous fires from burst gas pipes
  • 4.4 billion in reconstruction costs

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LEDC Tectonic Hazard Case Study Samoa /
Phillipines
Location Date Samoa September 2009 8.1 Richter scale
Plates and Boundary Type Pacific Eurasian plate
Cause of Earthquake Friction between plates and 14 m high tsunami caused.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Predictions Preventions A tsunami warning was initially issued by US government (from MEDCs mainly) Limited preventions due to low GDP (no money!)
Responses The New Zealand government also pledged over NZ12 million for relief efforts. The New Zealand Red Cross appeal raised donations amounting to almost NZ3.5 million. Australia USA sent troops medical teams to rebuild the area
  • PRIMARY
  • 189 killed
  • SECONDARY
  • 3000 homeless on 1 island alone
  • SECONDARY
  • 147.25 million costs
  • 80 of all buildings damaged due to poor
    construction.
  • PRIMARY
  • people in villages have been cut off because the
    main bridge was washed away.

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LEDC Weather Hazard
Location Bangladesh, Asia
Date of Flood 1998
Cause of Flood Melt water from the Himalayas (spring) Monsoon rains (June November) Low land 80 of Bangladesh is a floodplain (1m above sea level)
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Prediction Prevention PREDICTION Very basic early warning siren system. PREVENTION 7,500km of flood embankments have been constructed (FROM MUD) major embankments around Dhaka have been suggested however lack of money has meant that these suggestions have not been taken further.
Responses Bangladesh government to try and reduce the impact of food shortages - the government also gave 350,000 tonnes of cereal to feed locals.
  • HUMAN CAUSES
  • Increasing population pressure
  • Increased deforestation
  • Lack of prevention
  • PRIMARY
  • 1000 deaths
  • SECONDARY
  • 30 million homeless
  • Spread of Cholera (water born diseases)
  • PRIMARY
  • 66 of farm land flooded
  • 668,000 ha of crops destroyed
  • SECONDARY
  • 20 decrease in production of clothes (400
    clothing factories closed).
  • New fertile soil the floods bring.

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MEDC Weather Hazard
Location Mississippi, USA, North America
Date of Flood 1993 (200 days of rain)
Cause of Flood 60cm of rain (200 more than average) High pressure (anticyclone) stopped rain being pushed away Saturation of soil was 100 so all rainwater was run off.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Prediction Prevention PREDICTION National Weather service flood prevention website PREVENTION Billions of dollars spent on Embankments, Levees, Dams etc
Responses 6 billion given by government in the aid effort fro homeless. Flood defences were rebuilt
  • SECONDARY
  • 54000 evacuated homeless
  • 16 deaths from illness as a cause of the flood.
  • PRIMARY
  • 11 deaths
  • PRIMARY
  • Damaged 50000 houses
  • 6.6 million acres of Farm land flooded
  • SECONDARY
  • 10 airports shut
  • Roads and rail closed in area

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  • 3. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT
  • LOCATION OF HEAVY HIGH TECH
  • TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA)
  • TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND)
  • TNC FORD
  • AID PRACTICAL ACTION

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Heavy Industry Rhur
PAGE 45 IN REVISION GUIDE
Name of place Rhur Germany
Location West Germany (largely urban area)
Good days 19th century In the 19th century almost 750 industries were open. Employing over ½ a million people. An abundance of coal and iron ore with good transport of rivers canals made it perfect for heavy industry.
Bad days Post WW2 (1950s) After WW2 the industries were closed. In the 1950s coal production had reduced by over 6 million tons Competition from LEDC producers made MEDC metals coal too expensive.
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Footloose / High Tech M4 Corridor
Name of place M4 corridor Aztec business park
Location South West UK along the M4 near Bristol
What is it Manufacturing high tech products like micro chips or medicines etc.
What they need Educated populations (near universities) Good Road transport for goods and workers (M4, Bristol airport, south west trains) Good sized towns for enough workers.
Sustainability There are over 100 business HQs an high tech factories along this area such as SONY These businesss are footloose so can move and therefore governments keep them by giving them tax benefits etc to keep there income from taxs and the jobs they provide.
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Ford a TNC
Issue it relates to Transnational's, Changing locations of Industry, Impacts of TNCs on LEDC countries.
Old Location USA does all in massive Ford factories. (They moved because it became too expensive to do things in MEDCs)
New Location as a TNC HQ Detroit USA Manufacturing India Sales MEDCs (Europe, Japan, N America) Admin Philippines
ve Social 2000 new jobs in India. 1800 white collar jobs. Economic 1,800 white collar jobs provide a higher level of income for the area. Environmental Improves land they develop.
-ve Social High paid managers are from MEDCs so stop progression. Economic All the profits (2.6billion) go back to USA Environmental Using their resources and polluting the air.
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Ibiza (Spain) MEDC
Name of place Ibiza
Tourists 18-30 clubbing tourists
Location Spanish Island Mediterranean ocean
ve ECONOMICAL E 939 million a year SOCIALLY Creates 1000s of jobs for local people.
-ve SOCIALLY Westernisation of the original culture (now drink drugs etc) ENVIRONMENTALLY Litter levels have more than tripled.
Future Sustainability Government has introduced different advertising to encourage different tourist types to visit the north of the island who will help protect and conserve nature and culture.
21
Pukhet (Thailand) LEDC
PAGE 254 IN GEOG.GCSE
Name of place Pukhet
Location South East Asia, south of Laos.
Type of tourists Backpackers Family groups
ve ECONOMIC 17.29 billion baht 3.5 billion generated. SOCIAL 1 in every 10 jobs is in the tourist trade.
-ve ECONOMIC Drug Trade 500 billion baht illegal money with no tax going to government and costs police forces. SOCIAL Prostitution 9 of the female population is linked to the sex trade. SOCIAL Overcrowding Thailand's population increase by 4 times in summer.
Future Sustainability Encouraging eco and cultural tourism to rainforest areas, religious temples and social projects like orphanages.
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Practical Action Long term Sustainable Aid Practical Action Long term Sustainable Aid
Project focus Building bricks and homes in shanty towns.
Location of project. Zimbabwe
Why they need aid. Poverty in slums Fires in slums Inflation doubling prices every 24 hours.
Who they are helping. Epworth Women Youth
How they helped. ECONOMICALLY 1 million budget / Euros1,110233 SOCIALLY Machinery, Education Training. ENVIRONMENTALLY Using locally sourced material.
Results of aid. ECONOMICALLY 60 new brick factories and 100 other related businesss. SOCIALLY 20 Housing is now brick in shanty towns reducing fire risk. ENVIRONMENTALLY Less pollution now (1 tonne of wood to make a1000 bricks is now only 150kg coal to make 1000 bricks)
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Trade Japan Kenya
  • KENYA ledc
  • HDI 152nd (0.491)
  • Total Exports 2.6 billion
  • Total Imports 4.2 billion
  • Deficit / Surplus - 1.6 billion
  • Main Imports Oil, machines
  • Main Exports primary - Coffee, Tea
  • JAPAN medc
  • HDI 10th (0.960)
  • Total Exports 538.8 billion
  • Total Imports 401.8 billion
  • Deficit / Surplus 137 billion
  • Main Imports Food, Cloth
  • Main Exports secondary / high tech - Cars,
    Chemicals, micro chips

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4. POPULATION SETTLEMENT MIGRATION MEXICO -
USA POPULATION CHANGE CHINA REGIONAL
DIFFERENCES UK REDEVELOPMENT DOCKLANDS
URBANISATION RIO ROCINIA FAVELLA
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China Changing populations LEDC
Location East Asia bordering Japan. East Asia bordering Japan.
Cause Before the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation! Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population) Before the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation! Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population)
Effects Overcrowding congestion in cities and towns. Lack of food (if population growth had continued starvation of millions would occur) Overcrowding congestion in cities and towns. Lack of food (if population growth had continued starvation of millions would occur)
Solutions 1979 1 Child Policy introduced (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities) Parents with multiple births arent given the same benefits as parents of one child. Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child. 1979 1 Child Policy introduced (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities) Parents with multiple births arent given the same benefits as parents of one child. Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child.
Results Good reduced population growth in the by 400 million people in 25 years. Improved healthcare education as less people top provide for. Bad Girls are not as economically good for a family as boys in China and now because of abortions abandonment. 114 males for every 100 females. Extremely high dependency ratio of older people relying on few economically active.
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Urban Redevelopment Docklands
PAGE 50 IN REVISION GUIDE
Location South East London South East London South East London South East London
Reasons for decline The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship.
Effects of the decline 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space
Solutions (Urban re-development) ECONOMIC 7.7 billion in private sector investment 2,700 businesses trading SOCIAL 10 million spent on improvement council homes 22,000 new homes 100 million spent on health education. SOCIAL 10 million spent on improvement council homes 22,000 new homes 100 million spent on health education. ENVIRONMENTAL planting of 200,000 trees network of pedestrian and cycle routes through the area
Results SUCCESS unemployment had fallen to 7 22,000 news housing units 1000s of new jobs SUCCESS unemployment had fallen to 7 22,000 news housing units 1000s of new jobs FALIURE The jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have. Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses FALIURE The jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have. Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses
http//www.geobytesgcse.blogspot.com/2007/03/inner
-cities-case-study-regeneration-of.html
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International Migration Mexico - USA
Issue it relates to International Migration (1 million migrate every year) International Migration (1 million migrate every year)
Location Mexico USA North America. (2000km border) Mexico USA North America. (2000km border)
Push Pull Factors PULL FACTORS Good healthcare- 400 per doctor Well paid jobs - GNP 24,750) Adult literacy rates Good 99 Life expectancy 76 yrs Many jobs available for low paid workers such as Mexicans PUSH FACTORS Poor healthcare- 1800 per doctor Low paid jobs - (GNP 3750) Adult literacy rates 55 - poor education prospects Life expectancy 72 yrs 40 Unemployed
USA effects Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music
Mexico effects The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people Legal and illegal immigrants together send some 6 billion a year back to Mexico Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people Legal and illegal immigrants together send some 6 billion a year back to Mexico Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
http//www.sln.org.uk/geography/schools/blythebrid
ge/GCSECSMigrationMexicoUSA.htm
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Regional differences Scotland vs South England
High Population density South East England Low Population Density Scottish Highlands
Longer growing season more farming is possible Short growing season less farming possible
Flat land easy to build on Mountainous terrain difficult to build on
Fertile soils greater crop yields Thin, infertile soils, difficult to farm
Warmer temperatures in winter (2 degrees) and in summer (16 degrees) Colder temperatures Winter below freezing Summer 12 degrees
Moderate rain 625 750mm per year High rainfall 2000mm per year
Several international airports (e.g. Heathrow, Gatwick) No major international airports
Well served by a range of railways A few local railways (slow)
Lots of motorways giving easy access e.g. M1, M25, M4 Difficult to build fast roads due to mountainous terrain
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Urbanisation shanty towns
Location Rochina Rio de Janeiro Brazil S. America
Population growth Rio grew from 7 million in 1970 to 17 million in 1990 In 2010 Rocinia had 60000 to 150000 people
Reasons for slums growth PUSH Poor rural lives No healthcare
Problems Health Sewage is left out in the street. A lack of clean water. Doctors and hospitals Disease spreads quickly in this environment e.g dysentery and typhoid. cholera in 1992. Education is limited because of a lack of funding. Children are often employed at an early age (sometimes as young as 6) Transport Roads are usually earth tracks.
Solutions Low cost improvements. Existing houses have been upgraded to include a water tank that collects water, added electricity and sewers for a low cost rent. Rio city authorities have spent 500,000 on the 'Favela-Bairio' programme Self-help schemes. People are encouraged to build their own home and the local authorities pay for the materials needed. Breeze blocks and other cheap materials are used. The money saved on labour goes on installing electricity, sewers, roads.
PULL Promise of jobs Reuniting with family
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Case Studies we need to revise / know

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Title: Case Studies we need to revise / know


1
Case Studies we need to revise / know
1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTS GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS CLIMATE UK MARITIME CLIMATE MEDITERAINIAN CLIMATE RAINFOREST AN ECOSYSTEM BRAZIL RAINFORESTS 2. NATURAL HAZARDS PEOPLE MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH
3. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT LOCATION OF HEAVY HIGH TECH TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA) TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND) TNC FORD AID PRACTICAL ACTION 4. POPULATION SETTLEMENT MIGRATION MEXICO - USA POPULATION CHANGE CHINA REGIONAL DIFFERENCES UK REDEVELOPMENT DOCKLANDS URBANISATION RIO ROCINIA FAVELLA
2
  • 1. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTS
  • GEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE (EU) OLD HARRY / HOLDERNESS
  • CLIMATE UK MARITIME
  • CLIMATE MEDITERAINIAN
  • CLIMATE RAINFOREST
  • AN ECOSYSTEM BRAZIL RAINFORESTS

3
Maritime Climate British Isles
Name of place United Kingdom
Name of Climate Maritime climate
Location North West Europe
Main Features Cool summers warm winters. West and North Wetter / South Warmer A prevailing wind from the southwest which is warm and moist meaning we have on average rain on 1 in 3 days. Average temp 9 degrees Total Rainfall 600mm
Reasons for our climate Latitude We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south. Gulf stream The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winter Prevailing wind most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain. Depressions Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rain Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter Hot in summer) Reasons for our climate Latitude We are north of the equator and further from the sun so we are cooler than other places further south. Gulf stream The warm water flowing towards us from the south (gulf) keeps us mild in winter Prevailing wind most common wind comes from south west and brings water from the Atlantic causing rain. Depressions Low pressure comes across us and warm air meeting cool air increases amounts of rain Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions and we have clear skies. (Freezing in winter Hot in summer)
4
Mediterranean EU Climate
Name of place Mediterranean (southern Europe / Northern Africa)
Name of Climate Mediterranean climate
Location (southern Europe / Northern Africa)
Main Features Hot summers (40 degrees) warm winters (5 degrees). Summer months June-Sep in some areas have 0mm rainfall. Average temp 20 degrees Total Rainfall 450 mm
Reasons for our climate Latitude The area sits around 40 degrees north south of the equator so is warm near the sun. Warm oceans keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly. Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies. Reasons for our climate Latitude The area sits around 40 degrees north south of the equator so is warm near the sun. Warm oceans keep the winters mild as the sea cools down slowly. Anti cyclones High pressure blocks depressions throughout the summer and keeps hot, dry weather with clear skies.
5
Equatorial Climate Amazon- Brazil
Name of place Brazil (Manaus)
Name of Climate Equatorial
Location South America
Main Features Hot Wet Temperatures vary only 2 degrees throughout the year. The weather pattern is the same all day every day Average temp 23 degrees Total Rainfall 2104 mm
Reasons for our climate Reasons for our climate
  • Latitude On the equator so is closest to the
    sun and therefore very hot.
  • Prevailing wind Comes from the desert regions
    north and south of the equator (hot air)
  • Convectional rainfall

6
Rainforest ecosystems Amazon
Pg 85 Revision guide
Name of place Amazon rainforest Equatorial
Location South America Northern Brazil (on equator)
Facts There are 4 layers of plants in the rainforest. Nutrient water cycle are a big part of rainforest systems Plants have adapted in many ways buttress roots - SUPPORT carnivorous plants (MORE NUTRIENTS).
Human positive impacts Improved transportation infrastructure for local people. Profits from selling resources can be used to improve infrastructure (70 of the Amazon has been rented to companies by the government). Raw materials, such as hardwood (4 of the GDP) and medicines from plants can be exported for profit.
Human negative impacts Deforestation means more CO2 in the air. (20 Amazon is gone) An area the size of a football pitch is lost each second Loss of Habitat Extinction of plant and animal species (1 a day!) Destruction of tribal settlements / way of life. (less than 70 left)
Sustainable management Replanting after cutting down (Afforestation) MEDC countries only to buy government approved wood. Create reserves for local tribes and plant animal species. Amazon Region Protected Areas (ARPA) is the worlds largest protected area.
7
Geomorphic Landscape
LOCATION Old Harry Rocks, Dorset (Swanage) UK
GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS INITIAL CREATION Chalk made up of fossilised remains of single-celled organisms that lived in the sea. Fossils became compressed under the sea to form the rock As sea levels fell, the chalk became exposed as a cliff.
GEOMORPHIC PROCESSESS OF ITS CURRENT STATE Cave Arch Stack Stump
HUMAN ACTIVITY 68 of Old Harry is being weathered more by acid rain. It is now an AOANB (Area of outstanding natural beauty) and is protected from footpath erosion
8
Holderness Coastal management
LOCATION North East England (near Hull)
CREATION Headlands and bays have been formed along this coast line due to erosion rates and caused a spit to the south due to long shore drift.
PROBLEMS Erosion Softer boulder clay is being eroded quickly at 2m a year Long Shore Drift moving the material southwards (spit at Spurnhead)
EFFECTS 29 villages have been claimed by the sea in 1000 years Farmers are losing valuable farmland In June 1993 the Holbeck Hall Hotel slumped into the sea. Sea defences at Mappleton are causing problems further along the coast as there is less sediment to travel down (spurn head is in danger)
SOLUTIONS 2 million was spent on putting in a rip rap large granite blocks to absorb the waves energy at Mappleton 2 rock groynes were erected to build up the beach at Mappletopn BUT this led to increased erosion of farmland south of the groynes. A sea wall has been erected at Eastington to protect the gas station Offshore reefs of old tyres have been placed in the sea along the coastline
9
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10
  • 2. NATURAL HAZARDS PEOPLE
  • MEDC EARTHQUAKES SAN FRANSISCO
  • LEDC ERATHQUAKES SAMOA PHILLIPINES
  • MEDC FLOODS MISSISSIPI
  • LEDC FLOODS BANGLADESH

11
MEDC Tectonic Hazard San Francisco
Location Date San Francisco 17th October 1989
Plates and Boundary Type San Andreas fault CONSERVATIVE 6.9 on the Richter scale
Cause of Earthquake The movement of the North American and the Pacific plates at different speeds leads to build up in tension, which eventually is released as an earthquake.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Predictions Preventions 808 seismometers along the boundary Nasa satellites monitor the plate movements. Earthquake proof buildings Evacuation plans.
Responses 186 ambulance dispatched within an hour. Within 48 hours, environmental health staff conducted a complete survey Provided food and shelter to persons displaced by earthquake damage Church groups who were opening up new shelters for homeless
  • PRIMARY
  • 67 deaths
  • SECONDARY
  • 2000 made homeless
  • PRIMARY
  • 6000 homes destroyed
  • 9 bridges collapsed
  • SECONDARY
  • Numerous fires from burst gas pipes
  • 4.4 billion in reconstruction costs

12
LEDC Tectonic Hazard Case Study Samoa /
Phillipines
Location Date Samoa September 2009 8.1 Richter scale
Plates and Boundary Type Pacific Eurasian plate
Cause of Earthquake Friction between plates and 14 m high tsunami caused.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Predictions Preventions A tsunami warning was initially issued by US government (from MEDCs mainly) Limited preventions due to low GDP (no money!)
Responses The New Zealand government also pledged over NZ12 million for relief efforts. The New Zealand Red Cross appeal raised donations amounting to almost NZ3.5 million. Australia USA sent troops medical teams to rebuild the area
  • PRIMARY
  • 189 killed
  • SECONDARY
  • 3000 homeless on 1 island alone
  • SECONDARY
  • 147.25 million costs
  • 80 of all buildings damaged due to poor
    construction.
  • PRIMARY
  • people in villages have been cut off because the
    main bridge was washed away.

13
LEDC Weather Hazard
Location Bangladesh, Asia
Date of Flood 1998
Cause of Flood Melt water from the Himalayas (spring) Monsoon rains (June November) Low land 80 of Bangladesh is a floodplain (1m above sea level)
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Prediction Prevention PREDICTION Very basic early warning siren system. PREVENTION 7,500km of flood embankments have been constructed (FROM MUD) major embankments around Dhaka have been suggested however lack of money has meant that these suggestions have not been taken further.
Responses Bangladesh government to try and reduce the impact of food shortages - the government also gave 350,000 tonnes of cereal to feed locals.
  • HUMAN CAUSES
  • Increasing population pressure
  • Increased deforestation
  • Lack of prevention
  • PRIMARY
  • 1000 deaths
  • SECONDARY
  • 30 million homeless
  • Spread of Cholera (water born diseases)
  • PRIMARY
  • 66 of farm land flooded
  • 668,000 ha of crops destroyed
  • SECONDARY
  • 20 decrease in production of clothes (400
    clothing factories closed).
  • New fertile soil the floods bring.

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MEDC Weather Hazard
Location Mississippi, USA, North America
Date of Flood 1993 (200 days of rain)
Cause of Flood 60cm of rain (200 more than average) High pressure (anticyclone) stopped rain being pushed away Saturation of soil was 100 so all rainwater was run off.
Human Effects
Physical Effects
Prediction Prevention PREDICTION National Weather service flood prevention website PREVENTION Billions of dollars spent on Embankments, Levees, Dams etc
Responses 6 billion given by government in the aid effort fro homeless. Flood defences were rebuilt
  • SECONDARY
  • 54000 evacuated homeless
  • 16 deaths from illness as a cause of the flood.
  • PRIMARY
  • 11 deaths
  • PRIMARY
  • Damaged 50000 houses
  • 6.6 million acres of Farm land flooded
  • SECONDARY
  • 10 airports shut
  • Roads and rail closed in area

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  • 3. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT
  • LOCATION OF HEAVY HIGH TECH
  • TOURISM IN MEDC (IBIZA)
  • TOURISM IN LEDC (THAILAND)
  • TNC FORD
  • AID PRACTICAL ACTION

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Heavy Industry Rhur
PAGE 45 IN REVISION GUIDE
Name of place Rhur Germany
Location West Germany (largely urban area)
Good days 19th century In the 19th century almost 750 industries were open. Employing over ½ a million people. An abundance of coal and iron ore with good transport of rivers canals made it perfect for heavy industry.
Bad days Post WW2 (1950s) After WW2 the industries were closed. In the 1950s coal production had reduced by over 6 million tons Competition from LEDC producers made MEDC metals coal too expensive.
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Footloose / High Tech M4 Corridor
Name of place M4 corridor Aztec business park
Location South West UK along the M4 near Bristol
What is it Manufacturing high tech products like micro chips or medicines etc.
What they need Educated populations (near universities) Good Road transport for goods and workers (M4, Bristol airport, south west trains) Good sized towns for enough workers.
Sustainability There are over 100 business HQs an high tech factories along this area such as SONY These businesss are footloose so can move and therefore governments keep them by giving them tax benefits etc to keep there income from taxs and the jobs they provide.
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Ford a TNC
Issue it relates to Transnational's, Changing locations of Industry, Impacts of TNCs on LEDC countries.
Old Location USA does all in massive Ford factories. (They moved because it became too expensive to do things in MEDCs)
New Location as a TNC HQ Detroit USA Manufacturing India Sales MEDCs (Europe, Japan, N America) Admin Philippines
ve Social 2000 new jobs in India. 1800 white collar jobs. Economic 1,800 white collar jobs provide a higher level of income for the area. Environmental Improves land they develop.
-ve Social High paid managers are from MEDCs so stop progression. Economic All the profits (2.6billion) go back to USA Environmental Using their resources and polluting the air.
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Ibiza (Spain) MEDC
Name of place Ibiza
Tourists 18-30 clubbing tourists
Location Spanish Island Mediterranean ocean
ve ECONOMICAL E 939 million a year SOCIALLY Creates 1000s of jobs for local people.
-ve SOCIALLY Westernisation of the original culture (now drink drugs etc) ENVIRONMENTALLY Litter levels have more than tripled.
Future Sustainability Government has introduced different advertising to encourage different tourist types to visit the north of the island who will help protect and conserve nature and culture.
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Pukhet (Thailand) LEDC
PAGE 254 IN GEOG.GCSE
Name of place Pukhet
Location South East Asia, south of Laos.
Type of tourists Backpackers Family groups
ve ECONOMIC 17.29 billion baht 3.5 billion generated. SOCIAL 1 in every 10 jobs is in the tourist trade.
-ve ECONOMIC Drug Trade 500 billion baht illegal money with no tax going to government and costs police forces. SOCIAL Prostitution 9 of the female population is linked to the sex trade. SOCIAL Overcrowding Thailand's population increase by 4 times in summer.
Future Sustainability Encouraging eco and cultural tourism to rainforest areas, religious temples and social projects like orphanages.
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Practical Action Long term Sustainable Aid Practical Action Long term Sustainable Aid
Project focus Building bricks and homes in shanty towns.
Location of project. Zimbabwe
Why they need aid. Poverty in slums Fires in slums Inflation doubling prices every 24 hours.
Who they are helping. Epworth Women Youth
How they helped. ECONOMICALLY 1 million budget / Euros1,110233 SOCIALLY Machinery, Education Training. ENVIRONMENTALLY Using locally sourced material.
Results of aid. ECONOMICALLY 60 new brick factories and 100 other related businesss. SOCIALLY 20 Housing is now brick in shanty towns reducing fire risk. ENVIRONMENTALLY Less pollution now (1 tonne of wood to make a1000 bricks is now only 150kg coal to make 1000 bricks)
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Trade Japan Kenya
  • KENYA ledc
  • HDI 152nd (0.491)
  • Total Exports 2.6 billion
  • Total Imports 4.2 billion
  • Deficit / Surplus - 1.6 billion
  • Main Imports Oil, machines
  • Main Exports primary - Coffee, Tea
  • JAPAN medc
  • HDI 10th (0.960)
  • Total Exports 538.8 billion
  • Total Imports 401.8 billion
  • Deficit / Surplus 137 billion
  • Main Imports Food, Cloth
  • Main Exports secondary / high tech - Cars,
    Chemicals, micro chips

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4. POPULATION SETTLEMENT MIGRATION MEXICO -
USA POPULATION CHANGE CHINA REGIONAL
DIFFERENCES UK REDEVELOPMENT DOCKLANDS
URBANISATION RIO ROCINIA FAVELLA
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China Changing populations LEDC
Location East Asia bordering Japan. East Asia bordering Japan.
Cause Before the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation! Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population) Before the policy the average family had 5 children each. (more than doubling the population every generation! Population was nearing 1 billion. (1/6 of the world population)
Effects Overcrowding congestion in cities and towns. Lack of food (if population growth had continued starvation of millions would occur) Overcrowding congestion in cities and towns. Lack of food (if population growth had continued starvation of millions would occur)
Solutions 1979 1 Child Policy introduced (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities) Parents with multiple births arent given the same benefits as parents of one child. Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child. 1979 1 Child Policy introduced (Not all rural areas had same policy mainly in cities) Parents with multiple births arent given the same benefits as parents of one child. Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child.
Results Good reduced population growth in the by 400 million people in 25 years. Improved healthcare education as less people top provide for. Bad Girls are not as economically good for a family as boys in China and now because of abortions abandonment. 114 males for every 100 females. Extremely high dependency ratio of older people relying on few economically active.
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Urban Redevelopment Docklands
PAGE 50 IN REVISION GUIDE
Location South East London South East London South East London South East London
Reasons for decline The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship. The port / docks were being used less because Modern bigger ships could not enter this far up the Thames. Containerisation (things in big metal boxs) meant less people needed to take imports off boasts. The increase in air freight not by ship.
Effects of the decline 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space 15 of people unemployed. Lack of open space
Solutions (Urban re-development) ECONOMIC 7.7 billion in private sector investment 2,700 businesses trading SOCIAL 10 million spent on improvement council homes 22,000 new homes 100 million spent on health education. SOCIAL 10 million spent on improvement council homes 22,000 new homes 100 million spent on health education. ENVIRONMENTAL planting of 200,000 trees network of pedestrian and cycle routes through the area
Results SUCCESS unemployment had fallen to 7 22,000 news housing units 1000s of new jobs SUCCESS unemployment had fallen to 7 22,000 news housing units 1000s of new jobs FALIURE The jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have. Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses FALIURE The jobs with new businesses mainly required skills that the locals did not have. Locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new houses
http//www.geobytesgcse.blogspot.com/2007/03/inner
-cities-case-study-regeneration-of.html
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International Migration Mexico - USA
Issue it relates to International Migration (1 million migrate every year) International Migration (1 million migrate every year)
Location Mexico USA North America. (2000km border) Mexico USA North America. (2000km border)
Push Pull Factors PULL FACTORS Good healthcare- 400 per doctor Well paid jobs - GNP 24,750) Adult literacy rates Good 99 Life expectancy 76 yrs Many jobs available for low paid workers such as Mexicans PUSH FACTORS Poor healthcare- 1800 per doctor Low paid jobs - (GNP 3750) Adult literacy rates 55 - poor education prospects Life expectancy 72 yrs 40 Unemployed
USA effects Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music
Mexico effects The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people Legal and illegal immigrants together send some 6 billion a year back to Mexico Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people Legal and illegal immigrants together send some 6 billion a year back to Mexico Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
http//www.sln.org.uk/geography/schools/blythebrid
ge/GCSECSMigrationMexicoUSA.htm
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Regional differences Scotland vs South England
High Population density South East England Low Population Density Scottish Highlands
Longer growing season more farming is possible Short growing season less farming possible
Flat land easy to build on Mountainous terrain difficult to build on
Fertile soils greater crop yields Thin, infertile soils, difficult to farm
Warmer temperatures in winter (2 degrees) and in summer (16 degrees) Colder temperatures Winter below freezing Summer 12 degrees
Moderate rain 625 750mm per year High rainfall 2000mm per year
Several international airports (e.g. Heathrow, Gatwick) No major international airports
Well served by a range of railways A few local railways (slow)
Lots of motorways giving easy access e.g. M1, M25, M4 Difficult to build fast roads due to mountainous terrain
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Urbanisation shanty towns
Location Rochina Rio de Janeiro Brazil S. America
Population growth Rio grew from 7 million in 1970 to 17 million in 1990 In 2010 Rocinia had 60000 to 150000 people
Reasons for slums growth PUSH Poor rural lives No healthcare
Problems Health Sewage is left out in the street. A lack of clean water. Doctors and hospitals Disease spreads quickly in this environment e.g dysentery and typhoid. cholera in 1992. Education is limited because of a lack of funding. Children are often employed at an early age (sometimes as young as 6) Transport Roads are usually earth tracks.
Solutions Low cost improvements. Existing houses have been upgraded to include a water tank that collects water, added electricity and sewers for a low cost rent. Rio city authorities have spent 500,000 on the 'Favela-Bairio' programme Self-help schemes. People are encouraged to build their own home and the local authorities pay for the materials needed. Breeze blocks and other cheap materials are used. The money saved on labour goes on installing electricity, sewers, roads.
PULL Promise of jobs Reuniting with family
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