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PERIOD 1 Ancient Period

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PERIOD 1 Ancient Period 8000 BCE to 600 BCE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PERIOD 1 Ancient Period


1
PERIOD 1 Ancient Period
  • 8000 BCE
  • to 600 BCE

2
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization (self-knowledge, fulfillment
of personal potential) Esteem (autonomy,
achievement, recognition) Social (belonging,
affection) Safety (security, protection from
harm) Physiological (Hunger, thirst, shelter)
3
Paleolithic to Neolithic
  • Paleolithic Age
  • Humans had spread around globe
  • Humans were hunter-gatherers
  • Life style could not support large numbers
  • Man makes tools of stone, bone
  • Began around 9,000 BCE
  • Rise of agriculture
  • Culture becomes increasingly complex

4
RISE OF NEOLITHIC
  • Areas where Neolithic cultures arose
  • Harsh environments
  • Water shortages
  • Few reliable sources of foodstuffs
  • Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
  • Development, spread of agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Improvement of technology

5
We begin at about 8,000 BC when village life
began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as the
Neolithic Revolution. NEW STONE
AGE
6
A TOTALLY new way of living
  • From

Hunter-Gatherers
to Agriculture
7
ASPECTS OF NEOLITHIC AGE
  • Effects of Neolithic Age
  • Sedentary culture develops
  • Surplus of food leads to increased populations
  • Rise of differentiated occupations
  • Complex cultures
  • Gender relations change
  • Humans begin to change environment
  • Communicable diseases become common

8
PALEOLITHIC vs. NEOLITHIC
  • Many resist sedentarism
  • Pastoralists
  • Hunter-Gatherers survive until 20th century
  • Development uneven across regions
  • Change often slow
  • Indigenous development vs. diffusion

9
INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE
  • Mesopotamians first to engage in agriculture
  • Around 8000 BC
  • Cereal crops
  • Wheat
  • Barley
  • Herd animals
  • Sheep
  • Goats

10
Human/Environmental interaction
  • Tools and weapons
  • Social and political organization
  • Homes
  • Lake houses in Switzerland
  • Long houses along Danube
  • Stone huts in Britain
  • Reed lean-tos in Egypt
  • Clay brick huts in Middle East
  • Broad language groups appeared

11
POSSESSIONS
  • Needs of agriculture and stability
  • Clay pottery
  • Woven baskets
  • Woolen and linen clothing
  • Sophisticated tools and weapons
  • Plow

12
RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE
  • Required intensification of group organization
  • Neolithic farmers lived in settlements
  • Ranged from 150 (Jarmo) to 2000 (Jericho)

13
OUTSIDE CONTACTS
  • Neolithic communities had links
  • Walls indicate some fearful
  • Others were more peaceful

Jericho
14
Origins and Spread of Agriculture
15
What does it mean to be civilized?
  • 18th Century European
  • Civilized vs. primitive
  • White vs. everyone else
  • Historians have determined 6 characteristics of
    civilization
  • Cities
  • Organized central governments
  • Complex religions
  • Social classes
  • Job specialization and the arts
  • Writing

16
CIVILIZATIONS 1ST PHASE
  • Civilizations arose in few areas, spread out
  • Often arose around control of water
  • Called hydraulic (Hydro water) civilizations
  • Irrigation, flood control at center of power,
    changes
  • Ancient period lasts generally to 1000 BCE

17
UNIQUENESS OF CIVILIZATION
  • Civilization was not simply next inevitable step
    from Neolithic Age
  • Many peoples remained at simple food-raising
    stage for thousands of yearswithout developing
    any sort of civilization
  • Only four locations developed civilizations
    entirely on their own
  • China
  • Indus River Valley
  • Mesopotamia/Egypt
  • Central America and Peru

18
Ancient River Valley Civilizations
19
Early River Valley Civilizations
Environment
  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or
    buildings

Mesopotamia
  • Flooding of the Nile predictable
  • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypts
    villages
  • Deserts were natural barriers

Egypt
  • Indus flooding unpredictable
  • Monsoon winds
  • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers

Indus River Valley
  • Huang He flooding unpredictable
  • Mountains, deserts natural barriers
  • Geographically isolated from other ancient
    civilizations

China
  • Mountains and ocean natural barriers
  • Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall
  • Geographically isolated from other ancient
    civilizations

Mesoamerica Andes
20
THE CULTURE OF CIVILIZATION
  • Permanent Institutions
  • Religious Theocracies, priesthoods, polytheism
  • Political Monarchy, aristocracy, militaries
  • Social Rise of classes
  • Gender Patriarchy
  • Trade and Commerce
  • Systems of Record Keeping
  • Intellectual Traditions
  • Arts, Architecture
  • Literatures

21
WIDER CONTACTS
  • Each civilization had particular patterns
  • Effects of Geography
  • Either facilitated, hindered communication
  • Strengthened, weakened local culture
  • Contacts
  • War, Trade, Diseases
  • Nomads
  • Migration

22
Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent
  • Sumer The Earliest of the River Valley
    Civilizations
  • Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris
    and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.

23
Sumerians invented
  • Cuneiform
  • Wheel
  • Base 60 using the circle . . . 360 degrees
  • Time 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a
    minute
  • 12 month lunar calendar
  • Brick technology
  • arch
  • ramp
  • ziggurat

24
Babylon
  • First know written law code
  • Rule of Law
  • Hammurabis Code - 1792 BC

25
Code of Hammurabi
  • 8. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass,
    or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to
    the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold for
    them if they belonged to a freed man of the king
    he shall pay tenfold if the thief has nothing
    with which to pay he shall be put to death.
  • 22. If any one is committing a robbery and is
    caught, then he shall be put to death.
  • 25. If fire break out in a house, and some one
    who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the
    property of the owner of the house, and take the
    property of the master of the house, he shall be
    thrown into that self-same fire.
  • 129. If a man's wife be surprised with another
    man, both shall be tied and thrown into the
    water, but the husband may pardon his wife and
    the king his slaves.
  • 137. If a man wish to separate from his wife who
    has borne him children then he shall give that
    wife her dowry, and a part of the fruit of the
    field, garden, and property, so that she can rear
    her children. When she has brought up her
    children, a portion of all that is given to the
    children, equal as that of one son, shall be
    given to her. She may then marry the man of her
    heart.

26
EGYPT The Gift of the Nile
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Pyramids
  • Geometry
  • Advances in medicine and surgery

Nile River
Sahara Desert
27
Indus River Valley 2500 BC 1500 BC
  • Harappan culture
  • Well planned cities
  • Grid pattern
  • Modern plumbing
  • Built on mud brick platforms
  • Protected against seasonal floods
  • Larger cities
  • Houses built of baked brick
  • Smaller towns
  • Houses built of sun-dried mud brick

28
Aryan Migration
  • pastoral ? depended on their cattle
  • warriors ? horse-drawn chariots

29
Shang China 1600 BC 1027 BC
  • Yellow River Valley
  • Advanced culture
  • Religion
  • Astronomy
  • Calendar
  • Medicine
  • Bronze, jade, stone, bone and ceramic artifacts
  • Lack of contact with foreigners led to belief in
  • Strong sense of identity
  • Superiority
  • Center of earth
  • Sole source of civilization

30
Zhou China 1122 BC 256 BC
  • Bronze, jade, silver, gold
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Power to rule came from heaven
  • Power could be removed if ruler not
    just
  • Veneration of ancestors
  • All must honor family responsibilities
  • Period ended with Era of Warring States

31
Mesoamerica and Andean South America 2900 BC
1400 BC
  • Mesoamerica
  • Maize, chili peppers, avocados, beans
  • Pottery
  • Stone bowls
  • Beads
  • Waddle and daub structures
  • No draft animals

32
Mesoamerica and Andean South America 3500 BC
1400 BC
  • Andes
  • Textiles technology
  • Sophisticated government
  • Religion
  • Lacked ceramics
  • Largely without art
  • Most impressive achievement was monumental
    architecture
  • Large platform mounds
  • Sunken circular plazas
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