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The Middle Ages 500

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The Middle Ages 500 1450 ... III. The Reconquista in Spain - During the Reconquista, ... Monasticism III. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle Ages 500


1
The Middle Ages 500 1450
2
The Early Middle Ages
  • I. Geography Europe!
  • - Frontier Land sparsely populated, undeveloped
    land on the outskirts of civilization (rich and
    untapped resources).
  • II. Germanic Kingdoms
  • - Between 400 and 700, Germanic tribes carved up
    Western Europe into small kingdoms.
  • - Franks conquest in Gaul and converted to
    Christianity.
  • - Islamic power in the east was seen as a threat
    to Christian Germanic leaders.

3
The Geography of Europe
4
III. Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
  • - Pope Leo III asked him to end rebellion
    Crowned afterwards and united most of old Roman
    Empire (eastern emperor outraged split
    increased between east and west).
  • - Spread Christianity throughout Europe (blending
    Roman, German, and Christian culture).
  • - Appointed nobles to govern local lands Missi
    Dominici officials to keep nobles in check by
    talking to locals and administer justice.

5
III. Charlemagne (Charles the Great) Cont.
  • - Learning Alcuin of York created a curriculum
    (Latin based focusing on rhetoric, logic, math,
    music, and astronomy).
  • In 813, Charlemagne dies. In 843, Grandsons
    create the Treaty of Verdun (Empire into 3
    regions).
  • His rule was a last attempt to keep the legacy of
    Rome alive in Europe. After the death of
    Charlemagne, the Middle Ages permanently sets in!

6
Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • I. Emergence of Feudalism (need for protection)
    from the Vikings!
  • - Feudalism powerful lord divides up land and
    gives it to lesser lords (vassals). The lesser
    lords, in turn, gave service and loyalty to the
    powerful lord known as a feudal contract.
  • - Land granted fief (estate), along with
    peasants to work the land.
  • - Very complex and conflicting system multiple
    vassals and fiefdoms.

7
Feudal System
8
II. Nobles
  • - Warfare for lords was a way of life trained
    knights (mounted warriors) decreased over time
    to tournaments.
  • - Chivalry knights code of conduct (loyal,
    brave, and honest).
  • - Troubadours wandering poets love songs
    about perfection, beauty of women.

9
III. Peasants and Manor life
  • - Manor (with castle) - lords estate,
    surrounding lands, and serfs (peasants bound to
    the land).
  • - Serfs farmed lords land and paid tributes
    and received several acres to farm themselves as
    well as protection.
  • - Manors were self-sufficient church, village
    with one room huts, water mill, and land no
    need to leave and most never did.

10
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11
The Medieval Church
  • I. The Church and Medieval Life
  • - The church was key the everyday lives of
    Europeans administered sacraments (sacred rites
    of the church-led to salvation), performed
    rituals, and guided people on moral issues.
  • - Village Church social center, required
    Christians to tithe (tax of 10).
  • - Women daughters of eve sin easily and
    needed protection.

12
II. Monasticism
  • - Monks lived in monasteries - Benedictine rule
    rules of regulate monastic life (obedience to
    abbot, poverty, chastity). They worshipped,
    studied, and worked to sustain the
    convent/monastery.
  • - Performed basic services to the community,
    re-copied ancient works into Latin - kept
    learning alive in the middle ages.

13
III. Church Power Grows
  • - Church becomes secular involved in world
    affairs (Politics).
  • - Papal Supremacy under the Pope representative
    of Christ on earth (with extreme power)
  • - Canon Law laws for religious teachings,
    clergymen, marriages, and morals.
  • - If you broke Canon Law, you could be
    excommunicated from the church (denied sacraments
    or Xn burial).
  • - Reform Movements - Monks and clergy were
    violating vows prohibited marriage of priests,
    and ended the selling of church offices (simony).
  • - Friars monks that would travel and preach to
    the poor.
  • - Anti-Semitism prejudice against Jews became
    moneylenders or moved east.

14
Economic Expansionism and Change
  • I. Agricultural Revolution and Trade
  • - Use of iron plows (moldboard plow) with horse
    harness, windmills, three- field system (one for
    grain, two for legumes, and three rested).
  • New trade routes brought good from Middle East
    and goods were sold at trade fairs (food, drink,
    entertainment) created first cities (controlled
    by merchants).
  • With these new innovations, feudal systems
    decline and merchant cities emerge!

15
Agricultural Revolution
4
  • New farming technologies iron plow harness
    windmill three-field system

Increase in food production
Population explosion Between 1000 and 1300, the
population of Europe doubled.
16
II. Commercial Revolution
  • - Merchants needed Capital (money needed for
    investment) and partnerships (two or more working
    together to fund a large venture).
  • - Bill of exchange paper to represent coin in
    foreign land (travelers check).
  • - Artisans, merchants, and traders became the
    first members of the middle class.
  • - Guilds merchants and artisans formed
    associations (like unions). Competitive and
    power oriented and based on a workers skill
    (bakers, carpenters, weavers guilds, etc.)
  • - To become a member, start as an apprentice
    (trainee) to journeymen (salaried workers) to
    guild masters.

17
Royal Power in England and France
  • I. Strong Monarchs in England
  • - William of Normandy, France (descendant of the
    Vikings) claimed English throne fought the
    Anglo-Saxons of England won crown at the Battle
    of Hastings.
  • - Called William the Conqueror blended Norman
    French and Anglo-Saxon culture.
  • - Created the Domesday Book (census of the
    kingdom) and collected more taxes.
  • - New political traditions evolved, including
    common law, the jury system, and Parliament.
  • - In 1215, King John signed the Magna Carta -
    nobles had certain rights, the king would not
    raise new taxes without first consulting the
    lords and clergy (kings must obey the laws).

18
II. Successful Monarchs in France
  • - Capetians built effective bureaucracy (tax
    collection, royal law enforcement).
  • - Phillip IV and Pope Boniface VIII argue over
    who has more power and set up the Estates General
    body of representatives of all three classes
    (clergy, nobles, and townspeople) set up to be
    similar to British Parliament.

19
Europe looks Outward
  • I. The Crusades
  • - Crusades (Holy War) - Byzantine empire asked
    for the help of Christian knights to push the
    Muslim Turks out of the Holy Land.
  • - Thought it would heal the schism between the
    east and west churches.
  • - Lasted 200 years not very successful -
    Jerusalem was taken by the Muslims. Also tried
    to take other Muslim lands and were defeated.

20
II. Effects of the Crusades
  • - The Crusades sparked European interest in a
    wider world and resulted in a revival of
    exploration (Marco Polo China) and trade.
  • - Also reaffirmed the power of feudal monarchs
    and the papacy (church).

21
III. The Reconquista in Spain
  • - During the Reconquista, Spain expelled the
    Muslims from their land and created a unified
    state under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
  • - Ended religious tolerance and wanted religious
    unity - launched a Spanish Inquisition and
    crusade against Jews and Muslims victims burned
    at the stake and 150k fled.

22
Learning, Literature, and the Arts
  • I. Medieval Universities
  • - Built around cathedrals to train clergy
    evolved into academic centers.
  • - Students listened to lecture, explanations of
    Latin texts, and would memorize them.
  • - Seven Liberal Arts arithmetic, geometry,
    astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
  • - Earned degrees such as Bachelor of Arts (3-6
    yrs) and Master of Arts (2-4 more).

23
II. New Learning
  • - Ancient Greek philosophy, math, and science
    lost after the fall of Rome translated in the
    middle east by Muslims into Arabic, then by Jews
    into Latin.
  • - Greek philosophy and logic challenged Christian
    ideas of faith created Scholasticism reason
    used to support Christian beliefs (ex Thomas
    Aquinas).
  • - Studied Hippocrates (medicine), Euclid
    (geometry), Aristotle (physical world), and
    adopted numbers instead of Roman numerals.

24
III. Medieval Literature
  • - Vernacular everyday languages of common
    people (French, Italian, German).
  • - Wrote epics long narrative poems (Song of
    Roland, Poem of the Cid, Dantes Divine Comedy,
    and Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer).

25
IV. Architecture and Art
  • - Roman influences fortress with thick walls
    created a dark and gloomy feel.
  • - Used Flying Buttresses stone support outside
    the church higher walls and allows for stain
    glass windows holy or heavenly feel.
  • - Stone scene sculptures from the bible and stain
    glass religious education.
  • - Gothic style also appeared in artistic
    decoration in books (illumination).

Flying Buttresses
26
Gothic Architecture!
27
Time of Crisis
  • I. Black Death
  • - Epidemic of bubonic plague outbreak of
    rapid-spreading disease.
  • Spread through fleas on rats. spread all over
    the world (7k a day)!
  • 35 to 70 of the population died!
  • - Workers died and production declined
    inflation pricing rose created laws for
    limiting wages, hired less people, guild shrank
    created social unrest.

28
The Symptoms
Bulbous
Septicemic Form almost 100 mortality rate.
29
II. Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
  • - English rulers wanted control over French land
    of their Norman ancestors.
  • - English win at first due to the longbow (3x
    faster than crossbows and could cause more
    damage).
  • - In 1429, Joan of Arc told the King of France
    that God sent her to save France inspired
    French soldiers to fight and pushed back the
    British.
  • - The English captured her, accused her of
    witchcraft, and burned her at the stake.
  • - Effects French nationalism, end of a
    Continental British Empire, and a need for large,
    armored armies due to the use of longbow and
    cannons.

30
Sum it up
  • The Middle Ages starts with the devastation of
    Rome and enters a time where all things revolve
    around survival. However, slowly through the
    Catholic Churchs power and influence, the Middle
    Ages will come out of its trance to re-unite
    with its Greco-Roman roots!
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