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Technology in Architecture

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Technology in Architecture Lecture 4 Lighting Design Example – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technology in Architecture


1
Technology in Architecture
  • Lecture 4
  • Lighting Design Example

2
  • Example 1
  • Room Layout Calculation

3
Example 1
  • Classroom 20 x 27 x 12 E50 fc
  • WP 2-6 AFF
  • ?c 80 hcc 0.0
  • ?w 50 hrc 9.5
  • ?f 20 hfc 2.5
  • fixture fluorescent (38)
  • maintenance yearly
  • replacement on burnout
  • voltages ballast normal
  • environment medium clean

4
Example 1
  • Confirm fixture data

M T.15.1 p. 641
5
Example 1
  • Complete 1-6

6
Example 1
  • 7. Determine lumens per luminaire
  • Obtain lamp lumens from manufacturers data (or
    see Stein Chapter 12)

M T. 12.5 p. 546
7
Lumen Flux Method
0
27
?c 80 ?w 50 ?f 20
9.5
20
2.5
  • 8. Record dimensional data

8
Coefficient of Utilization Factor(CU)
Calculation
  • 9. Calculate Cavity Ratios

9
Example 1 Cavity Ratios
  • CR 5 H x (LW)/(L x W)
  • RCR 5 Hrc x (LW)/(LxW) 4.1
  • CCR 5 Hcc x (LW)/(LxW) 0
  • FCR 5 Hfc x (LW)/(LxW) 1.1

10
Coefficient of Utilization Factor(CU)
Calculation
  • 10. Calculate Effective Ceiling Reflectance

11
Example 1 Coefficient of Utilization (CU)
  • 3. Obtain effective ceiling reflectance
  • M T.15.2 p. 667

12
Example 1
  • 11. Calculate Effective Floor
    Reflectance Stein T.15.2 P. 666

13
Example 1 Coefficient of Utilization (CU)
  • 3. Obtain effective ceiling reflectance

CU 0.19 ? 0.20
M T.15.2 p. 667
14
Example 1
  • 12. Select CU from mfrs data or see

15
Example 1 Coefficient of Utilization (CU)
  • CU0.32

M T.15.1 p. 641
RCR CU 4.0 0.39 4.1
X 5.0 0.35
CU 0.386
16
Example 1
  • 13-21 Calculate LLF

17
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • 13-16
  • All factors not known ? 0.88

18
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • 17. Room Surface Dirt
  • (based on 24 month cleaning cycle, normal
    maintenance)
  • Direct 0.92 /- 5

19
Light Loss Factor(LLF) Calculation
  • 18. Lamp Lumen Depreciation
  • Group Burnout
  • Fluorescent 0.90 0.85

20
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • 19. Burnouts
  • Burnout 0.95

21
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • 20. Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD)
  • Verify maintenance category

M T.15.1 p. 641
22
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • 20. Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD)

LDD0.80
M F.15.34 p. 663
23
Example 1 Light Loss Factor(LLF)
  • LLF a x b x c x d x e x f x g x h
  • LLF 0.88 x 0.92 x 0.85 x 0.95 x 0.80
  • LLF 0.52

24
Example 1
  • 22. Calculate Number of Luminaires

22 23
25
Example1 Calculate Number of Luminaires
  • No. of Luminaires
  • (E x Area)/(Lamps/luminaire x Lumens/Lamp x CU x
    LLF)
  • (50 X 540)/(4 X 2950 x 0.386 x 0.52) 11.4
    luminaires

26
Example 1
  • Goal is 50 fc /- 10 ? 45-55 fc
  • Luminaires E (fc)
  • 10 43.9 x
  • 11 48.2 ok ? 2 rows of 4, 1 row of 3
  • 12 52.6 ok ? 3 rows of 4
  • 13 57.0 x
  • Verify S/MH for fixture, space geometry

27
Example 1 S/MH Ratio
  • Verify S/MH ratio
  • MH12.0-2.59.5 S/MH 1.0 ? S 9.5

M T.15.1 p. 641
28
Example 1 Spacing
  • Try 3 rows of
  • 4 luminaires
  • S/23SS/220
  • ? S5
  • S/MH5/9.5 1.0 ok
  • S/2SSs/227
  • ? S9
  • S/MH9/9.5 1.0 ok

S/2 S S S/2
S/2 S S
S S/2
27
20
29
Example 1 Spacing
S/2 S S S S/2
  • Try 4 rows of
  • 3 luminaires
  • S/22SS/220
  • ? S6.67
  • S/MH6.67/9.5 1.0 ok
  • S/23Ss/227
  • ? S6.75
  • S/MH6.75/9.5 1.0 ok

S/2 S S
S/2
27
20
30
  • Example 2
  • Economic Analysis

31
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Operation 8AM-5PM, M-F, 52 wks/yr 9 x 5
    x 52 2,340 hrs/yr
  • Operating Energy 128 watts/luminaire
  • Lighting Control Daylighting sensor with
    3- step controller

32
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Connected Lighting Power (CLP)
  • CLP12 x 128 1,536 watts (2.8 w/sf)
  • Adjusted Lighting Power (ALP)
  • ALP(1-PAF) x CLP

33
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Power
  • Adjustment
  • Control Factor (PAF)
  • Daylight Sensor (DS), 0.30 continuous
    dimming
  • DS, multiple-step dimming 0.20
  • DS, On/Off 0.10
  • Occupancy Sensor (OS) 0.30
  • OS, DS, continuous dimming 0.40
  • OS, DS, multiple-step dimming 0.35
  • OS, DS, On/Off 0.35
  • Source ASHRAE 90.1-1989

34
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Adjusted Lighting Power (ALP)
  • ALP(1-PAF) x CLP
  • ALP(1-0.20) x 1536
  • ALP 1229 watts (2.3 w/sf)

35
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Energy 1,229 watts x 2,340 hrs/yr
  • 2,876 kwh/year
  • Electric Rate 0.081/kwh
  • Annual Energy Cost 2,876 kwh/yr x 0.081/kwh
    232.94/yr

36
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • An alternate control system consisting of a
    daylighting sensor, with continuing dimming and
    an occupancy sensor can be substituted for an
    additional 150.
  • Using the simple payback analysis method,
    determine if switching to this control system is
    economically attractive.

37
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Power
  • Adjustment
  • Control Factor (PAF)
  • Daylight Sensor (DS), 0.30 continuous
    dimming
  • DS, multiple-step dimming 0.20
  • DS, On/Off 0.10
  • Occupancy Sensor (OS) 0.30
  • OS, DS, continuous dimming 0.40
  • OS, DS, multiple-step dimming 0.35
  • OS, DS, On/Off 0.35
  • Source ASHRAE 90.1-1989

38
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Adjusted Lighting Power (ALP)
  • ALP(1-PAF) x CLP
  • ALP(1-0.40) x 1536
  • ALP 922 watts (1.7 w/sf)

39
Example 2 Economic Analysis
  • Energy 922 watts x 2,340 hrs/yr
  • 2,157 kwh/year
  • Annual Energy Cost 2,157 kwh/yr x 0.081/kwh
    174.72/yr
  • Annual Savings 232.94 174.72 58.22/year
  • Simple Payback Additional Cost/Annual Savings
  • 150.00/58.22
  • 2.6 years lt 3 years
  • Economically attractive

40
  • Example 3
  • Point Source Calculation

41
Example 3
M F.15.49 p. 677
  • Spot Lighting lamp straight down

M F.15.48 p. 677
42
Example 3
M F.15.49 p. 677
  • Spot Lighting lamp pointed at object

Cp at 90 9600 Horizontal illumination
9900(0.643)3 25.5 fc
102 Vertical illumination
9900(0.766)3 30.3 fc 122
43
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