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The Enlightenment

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Title: The Enlightenment Author: gwynn.neagle Last modified by: Helms, Rachel L. Created Date: 10/21/2009 7:05:20 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment
  • 18th Century intellectuals used the ideas of the
    Scientific Revolution to reexamine life.
  • reason applying scientific method to all of
    life

2
John Locke
John Locke tabula rasa everyone born w/blank
slate which society fills in/shapes Natural laws
govern human interactions Natural rights
rights humans born with life, liberty,
property Purpose of govt to protect, if it
doesnt_____________
3
Thomas Hobbs
  • English
  • Wrote Leviathan, 1651
  • Lived through English Civil War
  • In their natural state believed people would
    lead lives that were solitary, poor, nasty,
    brutish, short.
  • People NEEDED government to impose order.
  • Believed in an absolute monarchy to keep law and
    order.
  • Or else.anarchy

4
Philosophes and their ideas
  • Philosophe thinker of the Enlightenment
  • Met in salon living room of wealthy families to
    discuss ideas
  • Increased literacy, newspapers published, etc.

5
Baron de Montesquieu
  • Wrote Spirit of Laws 1748- applied scientific
    method to government
  • 3 branches of government
  • Legislative makes laws
  • Executive enforces laws
  • Judicial interprets laws
  • Separation of powers
  • Checks and balances
  • Very influential for US Constitution

6
Voltaire
  • Wrote Treatise of Toleration 1763
  • Strong critic of Christianity, believed in
    tolerance
  • Deism God as clockmaker made world and now
    just lets it run, no intervention

7
Diderot
  • Compiled writings of philosophes and his own
    articles on philosophy, government, economics,
    etc. in Encyclopedia
  • Purpose to change the general way of thinking
  • Bought by doctors, lawyers, clergy, teachers,
    etc. spread Enlightenment ideas

8
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Believed govt
  • originally meant to protect people
  • but over time began to enslave them
  • Wrote Social Contract- 1762-
  • believed individuals in society agree to be
    governed by general will for common good
  • Social contract idea people give up some of
    their rights for protection of govt
  • (Hobbes and Rousseau)

9
Adam Smith
  • Wrote Wealth of Nations 1776
  • Believed govt should not be involved in economy
    (laissez-faire)
  • govt has 3 roles
  • Protect society from invasion (army)
  • Defend citizens from injustice (police)
  • Public works (roads, canals, etc.)

10
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Founder of womens rights movement
  • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
  • Argued Enlightenment ideas apply to women also,
    shouldnt be completely controlled by husband
  • Wanted better education for women

11
The Enlightenment
  • Complete p. 147-149 on the Enlightenment
  • Comparing statements of the philosophes
  • to modern American ideals

12
Read p.R70 an excerpt from A
Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Answer
the following questions in your notes.
  • 1) How do you think Wollstonecraft would view
    education for women in western societies today?
  • 2) How would she view the influence of popular
    media, such as fashion magazines and television,
    on women?

WheresWolly
13
Visual Notes
  • As we watch a 10 minute review of the
    Enlightenment, you need to draw/copy what the
    teacher is drawing in the video.
  • I will provide blank paper for you to use.
  • Drawing the Enlightenment

14
Bienvenue au Salon de Madame Varghese
  • 1. Put desks in a circle
  • 2. This only works if you participate.
  • In listening, reading, and speaking.
  • 3. This is a social gathering,
  • and I am your hostess, Madame
    Varghese.
  • 4. Choose a French name for yourself.
  • 5. We will be discussing the Enlightenment
    philosophes
  • and their writings, along with our opinions.
  • 6. There are no right or wrong answers.
  • 7. Be respectful of others and their opinions.
  • 8. Feel free to ask others questions on their
    opinions.
  • 9. SO

15
Primary Sources
  • R66- R70 use these for the following assignment
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes
  • The Spirit of Laws by le Baron de Montesquieu
  • The Declaration of Independence by Thomas
    Jefferson
  • The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary
    Wollstonecraft

16
Using the Primary Sources.
  • Choose one philosophe we just learned about and
    create a talking-head poster.. Draw/ Write
    details about their life, their thoughts, their
    actions, their writings, their motivations, etc.
    BE CREATIVE.

17
HW
  • Quiz Tuesday
  • Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
  • All classes
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