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Waste management

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Waste management trash, recyclables, hazardous waste, nuclear waste, e-waste, biological waste, . . . Once upon a time Any waste just thrown into a pit, covered once ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Waste management


1
Waste management
  • trash, recyclables, hazardous waste, nuclear
    waste, e-waste, biological waste, . . .

2
Once upon a time
  • Any waste just thrown into a pit, covered once
    in a while with soil

3
Dump became a landfill
  • Sanitary landfill
  • Lined, to prevent leachate from reaching
    groundwater
  • Often, escaping gas collected (methane)
  • Dust and noise control
  • Once covered, restoration with native plants.

4
Fresh Kills landfill

5
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6
What kinds of waste are there?
  • trash
  • Paper, cardboard, books
  • Metals
  • Glass
  • Plastics
  • Organics food, yard, bodily waste, wood
  • Rubber, textiles, leather
  • MSW
  • Electronic waste
  • Large manufactured goods (e.g. refrigerator)
  • Toxic wastechemicals
  • Mining waste 75
  • Biological waste
  • Nuclear waste

MSW 3 of all waste
7
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8
MSW
  • U.S. produces most
  • About 4-5 lbs/person
  • How much do you produce?
  • How can you produce less?

9
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10
Incineration
  • Some Mass burn
  • Burn the material as is
  • Reduces volume
  • Problems?
  • Ash
  • Metals
  • Wet waste
  • May use heat from combustion to generate
    electricity
  • Some refuse-derived fuel
  • Non-combustibles removed first
  • Stuff remaining, inc. paper, plastic, is shredded
    and burned
  • Why?

11
The 3 Rs
  • REDUCE
  • REUSE
  • RECYCLE
  • Recycle is the third option, not the first

12
How reduce amount of waste produced?
  • Ideas?
  • Eliminate packaging
  • Change formulation of a product
  • Avoid excess purchases
  • Repair

13
How reuse?
  • Ideas?
  • Bring own bags when shopping
  • Wash containers (Chinese food)
  • Back of printed paper for scrap

14
Recycling
  • Is it worth it?
  • Costs and benefits
  • Environmental and economic

Material Energy savings Air poll decrease
Aluminum 95 95
Carboard 24
Glass 5-30 20
Paper 40 73
Plastics 70
steel 60
15
Recovery rates
Material that is recycled or composted
Paper 52
Plastic soft drink bottles 31
Aluminum cans 45
Steel 63
Major appliances 67
16
Hazardous waste
  • What is it?
  • Ignitable, corrosive, toxic, reactive
  • Includes waste from large producers such as
    chemical plants, petroleum refineries,
    electroplating industry, large paint shops.
  • But also dry cleaners, hospitals, car-repair
    shops, university labs

17
How much?
  • More than 40 million tons a year in the U.S.

18
What to do with it?
  • Produce less
  • Engineers in many industries?develop new
    processess that use less materials and produce
    less waste
  • recycle

19
How regulated?
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  • RCRA, pronounced rikrah
  • Objectives
  • "to promote the protection of health and the
    environment and to conserve valuable material and
    energy resources.
  • Only 5 of haz waste. Doesnt include
  • Radioactive waste, mining waste, waste from very
    small generators (lt 100 kg/month)

20
Types of hazardous waste
  • Toxic chemicals
  • Metals (e.g., lead)
  • Infectious waste (hospitals)
  • Radioactive waste
  • Organic compounds

21
What can be done about hazardous waste?
  • Some is recycled
  • Solvents can be recovered
  • Lead can be recovered
  • Small now? about 5 is recycled

22
What can be done about hazardous waste?
  • Incineration
  • Destroy the toxic compound
  • Sometimes, recover part (metals)
  • Air emissions are regulated by Clean Air Act
  • One issue dioxins produced when plastics not
    burned at high enough temperatures

23
What can be done about hazardous waste?
  • If liquid (e.g., paint thinner, solvents, etc)
  • Most hazardous liquids are injected into the
    ground
  • Deep
  • Into porous rock (often)
  • Sometimes into previously drilled holes
  • Regulated in part by Safe Drinking Water Act
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