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Chapter 18: Ocean Motion

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Chapter 18: Ocean Motion Section 18-2 Ocean Currents Notes Guide Surface Currents Ocean currents are a mass movement, or flow, of ocean water. Currents are like ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18: Ocean Motion


1
Chapter 18 Ocean Motion
  • Section 18-2 Ocean Currents Notes Guide

2
Surface Currents
  • Ocean currents are a mass movement, or flow, of
    ocean water. Currents are like rivers within the
    ocean.
  • Surface currents move water horizontally-parallel
    to the Earths surface.
  • These currents are powered by wind, which forces
    the ocean to move in huger circular patterns.
  • The currents on the oceans surface are related
    to the circulation of the winds on Earth.
  • Surface currents move only the upper layer of
    seawater.

3
Ocean Surface Currents
4
How surface currents move
  • Surface ocean currents and winds are affected by
    the Coriolis Effect.
  • -the Coriolis Effect is the shifting of winds
    and surface currents from their expected paths
    that is caused by Earths rotation.
  • -Because the Earth rotates toward the east,
    winds appear to curve toward the right in the
    northern hemisphere and to the left in the
    southern hemisphere.
  • -the winds cause the water to pile up in parts
    of the ocean. When gravity pulls the water off
    the pile, the Coriolis effects turns the water.
  • -Surface water in north of the equator turns to
    the right, and currents south of the equator turn
    to the left.

5
Coriolis Effect
6
How surface currents move continued
  • The Gulf Stream is a very strong current that
    brings warm water up from the equator, up the
    east coast of the U.S., and towards England.
  • -Sailors used the Gulf Stream to travel quickly
    from North America to England.
  • Surface currents are tracked by drift bottles.
  • These bottles are released in various locations.
    People record information about where and when
    the bottle was found, and scientists use that
    information to learn about surface currents.

7
Gulf Stream
8
Warm and Cold Surface Currents
  • Currents formed on the east coast of continents
    move warm water from the equator towards the
    poles.
  • -The Gulf Stream is an east coast current.
  • Currents formed on the west coast bring cold
    water down from the poles toward the equator.
  • - The California Current is a west coast
    current.
  • Currents play a key role in distributing heat
    across the globe, and this transfer of heat
    influences climate.

9
Upwelling
  • Upwelling is a vertical circulation in the ocean
    that brings deep, cold water from the ocean
    bottom to the ocean surface.
  • Wind blowing parallel to coasts carries the water
    away from land. That warm surface water is then
    replaced by cold, deep ocean water.
  • Water from the deep ocean is rich in nutrients
    that come from dead and decayed organisms.
  • This nutrient rich water encourages plankton
    growth, which in turn attracts fish.
  • Areas of upwelling are important fishing grounds.

10
Upwelling
11
Density Currents
  • Deep in the ocean, water circulated because of
    density differences, not because of wind.
  • A density current forms when a mass of seawater
    becomes more dense than the surrounding water.
  • More dense water will sink below less dense
    water.
  • -Saltier water is more dense than fresh water.
  • - Cold water is more dense than warm water..
  • Density currents circulate ocean water slowly.

12
Oceanic Conveyer Belt
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